Taiwan Politics Database
www.taiwan-database.net

Tools 🛠

  1. Geography and climate briefs
  2. Selected statistics Taiwan/ROC
  3. The ROC postal codes (with numerical index)
  4. The ROC calendar
  5. Japan's Taiwan
  6. The dynasties of imperial China: an overview
  7. Major time zones in Taiwan and the world

Note: Due to limited space on this page, most geographical names are shown here in English and Chinese characters only without Hanyu Pinyin.

===== ===== ===== =====

Geography and climate briefs (Taiwan)

TOP   HOME

Data concerning area, dimensions, margins etc.

Area and length of coastlines in the Taiwan area

(Tidal flat excluded)

  Taiwan proper Penghu Offshore islands Taiwan area total
Area 35,767.6263 km² 126.8641 km² 74.8023 km² 35,969.2927 km²
Length coastline 1,139.2483 km 326.7635 km 100.3273 km 1,566.3391 km

Total number of islands in the Taiwan area: 86.
Source: Department of Land Administration 地政司, MOI

Dimensions of Taiwan proper

Line Distance Reference point A Reference point B
North–South
[]
383 km Fukuichiao Lighthouse 富貴角燈塔 (Shimen District 石門區, New Taipei City) Eluanbi 鵝鑾鼻 (Hengchun Town 恆春鎮, Pingtung County)
West–East
[]
141 km Mailiao Industrial Harbour 麥寮工業專用港 (Houan Village 後安村, Mailiao Township 麥寮鄉, Yunlin County) Shihtiping 石梯坪 (Gangkou Village 港口村, Fengbin Township 豐濱鄉, Hualien County)

Source: Google Earth

Margins of Taiwan proper at shoreline

Margin Location Latitude Longitude
Northernmost point Fuji Borough 富基里
(Shimen District 石門區, New Taipei City)
25° 17′56″ N 121° 32′12″ E
Southernmost point Eluan Borough 鵝鑾里
(Hengchun Town 恆春鎮, Pingtung County)
21° 53′49″ N 120° 51′34″ E
Westernmost point Shifen Borough 十份里
(Qigu District 七股區, Tainan City)
23° 06′ 04″ N 120° 02′09″ E
Easternmost point Fulian Borough 福連里
(Gongliao District 貢寮區, New Taipei City)
25° 00′36″ N 122° 00′22″ E

Source: Google Earth

Shortest distance Taiwan proper—neighbours

Distance Reference point in Taiwan (ROC) Reference point in neighbouring country
136.34 km Zhonghe Borough 中和里 (Houlong Town 後龍鎮, Miaoli County) PRC—Wan'an Village 萬安村 (Dongshan Town 東瀚鎮, Fuqing City 福清市, Fuzhou City 福州市, Fujian Province)
107.50 km Beifang'ao Bi 北方澳鼻 (Suao Town 蘇澳鎮, Yilan County) Japan—Yonaguni 与那国島
141.26 km Southern tip (Pingtung County) Philippines—Mavulis Island
104.26 km Lanyu 蘭嶼 (Taitung County) "
978.66 km Northern tip (New Taipei City) South Korea—Marado Island 馬羅島

Source: Google Earth
Please note that Taiwan is geographically moving slowly towards the China mainland, and the two sides are expected to be united in about 1.5 million years.

Shortest distance ROC—PRC

Distance Reference point in the ROC Reference point in the PRC
4.27 km Ta-tan Island 大膽島 (Kinmen County) Baishi Cannon Fort 白石炮台遺址 (Binhai Street Office 濱海街道, Siming District 思明區, Xiamen City 廈門市, Fujian Province)

Source: Google Earth

TOP   HOME

Topography of Taiwan proper

Taiwan's main topographical features are the central mountain range and the coastal plains in the west. More than 200 peaks in Taiwan are rising higher than 3,000 m above sea level; they are referred to in Chinese as baiyue 百岳. The Tropic of Cancer 北回歸線 (latitude 23° 26′ 13.8″ N) crosses Taiwan in the waters of Penghu County, in Chiayi County, Chiayi City, Kaohsiung City, Nantou County, and Hualien County.

  • Mountains (64 %)—Central Range 中央山脈, Mount Snow Range 雪山山脈, Mount Jade Range 玉山山脈, Mount Ali Range 阿里山山脈, East Coastal Range 東部海岸山脈
  • Plains and basins (19.8 %)—Lanyang Plain 蘭陽平原, Chianan Plain 嘉南平原, Pingtung Plain 屏東平原; Taipei Basin 台北盆地, Taichung Basin 台中盆地, the 158-km-long East Longitudinal Valley 台東縱谷
  • Floodland (3.1 %)

Mount Jade = Yushan 玉山 (main summit: 3,952 m above sea level), located in the juncture area of Kaohsiung City, Nantou County and Chiayi County, is not only the tallest mountain in the Taiwan area but the highest peak in East Asia. It is also called "Mt. Morrison" in English and "Tongku Saveg" 東谷沙飛 by the Bunun indigenous people living in that area.

Ten highest mountains on Taiwan

Mountain's name Elevation Main summit's location (city / county)
Mount Jade 玉山 (Yushan) 3,952 m Kaohsiung/Nantou/Chiayi County
Snow Mountain 雪山 (Xueshan) 3,886 m Taichung
Xiuguluan Mountain 秀姑巒山
aka Mahuolasih Mountain 馬霍拉斯山
3,800 m Nantou
Mabolasi Mountain 馬博拉斯山
aka Wulameng Mountain 烏拉孟山
3,765 m Nantou
Nanhu Mountain 南湖大山 3,742 m Taichung
Kailantekun Mountain 凱蘭特崑山 3,730 m Taichung
Dongxiaonan Mountain 東小南山 3,711 m Kaohsiung
Central Range Point 中央尖山 3,705 m Taichung
Mount Guan 關山 (Guanshan) 3,668 m Kaohsiung
Matelan Mountain 馬特蘭山
aka Ganmulin Mountain 甘木林山
3,660 m Taichung

A better understanding of Taiwan's topography can be gained by referring to Maps, "Physical map of Taiwan".

TOP   HOME

Rivers and lakes

Taiwan's river system is marked by short rivers (none exceeding 200 km in overall length), and there are few natural lakes. Freshwater supply is provided by man-made reservoirs. (A list of major reservoirs can be found further below.)

Taiwan's ten longest rivers

River's name Length Area from source(s) to mouth (city / county)
Chuoshui River 濁水溪 186.6 km Nantou, Yunlin, Changhua
Kaoping River 高屏溪 171.0 km Pingtung, Kaohsiung
Tamsui River 淡水河 158.7 km Taipei, New Taipei City
Tsengwen River 曾文溪 138.47 km Chiayi County, Tainan
Dahan Creek 大漢溪 135 km New Taipei City, Taoyuan, Hsinchu County
Laonong River 荖濃溪 133 km Kaohsiung
Dajia River 大甲溪 124.2 km Taichung
Dadu River 大肚溪
aka Wu River 烏溪
119.13 km Taichung, Changhua, Nantou
Xiuguluan River 秀姑巒溪 104 km Hualien
Daan River 大安溪 95.76 km Miaoli

For a rough sketch of Taiwan's river system click here. (The approximate line of the east-west watershed is marked in red.)

Taiwan's ten largest natural lakes

Lake's name Size Location
Sun Moon Lake 日月潭 aka Zitun 840 ha Yuchi Township, Nantou
Longluan Lake 龍鑾潭 > 120 ha Hengchun Town, Pingtung
Liyu Lake 鯉魚潭 104 ha Shoufeng Township, Hualien
Chengcing Lake 澄清湖 103 ha Wusong District, Kaohsiung
Zhongzheng Lake 中正湖 27 ha Meinong District, Kaohsiung
Liyu Lake 埔里鯉魚潭 20 ha Puli Town, Nantou
Cueifong Lake 翠峰湖 ~ 20 ha Datong Township, Yilan
Meihua Lake 梅花湖 18.2 ha Dongshan Township, Yilan
Longtan Lake 龍潭湖 / 龍潭大池 18 ha Longtan District, Taoyuan
Dalupalringi 大鬼湖 11.87 ha Maolin District, Kaohsiung

Please note that Sun Moon Lake, the largest body of water on Taiwan proper, is considered a semi-natural lake as several hydroelectric power plants were built there since 1919. A list of major reservoirs under the administration of the MOEA's Water Resources Agency (WRA) is shown directly below.

Reservoir's name Location Completed in
Wushantou Reservoir (wushantou shuiku 烏山頭水庫) Guantian and Liujia Districts (Tainan City) May 1930
Agongdian Reservoir (agongdian shuiku 阿公店水庫) Yanchao District (Kaohsiung City) August 1953
Shimen Reservoir (shimen shuiku 石門水庫) Longtan District (Taoyuan City) June 1964
Baihe Reservoir (baihe shuiku 白河水庫) Baihe District (Tainan City) June 1965
Mingte Reservoir (mingde shuiku 明德水庫) Touwu Township (Miaoli County) May 1970
Tsengwen Reservoir (zengwen shuiku 曾文水庫) Dapu Township (Chiayi County) October 1973
Techi Reservoir (deji shuiku 德基水庫) Heping District (Taichung City) September 1974
Hsinshan Reservoir (xinshan shuiku 新山水庫) Anle District (Keelung City) October 1980
Yongheshan Reservoir (yongheshan shuiku 永和山水庫) Sanwan Township (Miaoli County) October 1984
Baoshan Reservoir (Baoshan shuiku 寶山水庫) Baoshan Township (Hsinchu County) June 1985
Feitsui Reservoir (feicui shuiku 翡翠水庫) Shiding District (New Taipei City) June 1987
Renyitan Reservoir (renyitan shuiku 仁義潭水庫) Fanlu Township (Chiayi County) August 1987
Liyutan Reservoir (liyutan shuiku 鯉魚潭水庫) Sanyi Township (Miaoli County) November 1992
Nanhua Reservoir (Nanhua shuiku 南化水庫) Nanhua District (Tainan City) November 1993
Mudan Reservoir (Mudan shuiku 牡丹水庫) Mudan Township (Pingtung County) May 1995
Second Baoshan Reservoir (Baoshan dier shuiku 寶山第二水庫) Baoshan Township (Hsinchu County) June 2006

TOP   HOME

Geology: Faults, earthquakes, volcanism and more

Taiwan is situated at the seismically active Pacific Rim which is also called "Ring of Fire", and the island is criss-crossed by dozens of faults. Major research on Taiwan's faults is done by the Central Geological Survey (CGS) under the MOEA. On Jan. 4, 2022 CGS published a study (including a map with versions in English and Chinese) on known faults in Taiwan, recording a total of 36 active faults across the island (see following list).

  1. Sanchiao Fault (shanjiao duanceng 山腳斷層),
  2. Hukou Fault (hukou duanceng 湖口斷層),
  3. Hsinchu Fault (xinzhu duanceng 新竹斷層),
  4. Hsincheng Fault (xincheng duanceng 新城斷層),
  5. Shihtan Fault (shitan duanceng 獅潭斷層),
  6. Sanyi Fault (sanyi duanceng 三義斷層),
  7. Tachia Fault (dajia duanceng 大甲斷層),
  8. Tiehchenshan Fault (tiezhanshan duanceng 鐵砧山斷層),
  9. Tuntzuchiao Fault (tunzijiao duanceng 屯子腳斷層),
  10. Changhua Fault (zhanghua duanceng 彰化斷層),
  11. Chelungpu Fault (chelongpu duanceng 車籠埔斷層),
  12. Tamaopu-Shuangtung Fault (damaopu shuangdong duanceng 大茅埔 - 雙冬斷層),
  13. Chuhsiang Fault (chuxiang duanceng 初鄉斷層),
  14. Chiuchiungkeng Fault (jiuqiongkeng duanceng 九芎坑斷層),
  15. Meishan Fault (meishan duanceng 梅山斷層),
  16. Tachienshan Fault (dajianshan duanceng 大尖山斷層),
  17. Muchiliao Fault (mujiliao duanceng 木屐寮斷層),
  18. Liuchia Fault (liujia duanceng 六甲斷層),
  19. Chukou Fault (chukou duanceng 觸口斷層),
  20. Kouhsiaoli Fault (kouxiaoli duanceng 口宵里斷層),
  21. Hsinhua Fault (xinhua duanceng 新化斷層),
  22. Houchiali Fault (houjiali duanceng 後甲里斷層),
  23. Tsochen Fault (zuozhen duanceng 左鎮斷層),
  24. Hsiaokangshan Fault (xiaogangshan duanceng 小崗山斷層),
  25. Chekualin Fault (chegualin duanceng 車瓜林斷層),
  26. Chishan Fault (qishan duanceng 旗山斷層),
  27. Chaochou Fault (chaozhou duanceng 潮州斷層),
  28. Hengchun Fault (hengchun duanceng 恆春斷層),
  29. Milun Fault (milun duanceng 米崙斷層),
  30. Lingding Fault (lingding duanceng 嶺頂斷層),
  31. Rueyshui Fault (ruisui duanceng 瑞穗斷層),
  32. Chimei Fault (qimei duanceng 奇美斷層),
  33. Yuli Fault (yuli duanceng 玉里斷層),
  34. Chihshang Fault (chishang duanceng 池上斷層),
  35. Luyeh Fault (luye duanceng 鹿野斷層), and
  36. Lichi Fault (liji duanceng 利吉斷層).

Please note that the National Museum of Natural Science (NMNS) under the MOE operates a Chelungpu Fault Preservation Park 車籠埔斷層保存園區 in Nantou County's Zhushan 竹山.

Earthquakes

As a consequence of its geological features, earthquakes are common in the Taiwan area. A ban on the construction of buildings over four stories was lifted by the Executive Yuan on Nov. 14, 1974 (China Yearbook 1976, p. 488). The following chronology lists temblors measuring 6 or higher on the Richter scale in the Taiwan area since WWII—quakes with lower intensity are shown only when human lives were lost. For temblors later than Jan. 1, 1995 the Central Weather Bureau (CWB) under the MOTC provided image files with a map and intensity report in English, please click on the  symbol to view.

Year Date Magnitude Fatalities Location of epicenter
1946  Dec. 5 6.1 74 Xinhua 新化 (Tainan County) 
1951 Oct. 22 7.1 68 ... off central Taiwan's east coast (near Hualien) 
Nov. 25 7.3 17 East Rift Valley (huadong zonggu 花東縱谷) near Taiwan's east coast 
1957 Feb. 24 7.1 11 ... off central Taiwan's east coast (near Hualien) 
Oct. 20 6.4 4 Hualien 
1959 April 27 7.5 1 ... off Taiwan's northeast coast (Sandiaojiao Lighthouse 三貂角燈塔, New Taipei City) 
Aug. 15 7.1 16 ... off Taiwan's southeast coast (Eluanbi Lighthouse 鵝鑾鼻燈塔, Pingtung County) 
1963 Feb. 13 7.4 3 ... off Taiwan's northeast coast (Yilan) 
1964 Jan. 18 6.3 106 Chiayi 
1966 March 13 7.8 4 ... off Taiwan's east coast (near Yilan/Hualien) 
1967 Oct. 25 5.9 2 ... off Taiwan's northeast coast (Yilan) 
1972 Jan. 25 7.5 1 ... off Taiwan's southeast coast (Taitung) 
April 24 6.7 5 Ruisui 瑞穗 (Hualien County) 
1978 Dec. 23 7.0 2 ... off Taiwan's southeast coast (Taitung/Hualien) 
1982 Jan. 23 5.8 1 Hualien 
1986 May 20 6.5 1 Hualien 
Nov. 15 6.8 13 ... off Taiwan's east coast (close to Hualien) 
1990 Dec. 13 6.5 2 Hualien 
1994 June 5 6.5 1 Nan'ao 南澳 (Yilan County) 
1995 Feb. 23 5.8 2 Hualien 
June 25 6.5 1 Yilan 
1998 July 17 6.2 5 Alishan 阿里山 (Chiayi County) 
1999 Sept. 21 7.3 2,415 Jiji 集集 (Nantou County) 
2000 May 17 5.6 3 Sun Moon Lake 日月潭 (Nantou County) 
June 11 6.7 2 Mount Jade 玉山 (Nantou County) 
2002 March 31 6.8 5 ... off Taiwan's east coast (Hualien) 
May 15 6.2 1 Su'ao 蘇澳 (Yilan County) 
2004 May 1 5.3 2 Xiulin 秀林 (Hualien County) 
2006 April 1 6.2 Taitung 
Dec. 26 7.0 2 ... off Taiwan's southwest coast (Hengchun 恆春, Pingtung County) 
2009 Nov. 5 6.2 Mingjian 名間 (Nantou County) 
Dec. 19 6.9 1 ... 25.5 km off Taiwan's east coast (close to Hualien) 
2010 March 4 6.4 Near Jiashian 甲仙 (Kaohsiung County) 
2012 Feb. 26 6.4 Wutai 霧台 (Pingtung County) 
2013 March 27 6.2 1 Renai 仁愛 (Nantou County) 
June 2 6.5 4 Renai (Nantou County) 
Oct. 31 6.4 Ruisui (Hualien County) 
2015 April 20 6.4 1 ... ca. 75 km off Taiwan's east coast (Hualien) 
2016 Feb. 6 6.6 117 Meinong 美濃 (Kaohsiung City) 
2018 Feb. 6 6.2 17 ... off Taiwan's east coast (close to Hualien) 
2019 April 18 6.3 Xiulin (Hualien County) 
Aug. 8 6.2 1 ... off Taiwan's northeast coast (close to Su'ao, Yilan County) 
2020 Dec. 10 6.6 ... off Taiwan’s northeast coast (close to Zhuangwei 壯圍, Yilan County) 
2021 April 18 6.2 Shoufeng 壽豐 (Hualien County) 
Oct. 24 6.5 Nan'ao (Yilan County) 
2022 Jan. 3 6.0 ... ca. 52 km off Taiwan's east coast (near Hualien's Guguzi Cliff 姑姑子斷崖) 
March 2 6.6 ... ca. 5 km off Taiwan's east coast (near Hualien's Fengbin Township 豐濱鄉) 
June 20 6.0 Guangfu 光復 (Hualien County) 

Notes
The magnitudes of the quakes in the table above are listed according to the figures provided by the CWB and might in some cases differ from information offered by other sources. For example, the 921 Earthquake on Sept. 21, 1999 had a magnitude of 7.3, but the United States Geological Survey (USGS) reported that temblor having a magnitude of 7.7; the USGS also gave the date as Sept. 20, 1999 due to the time difference—that particular quake hit Nantou County early in the morning at 1:47 a.m. local time, which was at noon 12:47 EST the previous day at the USGS HQ in Reston (Virginia), or 17:47 UTC.

The deadliest earthquake in the Taiwan area during the Japanese colonial period (1895-1945) struck on April 21, 1935 in Sanyi 三義 (today's Miaoli County) with a magnitude of 7.1 and claimed 3,276 lives. For a list of major temblors in Taiwan during that period click here.

115 of the 117 fatalities in the 2016 Meinong temblor occurred when the residential complex Wei Guan Golden Dragon Building (weiguan jinlong dalou 維冠金龍大樓) in Tainan City’s Yongkang District toppled to one side. According to media reports, an investigation showed that the construction process had included the use of cooking-oil cans and polystyrene materials inside the 17-story building’s walls and pillars. The chairman of the development company, its design manager, two architects and a construction technician were later found responsible for the disaster and convicted.

Other manifestations of geological activity in this context are Taiwan's hot springs (wenquan 溫泉) and volcanism (huoshan 火山).

Hot springs

The most famous spots with hot springs in Taiwan are located in Beitou 北投 (Taipei City) and the Yangmingshan 陽明山 area (Taipei City/New Taipei City), Jinshan 金山, Wanli 萬里 and Wulai 烏來 (all in New Taipei City), Taian 泰安 (Miaoli County), Jiaoxi 礁溪 (Yilan County), Dakeng 大坑 (Taichung City), Guguan 谷關 (Taichung City), Guanziling 關子嶺 (Tainan City), Baolaibulao 寶來不老 (Kaohsiung City), Sichongxi 四重溪 (Pingtung County), Rueisuei 瑞穗 (Hualien County), Zhiben 知本 (Taitung County), and Green Island 綠島 (off Taitung County), to name just a few.

Volcanism

Several islets/island groups close to Taiwan have volcanic origins: Penghu 澎湖, Green Island 綠島, Orchid Island 蘭嶼, the Three Northern Islands 北方三島 off Keelung and especially Guishan Island 龜山島 (aka Gueishan Island/Kueishan Island/Turtle Island). Noteworthy volcanic mountains on Taiwan proper include the Tatun Volcano Group 大屯火山群, the Keelung Volcano Group 基隆火山群, Guanyin Mountain 觀音山, and Caoling Mountain 草嶺山. On Oct. 17, 2011 the Taiwan Volcano Observatory – Tatun (Datun huoshan guancezhan 大屯火山觀測站, abbrev. TVO) was established at the Jingshan Nature Center (Jingshan ziran zhongxin 菁山自然中心) in Taipei's Yangmingshan National Park.

Guishan Island, located 9.1 km off northeastern Taiwan's Yilan county, was long regarded the only active volcano in the Taiwan area, representing the top of an andesite stratovolcano which rises from the seafloor to an elevation of 401 m above sea level. According to scientists, at least four eruptions took place there in the past 7,000 years, the last one around 1785 A.D.

There is some controversy in Taiwan whether the Tatun Volcano Group should be considered an active volcano or not. On Dec. 23, 2016 TVO Director Lin Cheng-horng 林正洪 published a scientific article reporting the existence of a volcanic magma chamber there, but according to comments from the CWB on Feb. 21, 2017 the finding does not mean that the volcanoes in the group are active. On May 29, 2019 TVO researchers announced that volcanic activity detected beneath the Tatun Volcano Group proved that Tatun was indeed an active volcano.

A team led by Lin subsequently also reported it found a volcanic conduit under Yangmingshan National Park, which according to the researchers could become a vent if any of the volcanoes in the north of the country erupted. The team found that a 2 km deep and 500 m wide volcanic vent had formed under the area of Dayoukeng 大油坑 of the Tatun Volcano Group, after nesting data collected through more than 1,000 seismic readings at the Tatun group from 2014 to 2017.

TOP   HOME

Climate

Taiwan's climate is subtropical in the north and tropical in the south. The hot, humid summers last from May/June to October, the winters are short and mild, snowfall in winter usually only on peaks above 3,000 m. The peculiar shape of the Lanyang Plain (rimmed by mountains in the south and west, open to the sea in the east) produces a climate with frequent rainfalls during the northeast monsoon in winter. Plum rain (meiyu 梅雨) season occurs between spring and summer.

Mean annual temperature: 22 ºC (January 15 ºC with 5º variation between north and south, July 27 ºC to 28 ºC). The island receives an average precipitation of ca. 2,500 mm annually—between 1981 and 2010 the city of Suao in Yilan County had an annual average of 4,439.8 mm, and in Huoshaoliao 火燒寮 (Dongshi Borough 東勢里, Pingxi District 平溪區, New Taipei City) it can even exceed 6,000 mm. The annual mean relative humidity averages ca. 60 to 90 percent.

Climate data

The following tables show climate data provided by selected weather stations operated by the Central Weather Bureau (CWB), MOTC. Explanations—: mean maximum temperatures (unit: ºC); : mean temperatures (unit: ºC); : mean minimum temperatures (unit: ºC); : average precipitation (unit: mm); : mean relative humidity (unit: percent); : average number of days with precipitation ≥ 0.1 mm (unit: days); : sunshine duration (unit: hours).

● Climate data Taipei City (1981-2010)

  Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total
19.1 19.6 22.1 25.7 29.2 32.0 34.3 33.8 31.1 27.5 24.2 20.7 Ø 26.6
16.1 16.5 18.5 21.9 25.2 27.7 29.6 29.2 27.4 24.5 21.5 17.9 Ø 23.0
13.9 14.2 15.8 19.0 22.3 24.6 26.3 26.1 24.8 22.3 19.3 15.6 Ø 20.4
83.2 170.3 180.4 177.8 234.5 325.9 245.1 322.1 360.5 148.9 83.1 73.3 2,405.1
78.5 80.6 79.5 77.8 76.6 77.3 73.0 74.1 75.8 75.3 75.4 75.4 Ø 76.6
14.1 14.6 15.5 14.9 14.8 15.5 12.3 14.0 13.8 11.9 12.4 11.7 165.5
80.6 71.3 89.6 92.6 113.7 121.7 179.0 188.9 153.7 124.0 99.4 90.7 1,405.2

● Climate data Kaohsiung City (1981-2010)

  Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total
23.9 24.7 26.8 29.1 30.8 31.6 32.4 31.9 31.4 30.0 27.7 24.9 Ø 28.8
19.3 20.3 22.6 25.4 27.5 28.5 29.2 28.7 28.1 26.7 24.0 20.6 Ø 25.1
15.7 16.7 19.2 22.4 24.8 25.9 26.4 26.1 25.5 24.0 20.9 17.1 Ø 22.1
16.0 20.5 38.8 69.8 197.4 415.3 390.9 416.7 241.9 42.7 18.7 16.2 1,884.9
72.7 73.5 73.2 75.1 76.9 80.1 78.7 80.5 78.9 75.5 73.3 71.9 Ø 75.9
3.2 3.7 4.0 5.8 9.3 13.8 12.9 16.3 11.2 3.5 2.6 2.3 88.6
174.7 165.8 187.0 189.1 198.5 199.9 221.4 193.7 175.7 182.4 162.2 161.8 2,212.2

● Climate data Taichung City (1981-2010)

  Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total
22.0 22.4 24.6 27.6 30.2 31.9 33.0 32.6 31.8 30.1 27.0 23.6 Ø 28.1
16.6 17.3 19.6 23.1 26.0 27.6 28.6 28.3 27.4 25.2 21.9 18.1 Ø 23.3
12.9 13.9 16.0 19.6 22.6 24.4 25.2 25.1 24.1 21.8 18.2 14.2 Ø 19.8
30.3 89.8 103.0 145.4 231.5 331.2 307.9 302.0 164.5 23.2 18.3 25.9 1,773.0
74.6 76.8 76.6 77.3 77.1 77.9 75.6 77.6 75.8 72.6 72.7 72.3 Ø 75.6
6.6 9.2 11.2 11.8 12.2 14.6 12.8 15.4 9.2 2.6 3.7 4.3 113.6
176.6 140.6 149.9 137.8 158.7 160.1 199.6 178.7 175.8 203.7 179.4 182.3 2,043.2

● Climate data Hualien City (1981-2010)

  Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total
21.1 21.5 23.4 26.0 28.5 30.4 32.0 32.0 30.4 28.2 25.4 22.5 Ø 26.8
18.0 18.4 20.2 22.7 25.1 27.1 28.5 28.2 26.8 24.8 22.2 19.3 Ø 23.4
15.4 15.9 17.5 20.0 22.4 24.3 25.4 25.2 24.0 22.0 19.5 16.7 Ø 20.7
62.2 94.2 85.9 87.0 195.4 221.7 205.2 242.0 399.2 362.7 152.1 69.2 2,176.8
76.0 78.3 78.8 79.6 80.3 81.2 77.9 78.2 79.2 76.2 74.8 73.2 Ø 77.8
13.7 15.7 15.1 14.5 15.5 12.6 8.2 10.1 14.3 13.0 11.7 9.9 154.3
70.2 64.5 82.4 92.6 119.5 162.7 246.5 224.3 152.0 120.8 90.5 77.9 1,503.9

● Climate data Jade Mountain/Yushan (1981-2010)

  Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total
3.7 3.7 5.4 7.8 10.6 12.1 13.8 13.6 13.0 13.2 10.2 6.2 Ø 9.4
-1.1 -0.5 1.1 3.4 5.7 7.1 7.9 7.8 7.1 6.5 4.0 0.8 Ø 4.2
-4.5 -3.7 -1.9 0.4 2.6 4.2 4.4 4.4 3.8 2.6 0.3 -2.7 Ø 0.8
83.1 120.5 139.1 244.4 414.0 488.2 445.6 519.3 325.2 144.3 77.6 70.0 3,071.3
64.2 73.8 78.5 82.0 80.9 82.1 77.0 81.0 79.9 70.0 65.5 61.2 Ø 74.7
7.2 7.1 8.6 14.6 18.5 18.6 17.2 18.4 16.0 11.0 7.7 5.6 150.5
202.4 146.8 150.0 132.1 139.7 132.5 177.2 160.4 152.3 207.2 203.9 203.5 2,008.0

● Climate data Sun Moon Lake (1981-2010)

  Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total
19.4 20.1 22.0 23.9 25.7 26.8 28.0 27.6 26.8 25.5 23.3 20.3 Ø 24.1
14.2 15.1 16.9 19.2 21.0 22.2 23.0 22.7 22.1 20.7 18.3 15.2 Ø 19.2
11.1 12.0 13.8 16.4 18.3 19.6 20.1 20.0 19.4 17.9 15.3 12.2 Ø 16.3
49.1 100.0 124.7 199.5 328.3 436.9 409.9 403.8 232.3 49.7 31.2 36.5 2,401.9
76.7 79.7 81.1 83.7 84.6 85.7 84.7 85.7 84.9 82.8 79.1 76.1 Ø 82.1
8.3 9.6 12.2 14.5 18.0 21.2 18.8 19.9 14.6 6.2 5.6 6.0 154.9
162.2 131.5 125.7 104.2 115.1 113.7 155.4 135.3 122.7 148.2 162.8 169.2 1,646.0

● Climate data Penghu (1981-2010)

  Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total
19.3 19.6 22.4 26.0 28.8 30.6 32.0 31.8 30.7 28.1 24.8 21.1 Ø 26.3
16.9 17.1 19.5 23.0 25.7 27.6 28.7 28.6 27.8 25.4 22.4 18.9 Ø 23.5
15.4 15.4 17.4 20.9 23.7 25.6 26.6 26.5 25.9 23.9 20.9 17.4 Ø 21.6
17.5 50.7 59.5 88.3 118.3 153.9 157.7 181.0 112.7 28.4 21.2 24.2 1,013.4
79.7 82.2 82.1 82.7 83.6 85.9 84.8 85.0 80.9 76.8 77.3 77.4 Ø 81.5
5.0 7.2 8.9 9.4 9.7 10.1 7.7 8.8 6.8 2.2 3.6 4.1 83.5
111.5 94.7 125.2 148.8 179.3 200.4 264.8 240.4 213.8 189.9 139.1 123.3 2,031.2

● Climate data Lanyu/Orchid Island (1981-2010)

  Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total
20.7 21.4 23.0 24.9 26.7 27.8 28.6 28.5 27.6 25.9 23.8 21.4 Ø 25.0
18.5 19.0 20.5 22.4 24.3 25.7 26.3 26.1 25.2 23.8 21.7 19.4 Ø 22.7
17.0 17.4 18.8 20.8 22.7 24.1 24.6 24.3 23.5 22.3 20.3 17.9 Ø 21.1
248.1 203.9 154.0 149.0 249.3 287.4 231.2 287.9 384.2 305.6 267.0 212.2 2,979.8
86.3 88.3 88.6 90.2 90.3 92.1 91.0 90.8 90.3 87.3 86.6 84.9 Ø 88.9
22.2 19.0 16.7 15.1 15.7 15.3 14.2 16.6 19.5 19.6 20.5 21.0 215.4
80.8 78.8 106.0 113.0 136.5 140.8 196.2 171.6 143.7 134.1 94.7 77.6 1,473.8

● Climate data Pengjia Island (1981-2010)

  Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total
17.8 18.2 20.1 23.1 26.2 28.9 31.2 31.0 28.8 25.9 22.8 19.5 Ø 24.5
15.7 15.9 17.5 20.4 23.4 26.0 28.0 27.9 26.3 23.7 20.7 17.4 Ø 21.9
13.7 13.9 15.3 18.2 21.3 24.0 25.8 25.8 24.5 22.1 19.0 15.5 Ø 19.9
122.6 161.0 169.5 161.6 203.2 194.1 125.8 198.0 236.9 136.8 132.0 112.5 1,954.0
79.0 81.2 82.8 83.8 85.6 88.1 86.3 86.2 84.1 79.0 78.2 76.1 Ø 82.5
17.1 17.0 18.5 14.6 14.3 12.1 6.6 9.6 12.1 11.5 14.3 14.0 161.7
63.1 56.0 80.8 98.1 138.2 161.4 259.6 250.0 191.3 147.5 93.0 65.9 1,604.9

The following table shows the respective highest and lowest figures (annual average 1981-2010) measured by CWB's weather stations in the Taiwan area.

  Highest Weather station(s) Lowest Weather station
28.8 ºC Hengchun; Tainan 9.4 ºC Yushan
25.1 ºC Hengchun; Kaohsiung 4.2 ºC Yushan
22.5 ºC Hengchun 0.8 ºC Yushan
4,863.1 mm Anbu 1,013.4 mm Penghu
89.7 % Anbu 74.1 % Taitung
215.4 days Lanyu 67.5 days Dongjidao
2,233.8 hours Hengchun 935.0 hours Anbu

Peak minimum/maximum temperatures according to Chinese Wikipedia 維基百科: Taipei –0.2 ºC (February) and 39.3 ºC (August), Kaohsiung 4.4 ºC (December) and 37.2 ºC (June).

Weather warnings

The duties of the CWB include issuing warnings to the population against dangerous weather conditions, e. g. heat information (gaowen zixun 高溫資訊), cold surge advisory (diwen tebao 低溫特報), extremely heavy rain advisory (haoyu tebao 豪雨特報), dense fog advisory (nongwu tebao 濃霧特報), strong wind advisory (lushang qiangfeng tebao 陸上強風特報) and especially typhoon warnings (taifeng jingbao 颱風警報). The CWB issues its warnings in accordance to certain standards.

In summer, the CWB may issue colour-coded heat warnings according to specific criteria: yellow signal (huangse denghao 黃色燈號), orange signal (chengse denghao 橙色燈號), and red signal (hongse denghao 紅色燈號).

Signal Heat information criteria
Yellow Daily maximum temperature reaches 36 ºC
Orange Daily maximum temperature reaches 36 ºC for three consecutive days or daily maximum temperature reaches 38 ºC
Red Daily maximum temperature reaches 38 ºC for three consecutive days

Cold surge advisories are colour-coded as well. In the table below, ground level refers to altitude lower than 200 meters. The CWB notes that considering its geographical and climate conditions, the criteria for Lienchiang County is 4 degrees lower than the other areas.

Signal Cold surge criteria
Yellow Minimum ground-level temperature is below 10 ºC.
Cold in early morning and evening, with a chance of minimum temperature dropping below 10 ºC and significant day-night temperature difference.
Orange Minimum ground-level temperature is below 6 ºC or minimum ground-level temperature is below 10 ºC and temperature remains below 12 ºC for 24 hours.
Very cold, with a chance of temperature remaining around or below 10 ºC or minimum temperature dropping below 6 ºC.
Red Temperature remains below 6 ºC for 24 hours.
Extremely cold, with a chance of temperature remaining under 6 ºC.

Precipitation classification according to the CWB's standards is as follows—1. "heavy rain" (dayu 大雨), 2. "extremely heavy rain" (haoyu 豪雨), 3. "torrential rain" (da haoyu 大豪雨), and 4. "extremely torrential rain" (chaoda haoyu 超大豪雨).

Classification Precipitation criteria
Heavy rain 24-hour accumulated rainfall exceeds 80 millimeters, or 1-hour rainfall exceeds 40 mm
Extremely heavy rain 24-hour accumulated rainfall exceeds 200 mm, or 3-hour accumulated rainfall exceeds 100 mm
Torrential rain 350-499 mm in 24 hours
Extremely torrential rain 500 mm or more in 24 hours

Details about dense fog advisory and strong wind advisory by CWB:

  • Dense fog advisory—When the observation of horizontal visibility to less than 200 meters of fog appears, a dense fog advisory will be released.
  • Strong wind advisory—When the forecast or observation of sustained wind up to strong wind or gusts up to gale, a strong wind/gale/storm advisory will be released for land or sea.

Tropical cyclones

Taiwan is usually hit by 3-4 typhoons (taifeng 颱風) every year. In the 107 years from 1897 to 2003, a total of 383 typhoons had a landfall on Taiwan or passed offshore without landfall but caused disasters on land. The CWB uses four different categories for the classification of typhoons depending on a storm's strength: 1. "severe typhoon" (qianglie taifeng 強烈颱風), 2. "typhoon" (zhongdu taifeng 中度颱風, literally ‘moderate typhoon' or ‘medium typhoon'), 3. "tropical storm" (qingdu taifeng 輕度颱風, literally ‘mild typhoon'), and 4. "tropical depression" (redaixing diqiya 熱帶性低氣壓). In general, the period between May and October is regarded as Taiwan's typhoon season. The peak frequency is in August, followed by July and September (see table below, provided by CWB). The occurrence of typhoons in December is exceptionally rare but not unheard of—for example, typhoon Nanmadol (nanmadou 南瑪都) made landfall in Taiwan on Dec. 4, 2004, killing two.

  • Monthly occurrences of typhoons in Taiwan between 1897 and 2003
Month April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Full year
Typhoons
1897-2003
2 14 28 92 121 87 31 8 383
Average per year 0.02 0.13 0.26 0.86 1.13 0.81 0.29 0.07 3.58
  • Major typhoons in the Taiwan area since WWII
Year (date) Typhoon's name in English
(and Chinese)
Fatalities
1959 (Aug. 7) Ellen (ailun 艾倫) 667
1963 (Sept. 11–14) Gloria (geleli 葛樂禮) > 200
1975 (Aug. 2–8) Nina (nina 妮娜) 29
1975 (Sept. 22) Betty (bidi 比蒂) 17
1986 (Aug. 21–22) Wayne (weien 韋恩) 68
1987 (Oct. 26–28) Lynn (lin'en 琳恩) 13
1996 (July 31–Aug. 3) Herb (hebo 賀伯) 51
1997 (Aug. 18–23) Winnie (wenni 溫妮) 46
2000 (Aug. 22) Bilis (bilisi 碧利斯) 11
2001 (July 29–31) Toraji (taozhi 桃芝) 111
2001 (Sept. 16–20) Nari (nali 納莉) 84
2004 (July 1–2) Mindulle (minduli 敏督利) 18
2004 (Aug. 24–26) Aere (aili 艾利) 30
2005 (July 17–19) Haitang (haitang 海棠) 12
2008 (Sept. 13–15) Sinlaku (xinleke 辛樂克) 4
2009 (Aug. 7–8) Morakot (molake 莫拉克) 614
2012 (Aug. 2) Saola (sula 蘇拉) 5
2013 (July 12–13) Soulik (suli 蘇力) 3
2015 (Aug. 7–8) Soudelor (sudile 蘇迪勒) 6
2016 (July 7–9) Nepartak (nibote 尼伯特) 3
2016 (Sept. 27) Megi (meiji 梅姬) 7
2019 (Aug. 9) Lekima (liqima 利奇馬) 1
2019 (Aug. 24) Bailu (bailu 白鹿) 1

A majority of victims claimed by typhoon Morakot in 2009 perished when the village of Shiaolin 小林村 (Jiaxian Township 甲仙鄉, Kaohsiung County) was buried by a massive landslide, the townships of Liugui 六龜鄉, Namaxia 那瑪夏鄉, and Taoyuan 桃源鄉 in the same county were also severely affected by comparable conditions.

TOP   HOME

===== ===== ===== =====

Selected statistics Taiwan/ROC

Preliminary notes

Statistics can be a helpful indicator for understanding the development stage of a country. For example, underdeveloped agricultural societies often have a high population growth, comparatively low life expectancy, high infant mortality, low number of hospital beds and physicians in relation to its population size, high illiteracy, low per capita GDP and GNI, and so on, while for a modern industrialized economy the respective figures would look much different.

For decades, the most important source for statistical material from Taiwan/the ROC in English was the Taiwan Statistical Data Book, published annually since 1962, initially by the Council for U. S. Aid (Mei yuan yunyong weiyuanhui 美援運用委員會, abbrev. Mei yuan hui 美援會 in Chinese and CUSA in English) which would become the Council for Economic Planning and Development (CEPD) in 1977.

On Jan. 22, 2014 the CEPD was merged with the Research, Development and Evaluation Commission (RDEC) to constitute the National Development Council (NDC). While the publication of the Taiwan Statistical Data Book had not been affected by the administrative changes until then, the NDC decided to terminate it following the 2019 edition. The image directly below shows the text of an email sent by the NDC to the chief researcher on Nov. 10, 2020 confirming the termination of the Taiwan Statistical Data Book.

A page on the NDC website listing previous editions of the Taiwan Statistical Data Book for access and download has since been deleted, but the editions shown below still circulate on the internet as PDF files. The editions 2002 through 2013 were published by the CEPD, the NDC published the editions 2014 through 2019.

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

Another annual statistical publication that the NDC took over from the CEPD but subsequently discontinued were the Urban and Regional Development Statistics (dushi ji quyu fazhan tongji huibian 都市及區域發展統計彙編, abbrev. URDS).

The user may also consider the "Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of China", published annually by the Directorate-General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics (DGBAS).

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
2018 2019 2020

An additional source offered by the DGBAS for English-language statistics about Taiwan is the page "National Statistics". Furthermore, foreign exchange reserve data shown on this page are provided by the ROC Central Bank. The currency exchange rates come from various sources listed directly under the table in question.

TOP   HOME

+++++ +++++ +++++ +++++ +++++ +++++ +++++ +++++ +++++ +++++

Population statistics

The population statistics shown here include recent data on the following tables:
 ● Total population, population growth, population density
 ● Age groups
 ● Gender balance
 ● Literacy rate

The main source for the population statistics on this page and elsewhere on this website is a Chinese-language database provided by the MOI. Annual data refer to the figure for the end of the year (niandi 年底), monthly data to the figure for the end of the month (yuedi 月底).

Total population, population growth, population density

Year Population + / – Pop. growth BirthsDeaths Area (km²) Pop. density
1946  6,090,860 N/A N/A N/A N/A 35,961.2125 169.373
1950 7,554,399 + 157,468 2.1288 % N/A N/A  " 210.070
1952 8,128,374 + 259,127 3.2929 % N/A N/A  " 226.031
1955 9,077,643 + 328,492 3.7545 % N/A N/A  " 252.428
1960 10,792,202 + 360,861 3.4593 % 422,31974,212  " 300.106
1965 12,628,348 + 371,666 3.0323 % 409,62068,414 36,140.2675 349.425
1970 14,675,964 + 341,102 2.3795 % 396,47971,640  " 406.083
1975 16,223,089 + 295,922 1.8579 % 369,34975,551 36,160.8363 448.636
1980 17,866,008 + 322,941 1.8408 % 413,88184,333 36,179.1159 493.821
1985 19,313,825 + 244,631 1.2828 % 346,20892,348  " 533.839
1990 20,401,305 + 244,718 1.2140 % 335,618105,669 36,181.8718 563.854
1995 21,357,431 + 179,557 0.8478 % 329,581119,112  " 590.279
2000 22,276,672 + 184,285 0.8341 % 305,312125,958 36,188.0354 615.581
2005 22,770,383 + 81,261 0.3581 % 205,854139,398  " 629.224
2010 23,162,123 + 42,351 0.1831 % 166,886145,772 36,191.4667 639.988
2011 23,224,912 + 62,789 0.2710 % 196,627152,915 36,192.8155 641.699
2012 23,315,822 + 90,910 0.3914 % 229,481154,251  " 644.211
2013 23,373,517 + 57,695 0.2474 % 199,113155,908  " 645.805
2014 23,433,753 + 60,236 0.2577 % 210,383163,929  " 647.469
2015 23,492,074 + 58,321 0.2488 % 213,598163,858 36,197.0669 649.004
2016 23,539,816 + 47,742 0.2032 % 208,440172,405  " 650.323
2017 23,571,227 + 31,411 0.1334 % 193,844171,242  " 651.191
2018 23,588,932 + 17,705 0.0751 % 181,601172,784  " 651.680
2019 23,603,121 + 14,189 0.0601 % 177,767176,296  " 652.072
2020 23,561,236 – 41,885 – 0.1774 % 165,249173,156  " 650.915
2021 23,375,314 – 185,922 – 0.7891 % 153,820183,732  " 645.779

Population figures for 1946–1970 without data for Kinmen and Lienchiang counties. The population growth figures ("+ / –") refer to the changes in comparison with the previous year. The population density shows the average number of persons per square kilometer. Sources for all figures: MOI (population growth calculated by the chief researcher)

Taiwan/the ROC reached its historical maximum population since 1949 in January 2020 with 23,604,265 persons. The following table shows the population figures for each month in 2019 and 2020. The figures in the column "+ / –" represent the population gains or losses compared with the previous month.

Month2019+ / –2020+ / –
January23,590,744 + 1,812 23,604,265 + 1,144 
February23,590,004– 74023,600,903– 3,362
March23,589,192– 81223,596,493– 4,410
April23,589,312+ 12023,591,920– 4,573
May23,589,870+ 55823,586,562– 5,358
June23,591,031+ 1,16123,583,823– 2,739
July23,592,598+ 1,56723,578,705– 5,118
August23,593,794+ 1,19623,574,334– 4,371
September 23,593,783– 1123,568,378– 5,956
October23,596,266+ 2,48323,566,471– 1,907
November23,598,776+ 2,51023,563,356– 3,115
December23,603,121+ 4,34523,561,236– 2,120

Age groups


Year
Under 15 15–64 65 and over Total
population
Persons% Persons% Persons%
1975  5,737,621 35.367 9,917,400 61.131 568,068 3.501 16,223,089
1980 5,739,248 32.123 11,360,620 63.587 766,140 4.288 17,866,008
1985 5,716,144 29.596 12,620,626 65.345 977,055 5.058 19,313,825
1990 5,525,365 27.083 13,607,309 66.698 1,268,631 6.218 20,401,305
1995 5,076,083 23.767 14,650,294 68.595 1,631,054 7.636 21,357,431
2000 4,703,093 21.112 15,652,271 70.263 1,921,308 8.624 22,276,672
2005 4,259,049 18.704 16,294,530 71.560 2,216,804 9.735 22,770,383
2010 3,624,311 15.647 17,049,919 73.611 2,487,893 10.741 23,162,123
2011 3,501,790 15.077 17,194,873 74.036 2,528,249 10.885 23,224,912
2012 3,411,677 14.632 17,303,993 74.215 2,600,152 11.151 23,315,822
2013 3,346,601 14.317 17,332,510 74.154 2,694,406 11.527 23,373,517
2014 3,277,300 13.985 17,347,763 74.028 2,808,690 11.985 23,433,753
2015 3,187,780 13.569 17,365,715 73.921 2,938,579 12.508 23,492,074
2016 3,141,881 13.347 17,291,830 73.457 3,106,105 13.195 23,539,816
2017 3,091,873 13.117 17,211,341 73.018 3,268,013 13.864 23,571,227
2018 3,048,227 12.922 17,107,188 72.522 3,433,517 14.555 23,588,932
2019 3,010,351 12.754 16,985,643 71.963 3,607,127 15.282 23,603,121
2020 2,963,396 12.577 16,810,525 71.348 3,787,315 16.074 23,561,236
2021 2,889,908 12.363 16,546,373 70.785 3,939,033 16.851 23,375,314

Number of persons provided by the MOI, percentages calculated by the chief researcher.

Gender balance


Year
Total population
(persons)
Male population Female population
(persons)(ratio) (persons)(ratio)
1946  6,090,860 3,060,527 50.247 % 3,030,333 49.752 %
1950 7,554,399 3,853,799 51.013% 3,700,600 48.986 %
1952 8,128,374 4,156,469 51.135 % 3,971,905 48.864 %
1955 9,077,643 4,647,207 51.193 % 4,430,436 48.806 %
1960 10,792,202 5,525,062 51.194 % 5,267,140 48.805 %
1965 12,628,348 6,491,539 51.404 % 6,136,809 48.595 %
1970 14,675,964 7,732,867 52.690 % 6,943,097 47.309 %
1975 16,223,089 8,501,391 52.403 % 7,721,698 47.596 %
1980 17,866,008 9,320,105 52.166 % 8,545,903 47.833 %
1985 19,313,825 10,023,344 51.897 % 9,290,481 48.102 %
1990 20,401,305 10,540,635 51.666 % 9,860,670 48.333 %
1995 21,357,431 10,990,657 51.460 % 10,366,774 48.539 %
2000 22,276,672 11,392,050 51.138 % 10,884,622 48.861 %
2005 22,770,383 11,562,440 50.778 % 11,207,943 49.221 %
2010 23,162,123 11,635,225 50.233 % 11,526,898 49.766%
2011 23,224,912 11,645,674 50.143 % 11,579,238 49.856 %
2012 23,315,822 11,673,319 50.066 % 11,642,503 49.933 %
2013 23,373,517 11,684,674 49.991 % 11,688,843 50.008 %
2014 23,433,753 11,697,971 49.919 % 11,735,782 50.080 %
2015 23,492,074 11,712,047 49.855 % 11,780,027 50.144 %
2016 23,539,816 11,719,270 49.784 % 11,820,546 50.215 %
2017 23,571,227 11,719,580 49.719 % 11,851,647 50.280 %
2018 23,588,932 11,712,913 49.654 % 11,876,019 50.345 %
2019 23,603,121 11,705,186 49.591 % 11,897,935 50.408 %
2020 23,561,236 11,673,765 49.546 % 11,887,471 50.453 %
2021 23,375,314 11,578,696 49.533 % 11,796,618 50.466 %

Number of persons provided by the MOI, percentages calculated by the chief researcher.

Please note that the gender imbalance in Taiwan/the ROC reached its highest level at the end of the year 1969—total population then was 13,650,370, with 7,554,131 males (52.697 %) and 6,780,731 females (47.302 %). Since the end of November 2013 females have been outnumbering males in the ROC.

MonthTotal populationMaleFemale
September 2013 23,356,58811,680,729 11,675,859 
October 201323,361,14711,681,44811,679,699
November 201323,367,32011,683,18711,684,133
December 201323,373,51711,684,67411,688,843
January 201423,377,51511,685,43811,692,077

The number of males peaked at the end of January 2017 with 11,719,646 individuals, the number of females reached its highest level at the end of January 2020 with 11,899,957 individuals.

MonthTotal populationMaleFemale
November 2016 23,532,06511,716,952 11,815,113 
December 201623,539,81611,719,27011,820,546
January 201723,543,34611,719,64611,823,700
February 201723,544,18911,718,79511,825,394
March 201723,545,68011,718,06811,827,612

MonthTotal populationMaleFemale
November 2019 23,598,77611,704,260 11,894,516 
December 201923,603,12111,705,18611,897,935
January 202023,604,26511,704,30811,899,957
February 202023,600,90311,701,32211,899,581
March 202023,596,49311,697,97711,898,516

Literacy rate

The table directly below shows the percentage of illiterates among persons aged 15 and above at the end of the school year.

Year % Year % Year %
1997 5.34  2006 2.52  2015 1.40 
19985.08 20072.37 20161.30
19994.72 20082.22 20171.21
20004.45 20092.09 20181.13
20014.21 20101.96 20191.04
20023.97 20111.83 20200.97
20033.03 20121.71 20210.91
20042.84 20131.61
20052.67 20141.50

Source: MOE main education statistical indicators, see III. Stucture of education; 2. Educational attainment of population—aged 15 and above

👉 For comparison, the table directly below shows data from the NDC’s Taiwan Statistical Data Book 2019 (age groups: tables 2-6a, 2-6b; literacy rates: table 2-4).


Year
Age groups (% of population) Literacy rate
(%)
Under 15  15–64  65 and over
1952  42.4 55.1 2.5 N/A
1955 43.4 54.1 2.5 N/A
1960 45.4 52.1 2.5 N/A
1965 44.9 52.5 2.6 N/A
1970 39.7 57.4 2.9 N/A
1975 35.4 61.1 3.5 84.24
1980 32.1 63.6 4.3 87.74
1985 29.6 65.3 5.1 90.38
1990 27.1 66.7 6.2 92.41
1995 23.8 68.6 7.6 94.01
2000 21.1 70.3 8.6 95.55
2005 18.7 71.6 9.7 97.33
2010 15.6 73.6 10.7 98.04
2011 15.1 74.0 10.9 98.17
2012 14.6 74.2 11.2 98.29
2013 14.3 74.2 11.5 98.39
2014 14.0 74.0 12.0 98.50
2015 13.6 73.9 12.5 98.60
2016 13.3 73.5 13.2 98.70
2017 13.1 73.0 13.9 98.79
2018 12.9 72.5 14.6 98.87

TOP   HOME

Public health statistics

The public health statistics shown here include recent data on the following tables:
 ● Life expectancy
 ● Infant mortality rate
 ● Physicians and hospital beds per population

Main source for the public health statistics shown here is the DGBAS’s Statistical Yearbook of the ROC 2020. Other useful statistics concerning that topic can be found on the MOHW website.

Life expectancy

[Unit—years]


Year
Life expectancy
Year
Life expectancy
Male Female Male Female
1951 53.1057.32 2014 76.7283.19
197167.1972.08 201577.0183.62
198169.7474.64 201676.8183.42
199171.8377.14 201777.2883.70
200174.0779.92 201877.5584.05
201175.9682.63 201977.6984.23
201276.4382.82 2020N/AN/A
201376.9183.36

Source: Statistical Yearbook of the ROC 2020 (table 6)

Infant mortality rate

[Unit—deaths per 1,000 life births]

Year Infant mortality Year Infant mortality Year Infant mortality
1950 91.721 1990 5.715 2014 4.130
195570.175 19955.954 20154.026
196053.549 20006.496 20163.921
196544.940 20055.693 20173.817
197030.026 20104.790 20183.713
197513.187 20114.604 20193.615
198010.075 20124.419 20203.518
19857.446 20134.234 20213.420

Source: MacroTrends.net

Physicians and hospital beds per population

[Unit—per 10,000 persons]

Year Physicians Beds Year Physicians Beds
1954 6.313.29 2014 20.9668.91
19715.2315.99 201521.4169.03
19817.5224.29 201621.7969.31
199111.4945.14 201722.5169.83
200115.4256.98 201823.0471.02
201119.6269.09 201924.0071.29
201220.0269.01 202024.7672.06
201320.5168.21

Source: Statistical Yearbook of the ROC 2020 (table 21)

👉 For comparison, the table directly below shows data from the NDC’s Taiwan Statistical Data Book 2019 (life expectancy, hospital beds: table 14-6; persons per physician: table 14-2).

Year Life expectancy Hospital beds Persons per physician
Total Male Female
1961 N/A 62.64 67.18 3.70 1,661 *
1965 N/A 65.10 69.71 3.52 1,901
1970 N/A 66.66 71.56 3.96 2,240
1975 N/A 68.27 73.42 18.85 1,492
1980 N/A 69.57 74.55 22.22 1,323
1985 73.02 70.82 75.81 38.47 1,130
1990 73.79 71.33 76.75 43.80 913
1995 74.53 71.85 77.74 52.62 777
2000 76.46 73.83 79.56 56.78 669
2005 77.42 74.50 80.80 64.29 588
2010 79.18 76.13 82.55 68.61 524
2011 79.15 75.96 82.63 69.09 510
2012 79.51 76.43 82.82 69.01 500
2013 80.02 76.91 83.36 68.21 488
2014 79.84 76.72 83.19 68.91 477
2015 80.20 77.01 83.62 69.03 467
2016 80.00 76.81 83.42 69.31 459
2017 80.39 77.28 83.70 69.83 444
2018 N/A N/A N/A 71.02 434

Note: Life expectancy at birth in years. Hospital beds per 10,000 persons. Persons served by each physician including TCM doctors (*: 1960).

TOP   HOME

Economics and trade statistics

The economics and trade statistics shown here include recent data on the following tables:
 ● Annual economic growth rate
 ● GDP and GNI
 ● Percentage of economic sectors in GDP
 ● Exports and imports
 ● Inflation
 ● Unemployment rate

Main source for the economics statistics shown here is the DGBAS’s Statistical Yearbook of the ROC 2006–2020. GDP stands for Gross Domestic Product, GNI for Gross National Income, CPI for Consumer Price Index. Other useful statistics concerning that topic can be found on the websites of the MOEA and of the MOEA’s Bureau of Foreign Trade (BOFT).

Annual economic growth rate

Year Growth Year Growth Year Growth
1971 13.43 % 2012 2.22 % 2017 3.31 %
19817.10 % 20132.48 % 20182.79 %
19918.37 % 20144.72 % 20192.96 %
2001– 1.40 % 20151.47 % 20203.12 %
20113.67 % 20162.17 % 2021N/A

Source: Statistical Yearbook of the ROC 2020 (table 39)

GDP and GNI

[GDP and GNI at current prices.]

Period/
year
Total GDP
(US$ million)
Per capita GDP Total GNI
(NT$ million)
Per capita GNI
(NT$)(US$) (NT$)(US$)
1951 1,197 1,589 154 12,320 1,588 154
1971 6,727 18,043 451 268,962 18,035 451
1981 49,047 100,079 2,720 1,794,778 99,544 2,706
1991 187,100 244,739 9,125 5,153,461 251,345 9,372
2001 299,303 452,951 13,397 10,308,613 461,419 13,647
2011 483,957 614,922 20,866 14,634,307 630,965 21,410
2012 495,536 630,749 21,295 15,109,951 649,322 21,922
2013 512,957 654,142 21,973 15,673,232 671,384 22,552
2014 535,332 694,680 22,874 16,697,152 713,443 23,492
2015 534,474 726,895 22,780 17,494,741 745,634 23,367
2016 543,002 746,526 23,091 18,006,409 765,711 23,684
2017 590,780 763,445 25,080 18,430,708 782,437 25,704
2018 609,251 779,260 25,838 18,789,823 796,852 26,421
2019 612,109 802,361 25,941 19,408,986 822,553 26,594
2020 669,034 838,191 28,371 20,313,660 861,403 29,153

Source: Statistical Yearbook of the ROC 2020 (GDP, GNI: table 39; per capita GDP, GNI: table 40)

Percentage of economic sectors in GDP

Period/
year
Structure of production (% of GDP by industry)
AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY (Manufacturing) SERVICES
2007 1.45 32.10 (27.63) 65.15
2008 1.55 30.50 (26.65) 66.75
2009 1.68 30.69 (25.96) 66.38
2010 1.61 33.30 (28.60) 64.83
2011 1.74 32.62 (28.27) 65.64
2012 1.70 32.66 (28.33) 65.64
2013 1.73 33.72 (29.12) 64.54
2014 1.85 35.57 (30.94) 62.57
2015 1.76 36.29 (31.42) 61.95
2016 1.87 36.87 (32.22) 61.27
2017 1.82 36.83 (32.53) 61.35
2018 1.69 36.31 (32.13) 62.00
2019 1.68 35.46 (30.96) 62.86
2020 1.59 37.12 (32.07) 61.29

Data provided by the Chung-Hua Institution for Economic Research (CIER)

Exports and imports

[Unit—million US$]

Year Exports Imports Balance Year Exports Imports Balance
1980 19,81119,73377 2013 310,866277,38433,481
198530,72620,10210,624 2014319,413281,09638,318
199067,21454,71612,498 2015284,434236,38048,053
1995113,342104,0129,330 2016279,175229,19949,975
2000151,950140,73211,218 2017315,487257,20058,287
2005198,432182,61415,817 2018334,007284,79249,216
2010277,352255,74621,606 2019329,157285,65143,506
2011312,182287,31624,866 2020345,211285,81759,394
2012305,315276,46628,848

Sources: Statistical Yearbooks of the ROC—2006 (table 119), 2020 (table 53), using data from the MOF

Inflation

Year CPI change Year CPI change Year CPI change
1960 18.5 % 2000 1.26 % 2016 1.39 %
1965– 0.07 % 20052.31 % 20170.62 %
19703.58 % 20100.97 % 20181.35 %
19755.24 % 20111.42 % 20190.56 %
198019.0 % 20121.93 % 2020– 0.23 %
1985– 0.17 % 20130.79 % 20211.96 %
19904.12 % 20141.20 % 2022N/A
19953.66 % 2015– 0.30 %

Data on the annual change of Consumer Price Indices in Taiwan Area come from the DGBAS’s website "National Statistics". The MOF offers figures about public finance and trade statistics; click here.

Unemployment rate

Year Unemployment Year Unemployment Year Unemployment
1952 4.5 % 2010 5.21 % 2016 3.92 %
19711.7 % 20114.39 % 20173.76 %
19811.4 % 20124.24 % 20183.71 %
19911.51 % 20134.18 % 20193.73 %
20014.57 % 20143.96 % 20203.85 %
20063.91 % 20153.78 % 20213.95 %

Sources: Statistical Yearbook of the ROC 2020 (table 7), MOL figures about labor status

More labor statistics can be found on the website of the MOL, links see below.
MOL statistics—yearly bulletin
Major economic indicators, click here or here.

👉 For comparison, the tables directly below shows data from the NDC’s Taiwan Statistical Data Book 2019 (GDP, per capita GNI, economic growth, change CPI: table 1-1a; total GNI: table 3-1; structure of production: table 3-8b; exports, imports, trade balance, unemployment rate: table 1-1c).

Period/
year
Total GDP
(US$ million)
Per capita GDP Total GNI
(NT$ million)
Per capita GNI
(NT$) (US$) (NT$) (US$)
1952 1,711 2,190 213 17,271 2,146 208
1955 1,940 3,364 216 30,160 3,363 216
1960 1,743 5,943 163 63,371 5,940 163
1965 2,869 9,173 229 114,577 9,157 229
1970 5,786 15,870 397 231,015 15,841 396
1975 15,838 37,438 985 598,483 37,230 980
1980 42,295 86,002 2,389 1,520,519 85,883 2,386
1985 63,623 132,142 3,315 2,583,166 134,599 3,377
1990 166,615 220,933 8,216 4,597,595 226,718 8,431
1995 279,224 347,789 13,129 7,507,569 353,004 13,326
2000 331,452 466,598 14,941 10,490,818 472,889 15,142
2005 375,769 532,001 16,532 12,383,120 544,798 16,930
2010 446,105 610,140 19,278 14,548,852 628,706 19,864
2011 485,653 617,078 20,939 14,700,572 633,822 21,507
2012 495,845 631,142 21,308 15,141,108 650,660 21,967
2013 511,614 652,429 21,916 15,654,588 670,585 22,526
2014 530,519 688,434 22,668 16,582,405 708,540 23,330
2015 525,562 714,774 22,400 17,301,397 737,393 23,109
2016 531,281 730,411 22,592 17,705,994 752,936 23,289
2017 574,940 742,976 24,408 17,965,345 762,681 25,055
2018 589,997 754,711 25,026 18,129,011 768,959 25,501

Note: Total GDP in US$ and GNI in NT$ million at current prices.

Period/
year
Structure of production (% of GDP by industry)
 AGRICULTURE   INDUSTRY (Manufacturing)   SERVICES 
1952 32.2 19.7 (12.9) 48.1
1955 29.1 23.2 (15.6) 47.7
1960 28.5 26.9 (19.1) 44.6
1965 23.6 30.2 (22.3) 46.2
1970 15.5 36.8 (29.2) 47.7
1975 12.7 39.9 (30.9) 47.4
1980 7.7 45.7 (36.0) 46.6
1985 5.7 44.6 (34.9) 49.7
1990 4.0 39.3 (31.2) 56.7
1995 3.3 33.7 (25.6) 63.0
2000 2.0 31.3 (25.6) 66.7
2005 1.6 32.3 (27.8) 66.1
2010 1.6 33.8 (29.1) 64.6
2011 1.7 33.0 (28.7) 65.3
2012 1.7 32.8 (28.4) 65.6
2013 1.7 33.5 (28.8) 64.9
2014 1.8 34.8 (30.0) 63.4
2015 1.7 35.3 (30.2) 63.0
2016 1.8 35.5 (30.7) 62.7
2017 1.8 35.5 (31.0) 62.7
2018 1.6 35.2 (30.8) 63.2

Note: Source for the figures 1952 through 1980—Taiwan Statistical Data Book 2004 (at market prices, see table 1-1b).

Year Exports
(US$ million)
Imports
(US$ million)
Trade balance
(US$ million)
1952  116 187 – 71
1955 123 201 – 78
1960 164 297 – 133
1965 450 556 – 106
1970 1,481 1,524 – 43
1975 5,309 5,952 – 643
1980 19,811 19,733 + 77
1985 30,726 20,102 + 10,624
1990 67,214 54,716 + 12,498
1995 113,342 104,012 + 9,330
2000 151,950 140,732 + 11,218
2005 199,761 185,438 + 14,323
2010 278,008 256,274 + 21,734
2011 312,923 288,062 + 24,861
2012 306,409 277,324 + 29,085
2013 311,428 278,010 + 33,418
2014 320,092 281,850 + 38,242
2015 285,344 237,219 + 48,124
2016 280,321 230,568 + 49,753
2017 317,249 259,266 + 57,983
2018 335,909 286,333 + 49,576

Note: Exports at f.o.b. prices, imports at c.i.f. prices.

Period/
year
Economic growth rate (%) Change CPI (%) Unemployment rate (%)
1952 11.8 N/A 4.37
1955 7.7 N/A 3.81
1960 7.2 18.6 3.98
1965 11.9 – 0.1 3.29
1970 11.5 3.6 1.70
1975 6.2 5.2 2.40
1980 8.0 19.0 1.23
1985 4.8 – 0.2 2.91
1990 5.7 4.1 1.67
1995 6.5 3.7 1.79
2000 6.4 1.3 2.99
2005 5.4 2.3 4.13
2010 10.6 1.0 5.21
2011 3.8 1.4 4.39
2012 2.1 1.9 4.24
2013 2.2 0.8 4.18
2014 4.0 1.2 3.96
2015 0.8 – 0.3 3.78
2016 1.5 1.4 3.92
2017 3.1 0.6 3.76
2018 2.6 1.4 3.71

Note: Economic growth rate at 2011 prices, for 1952 at 2006 prices.

TOP   HOME

Financial statistics

The financial statistics shown here include recent data on the following tables:
 ● Government revenues and expenditures
 ● Foreign exchange reserves since 1965
 ● Annual currency exchange rates since 1993
 ● Annual average prices (US$) for crude oil and gold since 1978

Main source for the financial statistics shown here is the DGBAS’s Statistical Yearbook of the ROC 2020. For public finance and trade statistics of the MOF click here. Statistics of the ROC Central Bank can be found here.

Government revenues and expenditures

Fiscal year Revenues
(million US$)
Expenditures
(million US$)
Fiscal year Revenues
(million US$)
Expenditures
(million US$)
1976156,124146,594 20142,508,8152,645,712
1981411,712425,731 20152,662,3282,645,189
19911,049,9311,275,613 20162,690,9182,745,305
20011,896,8412,271,755 20172,753,3292,778,361
20062,177,0182,214,226 20182,848,6112,845,491
20112,306,1732,612,947 20192,931,8552,911,648
20122,321,2052,677,984 20203,036,1323,241,949
20132,457,6322,665,241

Source: Statistical Yearbook of the ROC 2020 (revenues: table 90, expenditures: table 91), using data from the MOF, National Audit Office

Foreign exchange reserves since 1965

Year Amount Year Amount Year Amount Year Amount
1965 245 1995 90,310 2013 416,811 2019 478,126
1970482 2000106,742 2014418,980 2020529,911
19751,074 2005253,290 2015426,031 2021548,408
19802,205 2010382,005 2016434,204
198522,556 2011385,547 2017451,500
199072,441 2012403,169 2018461,784

Note: Foreign exchange reserves figures for December of the listed year, provided by the ROC Central Bank. (Unit: million US$)

Annual currency exchange rates since 1993

  1 US$ = NT$...   1 Euro (€) = NT$...
Year Average Low High Average Low High
1993 26.80743 25.820 26.930
1994 26.46244 25.920 27.150
1995 26.49397 25.010 27.497
1996 27.46026 27.060 27.960
1997 28.71918 26.550 33.481
1998 33.49656 31.750 35.200
1999 32.31913 30.000 33.290 34.48378 31.6506 38.0808
2000 31.26272 30.200 33.188 28.89330 26.5582 32.2497
2001 33.98527 32.070 36.188 30.46173 28.6633 33.6050
2002 34.58156 31.332 36.710 32.69697 30.0432 36.6486
2003 34.48082 33.460 35.010 39.02490 36.1088 42.8319
2004 33.46888 31.532 35.311 41.61540 39.0600 43.7138
2005 32.19914 30.720 33.780 40.06741 37.8018 43.3937
2006 32.55646 31.250 33.350 40.90074 38.4480 43.1822
2007 32.88258 32.172 33.500 45.06189 42.3091 48.1300
2008 31.55586 29.979 33.610 46.32524 41.4447 48.8477
2009 33.06652 31.763 35.170 46.06811 43.1330 48.6842
2010 31.55146 29.040 32.528 41.88182 38.7263 46.1335
2011 29.51258 28.1430 30.4925 41.08356 37.7585 42.7075
2012 29.66223 28.4733 30.1300 38.14149 36.0308 39.7009
2013 29.75442 28.9167 30.0667 39.51745 37.6699 41.1673
2014 30.35176 29.7767 31.7033 40.33046 38.1307 42.2859
2015 31.777965 30.41912 33.22488 35.263137 33.11039 38.31674
2016 32.258135 31.14619 33.69891 35.694474 33.22085 37.57433
2017 30.421739 29.64730 32.48700 34.360736 32.18983 36.15095
2018 30.150184 28.98731 31.08776 35.584642 34.58913 36.58470
2019 30.897865 29.90482 31.72333 34.619034 33.29275 35.66489
2020 29.459949 27.93349 30.43304 33.606410 32.27834 35.10003
2021 27.931625 27.5115 28.6233 33.049916 31.1300 34.5694

Sources: All figures 1993–2014 by Oanda.com (interbank rate); figures since 2015—yearly average rates by UK Forex Ltd. (OFX), annual highs and lows by XE.com

Annual average prices (US$) for crude oil and gold since 1978

Year Oil Gold Year Oil Gold
1978 9.00 193.22 2000 26.72 279.11
1979 12.64 306.68 2001 21.84 271.04
1980 21.59 612.56 2002 22.51 309.73
1981 31.77 460.03 2003 27.56 363.38
1982 28.52 375.67 2004 36.77 409.72
1983 26.19 424.35 2005 50.28 444.74
1984 25.88 360.48 2006 59.69 603.46
1985 24.09 317.26 2007 66.52 695.39
1986 12.51 367.66 2008 94.04 871.96
1987 15.40 446.46 2009 56.39 972.35
1988 12.58 436.94 2010 74.71 1,224.53
1989 15.86 381.44 2011 95.73 1,571.52
1990 20.03 383.51 2012 94.52 1,668.98
1991 16.54 362.11 2013 96.13 1,411.23
1992 15.99 343.82 2014 87.39 1,266.40
1993 14.25 359.77 2015 44.39 1,160.06
1994 13.19 384.00 2016 38.29 1,250.74
1995 14.62 384.17 2017 48.05 1,257.12
1996 18.46 387.77 2018 61.40 1,268.49
1997 17.23 330.98 2019 55.59 1,392.60
1998 10.87 294.24 2020 36.86 1,769.64
1999 15.56 278.88 2021 65.90 1,798.61

Note: The oil prices are listed in US$ per barrel (42 gallons = 158.98 l) as crude oil prices (domestic first purchase prices), source: Energy Information Administration, i. e. official energy statistics from the US government. The gold prices are listed in US$ per troy ounce (31.1 g), source: Kitco Bullion Dealers.

👉 For comparison, the table directly below shows data from the NDC’s Taiwan Statistical Data Book 2019 (table 9-1a).

Fiscal year Govt. revenues
(NT$ million)
Govt. expenditures
(NT$ million)
Surplus/deficit
(NT$ million)
1955 6,077 6,414 N/A
1960 11,699 12,080 N/A
1965 22,146 22,387 N/A
1970 46,586 35,901 1,061
1975 123,238 82,915 2,753
1980 327,649 213,738 352
1985 531,075 382,713 – 3,735
1990 1,053,410 702,812 – 5,116
1995 1,522,624 1,328,425 – 350,637
2000 2,679,563 2,529,683 – 356,074
2002 1,706,602 1,649,952 – 357,075
2004 1,845,279 1,703,657 – 317,647
2006 2,094,023 1,754,091 – 37,208
2008 2,181,188 1,811,308 – 111,972
2010 2,062,022 1,911,511 – 451,251
2011 2,238,905 2,020,023 – 306,774
2012 2,259,104 2,179,796 – 356,779
2013 2,370,392 2,166,627 – 207,609
2014 2,416,204 2,191,528 – 136,897
2015 2,592,406 2,216,782 17,139
2016 2,642,536 2,292,303 – 54,388
2017 2,718,248 2,283,605 – 25,032
2018 2,810,017 2,295,207 4,450

Note: Column 1 () shows total net government revenues of all levels, column 2 () total net government expenditures of all levels, column 3 () total surplus or deficit of current account and capital account combined. Before 2000, the fiscal year (FY) begins July 1 of the preceding year and ends June 30. FY 2000 extends from July 1, 1999 to Dec. 31, 2000; subsequent FYs follow the calendar year (from Jan. 1 to Dec. 31). Figures for 1955–1965 from the Taiwan Statistical Data Book 2013 (revenues: table 9-2a, expenditures: table 9-3a).

TOP   HOME

Energy statistics

The energy statistics shown here include recent data on the following tables:
 ● Power generation
 ● Domestic power consumption

Main source for the energy statistics below is the Energy Statistics Handbook published by the MOEA’s Bureau of Energy (BOE).

For the BOE’s energy statistical annual reports click here.

Power generation

———OVERVIEW———

Year Total (GWh) Pumped Hydro
GWh (%)
Coal-fired
GWh (%)
Oil-fired
GWh (%)
LNG fired
GWh (%)
Nuclear
GWh (%)
Renewables
GWh (%)
2000  184,841 4,310
(2.33 %)
87,044
(47.09 %)
30,971
(16.76 %)
17,658
(9.55 %)
38,503
(20.83 %)
6,354
(3.44 %)
2005 227,512 3,839
(1.69 %)
120,132
(52.80 %)
17,113
(7.52 %)
38,916
(17.10 %)
39,972
(17.57 %)
7,541
(3.31 %)
2010 247,059 3,061
(1.24 %)
122,384
(49.54 %)
11,099
(4.49 %)
60,246
(24.39 %)
41,629
(16.85 %)
8,640
(3.50 %)
2011 252,167 2,902
(1.15 %)
124,486
(49.37 %)
9,470
(3.76 %)
64,206
(25.46 %)
42,116
(16.70 %)
8,987
(3.56 %)
2012 250,373 2,937
(1.17 %)
122,451
(48.91 %)
7,609
(3.04 %)
66,292
(26.48 %)
40,422
(16.14 %)
10,662
(4.26 %)
2013 252,341 3,187
(1.26 %)
121,472
(48.14 %)
6,799
(2.69 %)
68,389
(27.10 %)
41,639
(16.50 %)
10,855
(4.30 %)
2014 259,964 3,121
(1.20 %)
123,450
(47.49 %)
8,011
(3.08 %)
73,070
(28.11 %)
42,389
(16.31 %)
9,922
(3.82 %)
2015 258,142 3,035
(1.18 %)
117,164
(45.39 %)
11,987
(4.64 %)
79,009
(30.61 %)
36,471
(14.13 %)
10,476
(4.06 %)
2016 264,108 3,294
(1.25 %)
121,233
(45.90 %)
11,889
(4.50 %)
83,300
(31.54 %)
31,661
(11.99 %)
12,730
(4.82 %)
2017 270,256 3,334
(1.23 %)
127,973
(47.35 %)
12,711
(4.70 %)
91,428
(33.83 %)
22,446
(8.31 %)
12,365
( 4.58 %)
2018 275,549 3,371
(1.22 %)
131,262
(47.64 %)
8,172
(2.97 %)
92,409
(33.54 %)
27,682
(10.05 %)
12,653
(4.59 %)
2019 274,191 3,208
(1.17 %)
126,412
(46.10 %)
5,850
(2.13 %)
91,145
(33.24 %)
32,323
(11.79 %)
15,252
(5.56 %)
2020 280,140 3,159
(1.13 %)
125,920
(44.95 %)
4,421
(1.58 %)
99,887
(35.66 %)
31,440
(11.22 %)
15,313
(5.47 %)

[Units—GWh and percentage]

———DETAILS ON RENEWABLE ENERGY———

Year Subtotal
GWh (%)
Conv. Hydro
GWh (%)
Geothermal
GWh (%)
Photovoltaic
GWh (%)
Wind
GWh (%)
Biomass
GWh (%)
Waste
GWh (%)
2000  6,354
(3.44 %)
4,560
(2.47 %)
0
(0.00 %)
1
(0.00 %)
302
(0.16 %)
1,491
(0.81 %)
2005 7,541
(3.31 %)
4,071
(1.79 %)
1
(0.00 %)
91
(0.04 %)
323
(0.14 %)
3,054
(1.34 %)
2010 8,640
(3.50 %)
4,194
(1.70 %)
22
(0.01 %)
1,026
(0.42 %)
270
(0.11 %)
3,128
(1.27 %)
2011 8,987
(3.56 %)
4,000
(1.59 %)
62
(0.02 %)
1,493
(0.59 %)
236
(0.09 %)
3,197
(1.27 %)
2012 10,662
(4.26 %)
5,670
(2.26 %)
160
(0.06 %)
1,413
(0.56 %)
241
(0.10 %)
3,178
(1.27 %)
2013 10,855
(4.30 %)
5,423
(2.15 %)
321
(0.13 %)
1,640
(0.65 %)
226
(0.09 %)
3,246
(1.29 %)
2014 9,922
(3.82 %)
4,318
(1.66 %)
529
(0.20 %)
1,500
(0.58 %)
250
(0.10 %)
3,325
(1.28 %)
2015 10,476
(4.06 %)
4,470
(1.73 %)
850
(0.33 %)
1,525
(0.59 %)
246
(0.10 %)
3,384
(1.31 %)
2016 12,730
(4.82 %)
6,562
(2.48 %)
1,109
(0.42 %)
1,457
(0.55 %)
205
(0.08 %)
3,397
(1.29 %)
2017 12,365
(4.58 %)
5,447
(2.02 %)
1,667
(0.62 %)
1,722
(0.64 %)
188
(0.07 %)
3,341
(1.24 %)
2018 12,653
(4.59 %)
4,482
(1.63 %)
0.00
(0.00 %)
2,712
(0.98 %)
1,707
(0.62 %)
185
(0.07 %)
3,567
(1.29 %)
2019 15,252
(5.56 %)
5,545
(2.02 %)
0.76
(0.00 %)
4,014
(1.46 %)
1,892
(0.69 %)
170
(0.06 %)
3,630
(1.32 %)
2020 15,313
(5.47 %)
3,019
(1.08 %)
1.91
(0.00 %)
6,095
(2.18 %)
2,433
(0.87 %)
203
(0.07 %)
3,561
(1.27 %)

Source: Energy Statistics Handbook 2020, p. 85-86

Domestic power consumption

Year Total
(GWh)
Energy sector
own use (%)
Indus-
trial (%)
Transpor-
tation (%)
Agricul-
tural (%)
Services
(%)
Residen-
tial (%)
Line loss
rate (%)
2000  176,503.4 9.33 49.78 0.26 1.28 19.77 19.57 5.58
2005 218,457.5 8.95 50.12 0.26 1.14 20.17 19.37 4.76
2010 237,407.3 8.01 52.76 0.50 1.10 19.33 18.29 4.66
2011 242,086.3 7.87 53.24 0.51 1.13 18.91 18.35 4.76
2012 241,111.6 7.73 53.72 0.53 1.12 18.97 17.93 4.42
2013 245,123.4 7.51 54.35 0.54 1.12 18.71 17.78 4.25
2014 251,100.4 7.50 54.33 0.54 1.13 18.51 17.99 4.09
2015 250,019.3 7.60 53.88 0.56 1.17 18.85 17.95 3.72
2016 255,420.1 7.41 53.59 0.55 1.14 18.78 18.53 3.85
2017 261,394.6 7.59 53.98 0.56 1.16 18.48 18.21 3.82
2018 266,568.2 7.19 55.88 0.55 1.11 17.68 17.59 3.94
2019 265,720.0 7.37 55.58 0.56 1.15 17.59 17.76 3.86
2020 271,247.1 7.12 55.57 0.55 1.21 17.05 18.51 3.97

The line loss rate data is from the Taiwan Power Company.
Source: Energy Statistics Handbook 2020, p. 87-88

TOP   HOME

👉 For comparison, the tables directly below shows data from the NDC’s Taiwan Statistical Data Book 2019—power generation (tables 5-6a, 5-6b), power consumption (table 5-6b).

Power generation
Year Total (million kWh) Hydro (%) Thermal (%) Nuclear (%) Wind (%) Solar (%) BioEnergy (%)
1952 1,420 86.7 13.3
1955 1,966 77.9 22.1
1960 3,628 56.9 43.1
1965 6,455 40.1 59.9
1970 13,213 21.5 78.5
1975 22,894 22.9 77.1
1980 40,813 7.1 73.7 19.2
1985 52,556 13.1 34.5 52.4
1990 82,350 9.9 51.8 38.3
1995 117,859 7.5 63.7 28.8
2000 156,511 5.7 70.7 23.6
2005 189,663 4.2 75.6 20.2 0.042
2010 207,385 3.5 76.7 19.3 0.493 0.0030
2011 213,042 3.2 77.0 19.0 0.719 0.0179
2012 211,708 4.0 76.8 18.4 0.704 0.0654
2013 213,429 4.0 76.3 18.8 0.758 0.1411
2014 219,224 3.4 77.1 18.6 0.678 0.2334
2015 219,104 3.4 79.5 16.0 0.686 0.370 0.001
2016 225,793 4.3 81.0 13.5 0.641 0.473 0.001
2017 231,076 3.8 85.4 9.3 0.733 0.701 0.001
2018 233,289 3.3 83.4 11.4 0.704 1.141 0.002
Power consumption
Year Industry (%) Residential/commercial (%)
1952 75.9 24.1
1955 77.3 22.7
1960 81.2 18.8
1965 80.3 19.7
1970 77.2 22.8
1975 75.9 24.1
1980 75.9 24.1
1985 72.9 27.1
1990 69.7 30.3
1995 65.4 34.6
2000 66.5 33.5
2005 67.1 32.9
2010 69.4 30.6
2011 69.6 30.4
2012 70.1 29.9
2013 70.6 29.4
2014 70.2 29.8
2015 70.4 29.6
2016 70.0 30.0
2017 70.5 29.5
2018 71.0 29.0

TOP   HOME

===== ===== ===== =====

The ROC postal codes (with numerical index)

3 digits, 5 digits—and now also 6 digits

Anybody who has lived in Taiwan for a while or corresponded with persons, organizations or businesses residing in Taiwan will discover sooner or later that addresses sometimes come with a 3-digit postal code and sometimes with a 5-digit postal code. In fact, since Feb. 1, 1991 any address in the Taiwan area is supposed to have a 5-digit postal code.

Lists detailling the locations in the Taiwan area with their respective 3-digit postal code fit on an A4 page and are readily available because they are often printed in small script on the back side of standard letter envelopes sold in stationary shops. A location's correct 5-digit postal code is a little bit more complicated to determine. The Chunghwa Post publishes and regularly updates a directory (Title in Chinese: 台灣地區 3+2 碼郵遞區號簿) containing the 5-digit postal codes for all addresses in the Taiwan area, but most people don't own a copy of the directory (and nowadays there are specialized online search engines for that purpose available anyway), and likewise few people bother checking the copy available in their post office. According to the directory, the first three digits represent the third-level administrative district number (xingzhengqu bianhao 行政區編號) of the respective location like "100" for Taipei's Zhongzheng District 中正區, and their use is required for sending items with regular mail. The last two digits represent the delivery zone number (toudi quduan xuhao 投遞區段序號) or the delivery special-use number (toudi zhuanyong haoma 投遞專用號碼) for bigger customers, and using them is optional but will speed the delivery of mailed items.

On March 3, 2020 the Chunghwa Post launched a new system called “3+3 ZIP Code System” (san jia san ma youdi quhao  3+3 碼郵遞區號) to improve the efficiency of mail processing. With the new system in effect, the first 3 numbers of the ZIP code remain unchanged, while the last 3 numbers (“Delivery Zone Code”) are extended to 3-digit from 2-digit in order to simplify the handling process, increase mail sorting efficiency, and improve delivery accuracy. The official announcement of Chunghwa Post in this context can be found here, for the online ZIP code directory click here.

Please note that the first digit in each ROC postal code indicates to which of the country's nine large postal zones (da youdiqu 大郵遞區) it belongs.

Nine large postal zones of the ROC

First digitCity / county
 1Taipei City
 2Keelung City, New Taipei City, Yilan County, Lienchiang County (= Matsu)
 3Taoyuan City, Hsinchu City, Hsinchu County, Miaoli County
 4Taichung City
 5Changhua County, Nantou County
 6Yunlin County, Chiayi City, Chiayi County
 7Tainan City
 8Kaohsiung City, Penghu County, Kinmen County
 9Pingtung County, Hualien County, Taitung County

The following list shows the 3-digit postal codes for all districts, cities, urban townships  and rural townships   under ROC special municipalities and county-level cities and counties in numerical order. = districts; = cities, = urban townships, = rural townships.

ROC postal index—an overview

City / countyROC postal code(s)
Taipei City100–116 12
Keelung City200–206 7
New Taipei City207–253 29
Lienchiang County209–212 0 0 4
Yilan County260–272 1 3 8
Diaoyutai []290
Hsinchu City300 3
Hsinchu County302–315 1 3 9
Taoyuan City320–338 13
Miaoli County350–369 1 6 11
Taichung City400–439 29
Changhua County500–530 1 7 18
Nantou County540–558 1 4 8
Chiayi City600 2
Chiayi County602–625 2 2 14
Yunlin County630–655 1 5 14
Tainan City700–745 37
Kaohsiung City800–852 38
Penghu County880–885 1 0 5
Kinmen County890–896 0 3 3
Pingtung County900–947 1 3 29
Taitung County950–966 1 2 13
Hualien County970–983 1 2 10

Altogether, the ROC has 365 three-digit postal codes, including 170 districts in special municipalities plus 12 cities, 40 urban townships and 146 rural townships in county-level cities and counties. The number of postal codes is not identical with the sum of administrative districts in the ROC which stands at 368—the three districts in Hsinchu City have the same postal code (300), as have the two districts in Chiayi City (600). Not included in these figures are three additional postal codes—Diaoyutai (290) under Yilan County as well as the South China Sea islands Pratas Islands (817) and Taiping/Spratly Islands (819) under Kaohsiung City.

Remarks about postal codes for Taichung, Tainan and Kaohsiung before Dec. 25, 2010—Taichung City: 400–408, ~ County: 411–439; Tainan City: 700–709, ~ County: 710–745; and Kaohsiung City: 800–813, ~ County: 814–852.

TOP   HOME

Detailed ROC postal index

Taipei City 台北市: 12 districts

100 Zhongzheng District 中正區
103 Datong District 大同區
104 Zhongshan District 中山區
105 Songshan District 松山區
106 Da'an District 大安區
108 Wanhua District 萬華區
110 Xinyi District 信義區
111 Shilin District 士林區
112 Beitou District 北投區
114 Neihu District 內湖區
115 Nangang District 南港區
116 Wenshan District 文山區

Keelung City 基隆市: 7 districts

200 Ren'ai District 仁愛區
201 Xinyi District 信義區
202 Zhongzheng District 中正區 *
203 Zhongshan District 中山區
204 Anle District 安樂區
205 Nuannuan District 暖暖區
206 Qidu District 七堵區

* 202 (Zhongzheng District) includes Heping Island 和平島, Keelung Islet 基隆嶼, and the Three Northern Islets 北方三島.

New Taipei City 新北市: 29 districts

207 Wanli District 萬里區
208 Jinshan District 金山區
235 Zhonghe District 中和區
236 Tucheng District 土城區
237 Sanxia District 三峽區
238 Shulin District 樹林區
239 Yingge District 鶯歌區
241 Sanchong District 三重區
242 Xinzhuang District 新莊區
243 Taishan District 泰山區
244 Linkou District 林口區
247 Luzhou District 蘆洲區
248 Wugu District 五股區
249 Bali District 八里區
251 Danshui District 淡水區
252 Sanzhi District 三芝區
253 Shimen District 石門區
220 Banqiao District 板橋區
221 Xizhi District 汐止區
222 Shenkeng District 深坑區
223 Shiding District 石碇區
224 Ruifang District 瑞芳區
226 Pingxi District 平溪區
227 Shuangxi District 雙溪區
228 Gongliao District 貢寮區
231 Xindian District 新店區
232 Pinglin District 坪林區
233 Wulai District 烏來區
234 Yonghe District 永和區

Lienchiang County 連江縣: 0 cities, 0 urban townships, 4 rural townships

209 Nan'gan Township 南竿鄉
210 Beigan Township 北竿鄉
211 Juguang Township 莒光鄉
212 Dongyin Township 東引鄉

Yilan County 宜蘭縣: 1 city, 3 urban townships, 8 rural townships

260 Yilan City 宜蘭市
261 Toucheng Township 頭城鎮 *
262 Jiaoxi Township 礁溪鄉
263 Zhuangwei Township 壯圍鄉
264 Yuanshan Township 員山鄉
265 Luodong Township 羅東鎮
266 Sanxing Township 三星鄉
267 Datong Township 大同鄉
268 Wujie Township 五結鄉
269 Dongshan Township 冬山鄉
270 Su'ao Township 蘇澳鎮
272 Nan'ao Township 南澳鄉

* 261 (Toucheng Township) includes Guishan Island 龜山島.

Note: Although the Diaoyutai Islands (Diaoyutai lieyu 釣魚臺列嶼) are formally listed with the postal code of 290 under Toucheng Township's Daxi Borough 大溪里 of Yilan County, Chunghwa Post does not offer postal services there and doesn’t provide delivery of mailed items to the uninhabited, Japan-controlled archipelago. For more information about the Diaoyutai Islands please refer to the page Local administration, chapter Yilan County, “Disputed outpost”.

Hsinchu City 新竹市: 3 districts

300 East District 東區
300 North District 北區
300 Xiangshan District 香山區

Hsinchu County 新竹縣: 1 city, 3 urban townships, 9 rural townships

302 Zhubei City 竹北市
303 Hukou Township 湖口鄉
304 Xinfeng Township 新豐鄉
305 Xinpu Township 新埔鎮
306 Guanxi Township 關西鎮
307 Qionglin Township 芎林鄉
308 Baoshan Township 寶山鄉
310 Zhudong Township 竹東鎮
311 Wufeng Township 五峰鄉
312 Hengshan Township 橫山鄉
313 Jianshi Township 尖石鄉
314 Beipu Township 北埔鄉
315 Emei Township 峨眉鄉

Taoyuan City 桃園市: 13 districts

320 Zhongli District 中壢區
324 Pingzhen District 平鎮區
325 Longtan District 龍潭區
326 Yangmei District 楊梅區
327 Xinwu District 新屋區
328 Guanyin District 觀音區
330 Taoyuan District 桃園區
333 Guishan District 龜山區
334 Bade District 八德區
335 Daxi District 大溪區
336 Fuxing District 復興區
337 Dayuan District 大園區
338 Luzhu District 蘆竹區

Miaoli County 苗栗縣: 1 city, 6 urban townships, 11 rural townships

350 Zhunan Township 竹南鎮
351 Toufen Township 頭份鎮
352 Sanwan Township 三灣鄉
353 Nanzhuang Township 南庄鄉
354 Shitan Township 獅潭鄉
356 Houlong Township 後龍鎮
357 Tongxiao Township 通霄鎮
358 Yuanli Township 苑裡鎮
360 Miaoli City 苗栗市
361 Zaoqiao Township 造橋鄉
362 Touwu Township 頭屋鄉
363 Gongguan Township 公館鄉
364 Dahu Township 大湖鄉
365 Tai'an Township 泰安鄉
366 Tongluo Township 銅鑼鄉
367 Sanyi Township 三義鄉
368 Xihu Township 西湖鄉
369 Zhuolan Township 卓蘭鎮

Taichung City 台中市: 29 districts [8 old]

400 Central District 中區
401 East District 東區
402 South District 南區
403 West District 西區
404 North District 北區
406 Beitun District 北屯區
407 Xitun District 西屯區
408 Nantun District 南屯區
422 Shigang District 石岡區
423 Dongshi District 東勢區
424 Heping District 和平區
426 Xinshe District 新社區
427 Tanzi District 潭子區
428 Daya District 大雅區
429 Shengang District 神岡區
432 Dadu District 大肚區
433 Shalu District 沙鹿區
434 Longjing District 龍井區
435 Wuqi District 梧棲區
436 Qingshui District 清水區
437 Dajia District 大甲區
438 Waipu District 外埔區
439 Da'an District 大安區
411 Taiping District 太平區
412 Dali District 大里區
413 Wufeng District 霧峰區
414 Wuri District 烏日區
420 Fengyuan District 豐原區
421 Houli District 后里區

Changhua County 彰化縣: 1 city, 7 urban townships, 18 rural townships

500 Changhua City 彰化市
502 Fenyuan Township 芬園鄉
503 Huatan Township 花壇鄉
504 Xiushui Township 秀水鄉
505 Lugang Township 鹿港鎮
506 Fuxing Township 福興鄉
507 Xianxi Township 線西鄉
508 Hemei Township 和美鎮
509 Shengang Township 伸港鄉
510 Yuanlin Township 員林鎮
511 Shetou Township 社頭鄉
512 Yongjing Township 永靖鄉
513 Puxin Township 埔心鄉
514 Xihu Township 溪湖鎮
515 Dacun Township 大村鄉
516 Puyan Township 埔鹽鄉
520 Tianzhong Township 田中鎮
521 Beidou Township 北斗鎮
522 Tianwei Township 田尾鄉
523 Pitou Township 埤頭鄉
524 Xizhou Township 溪州鄉
525 Zhutang Township 竹塘鄉
526 Erlin Township 二林鎮
527 Dacheng Township 大城鄉
528 Fangyuan Township 芳苑鄉
530 Ershui Township 二水鄉

Nantou County 南投縣: 1 city, 4 urban townships, 8 rural townships

540 Nantou City 南投市
541 Zhongliao Township 中寮鄉
542 Caotun Township 草屯鎮
544 Guoxing Township 國姓鄉
545 Puli Township 埔里鎮
546 Ren'ai Township 仁愛鄉
551 Mingjian Township 名間鄉
552 Jiji Township 集集鎮
553 Shuili Township 水里鄉
555 Yuchi Township 魚池鄉
556 Xinyi Township 信義鄉
557 Zhushan Township 竹山鎮
558 Lugu Township 鹿谷鄉

Chiayi City 嘉義市: 2 districts

600 East District 東區 600 West District 西區

Chiayi County 嘉義縣: 2 cities, 2 urban townships, 14 rural townships

602 Fanlu Township 番路鄉
603 Meishan Township 梅山鄉
604 Zhuqi Township 竹崎鄉
605 Alishan Township 阿里山鄉
606 Zhongpu Township 中埔鄉
607 Dapu Township 大埔鄉
608 Shuishang Township 水上鄉
611 Lucao Township 鹿草鄉
612 Taibao City 太保市
613 Puzi City 朴子市
614 Dongshi Township 東石鄉
615 Liujiao Township 六腳鄉
616 Xingang Township 新港鄉
621 Minxiong Township 民雄鄉
622 Dalin Township 大林鎮
623 Xikou Township 溪口鄉
624 Yizhu Township 義竹鄉
625 Budai Township 布袋鎮

Yunlin County 雲林縣: 1 city, 5 urban townships, 14 rural townships

630 Dounan Township 斗南鎮
631 Dapi Township 大埤鄉
632 Huwei Township 虎尾鎮
633 Tuku Township 土庫鎮
634 Baozhong Township 褒忠鄉
635 Dongshi Township 東勢鄉
636 Taixi Township 台西鄉
637 Lunbei Township 崙背鄉
638 Mailiao Township 麥寮鄉
640 Douliu City 斗六市
643 Linnei Township 林內鄉
646 Gukeng Township 古坑鄉
647 Citong Township 莿桐鄉
648 Xiluo Township 西螺鎮
649 Erlun Township 二崙鄉
651 Beigang Township 北港鎮
652 Shuilin Township 水林鄉
653 Kouhu Township 口湖鄉
654 Sihu Township 四湖鄉
655 Yuanchang Township 元長鄉

Tainan City 台南市: 37 districts [6 old]

700 West Central District 中西區
701 East District 東區
702 South District 南區
704 North District 北區
708 Anping District 安平區
709 Annan District 安南區
722 Jiali District 佳里區
723 Xigang District 西港區
724 Qigu District 七股區
725 Jiangjun District 將軍區
726 Xuejia District 學甲區
727 Beimen District 北門區
730 Xinying District 新營區
731 Houbi District 後壁區
732 Baihe District 白河區
733 Dongshan District 東山區
734 Liujia District 六甲區
735 Xiaying District 下營區
736 Liuying District 柳營區
737 Yanshui District 鹽水區
741 Shanhua District 善化區
742 Danei District 大內區
743 Shanshang District 山上區
744 Xinshi District 新市區
745 Anding District 安定區
710 Yongkang District 永康區
711 Guiren District 歸仁區
712 Xinhua District 新化區
713 Zuozhen District 左鎮區
714 Yujing District 玉井區
715 Nanxi District 楠西區
716 Nanhua District 南化區
717 Rende District 仁德區
718 Guanmiao District 關廟區
719 Longqi District 龍崎區
720 Guantian District 官田區
721 Madou District 麻豆區

Kaohsiung City 高雄市: 38 districts [11 old]

800 Xinxing District 新興區
801 Qianjin District 前金區
802 Lingya District 苓雅區
803 Yancheng District 鹽埕區
804 Gushan District 鼓山區
805 Qijin District 旗津區
806 Qianzhen District 前鎮區
807 Sanmin District 三民區
811 Nanzi District 楠梓區
812 Xiaogang District 小港區
813 Zuoying District 左營區
826 Ziguan District 梓官區
827 Mituo District 彌陀區
828 Yong'an District 永安區
829 Hunei District 湖內區
830 Fengshan District 鳳山區
831 Daliao District 大寮區
832 Linyuan District 林園區
833 Niaosong District 鳥松區
840 Dashu District 大樹區
842 Qishan District 旗山區
843 Meinong District 美濃區
844 Liugui District 六龜區
845 Neimen District 內門區
846 Shanlin District 杉林區
847 Jiaxian District 甲仙區
848 Taoyuan District 桃源區
849 Namaxia District 那瑪夏區
851 Maolin District 茂林區
852 Qieding District 茄萣區
814 Renwu District 仁武區
815 Dashe District 大社區
820 Gangshan District 岡山區
821 Luzhu District 路竹區
822 Alian District 阿蓮區
823 Tianliao District 田寮區
824 Yanchao District 燕巢區
825 Qiaotou District 橋頭區

Note: Two entities referred to as South China Sea Islands (nanhai zhudao 南海諸島)—Pratas Islands 東沙 with the postal code 817, and Taiping/Spratly Islands 南沙 with the postal code 819—have no regular civilian population and administratively belong to Zhongxing Borough 中興里 in Kaohsiung's Qijin District (805).

Penghu County 澎湖縣: 1 city, 0 urban townships, 5 rural townships

880 Magong City 馬公市
881 Xiyu Township 西嶼鄉
882 Wang'an Township 望安鄉
883 Qimei Township 七美鄉
884 Baisha Township 白沙鄉
885 Huxi Township 湖西鄉

Kinmen County 金門縣: 0 cities, 3 urban townships, 3 rural townships

890 Jinsha Township 金沙鎮
891 Jinhu Township 金湖鎮
892 Jinning Township 金寧鄉
893 Jincheng Township 金城鎮
894 Lieyu Township 烈嶼鄉
896 Wuqiu Township 烏坵鄉

Pingtung County 屏東縣: 1 city, 3 urban townships, 29 rural townships

900 Pingtung City 屏東市
901 Sandimen Township 三地門鄉
902 Wutai Township 霧台鄉
903 Majia Township 瑪家鄉
904 Jiuru Township 九如鄉
905 Ligang Township 里港鄉
906 Gaoshu Township 高樹鄉
907 Yanpu Township 鹽埔鄉
908 Changzhi Township 長治鄉
909 Linluo Township 麟洛鄉
911 Zhutian Township 竹田鄉
912 Neipu Township 內埔鄉
913 Wandan Township 萬丹鄉
920 Chaozhou Township 潮州鎮
921 Taiwu Township 泰武鄉
922 Laiyi Township 來義鄉
923 Wanluan Township 萬巒鄉
924 Kanding Township 崁頂鄉
925 Xinpi Township 新埤鄉
926 Nanzhou Township 南州鄉
927 Linbian Township 林邊鄉
928 Donggang Township 東港鎮
929 Liuqiu Township 琉球鄉
931 Jiadong Township 佳冬鄉
932 Xinyuan Township 新園鄉
940 Fangliao Township 枋寮鄉
941 Fangshan Township 枋山鄉
942 Chunri Township 春日鄉
943 Shizi Township 獅子鄉
944 Checheng Township 車城鄉
945 Mudan Township 牡丹鄉
946 Hengchun Township 恆春鎮
947 Manzhou Township 滿州鄉

Taitung County 台東縣: 1 city, 2 urban townships, 13 rural townships

950 Taitung City 台東市
951 Ludao Township 綠島鄉
952 Lanyu Township 蘭嶼鄉
953 Yanping Township 延平鄉
954 Beinan Township 卑南鄉
955 Luye Township 鹿野鄉
956 Guanshan Township 關山鎮
957 Haiduan Township 海端鄉
958 Chishang Township 池上鄉
959 Donghe Township 東河鄉
961 Chenggong Township 成功鎮
962 Changbin Township 長濱鄉
963 Taimali Township 太麻里鄉
964 Jinfeng Township 金峰鄉
965 Dawu Township 大武鄉
966 Daren Township 達仁鄉

Hualien County 花蓮縣: 1 city, 2 urban townships, 10 rural townships

970 Hualien City 花蓮市
971 Xincheng Township 新城鄉
972 Xiulin Township 秀林鄉
973 Ji'an Township 吉安鄉
974 Shoufeng Township 壽豐鄉
975 Fenglin Township 鳳林鎮
976 Guangfu Township 光復鄉
977 Fengbin Township 豐濱鄉
978 Ruisui Township 瑞穗鄉
979 Wanrong Township 萬榮鄉
981 Yuli Township 玉里鎮
982 Zhuoxi Township 卓溪鄉
983 Fuli Township 富里鄉

Please note that the order of the 3-digit ROC postal codes features one peculiarity—in the succession of postal codes between 200 and 253, Keelung City comes first with the postal codes 200–206, continued with the districts of Wanli 萬里 and Jinshan 金山 in New Taipei City which have the postal codes 207 and 208, respectively, followed by Lienchiang County with the postal codes 209–212 and then the rest of New Taipei City with the postal codes 220–253. This seemingly odd sequence was caused by the historic development: When Taiwan was ruled by the Japanese, Wanli and Jinshan were in 1920 both made part of Kirun District under Taihoku Prefecture (Taibei zhou Jilong jun 台北州基隆郡 Taihoku shū Kīrun gun), i. e. Keelung. After WWII they were initially placed under Keelung District of Taipei County (Taibei xian Jilong qu 臺北縣基隆區), but by 1950 they had become part of Taipei County and separated from Keelung City.

[The respective areas in km²—Keelung City: 132.7589, Wanli District: 63.3766, Jinshan District: 49.2132]

TOP   HOME

===== ===== ===== =====

The ROC calendar

The ROC has traditionally been using a method for counting the years that was retained from the system which was common before 1912. In Imperial China, the years were counted according to the reign of the ruling emperor (nianhao 年號). When an emperor died, the following year was counted as the first year of the succeeding emperor. Accordingly, after the establishment of the ROC on Jan. 1, 1912, that year was counted as Year One of the Republic (minguo yi nian 民國 1 ), 1913 as Year Two of the Republic (minguo er nian 民國 2 ) and so on. Today's ROC continues using this ancient system, e. g. in official forms. Many elderly Taiwanese are still not familiar with the year numbers of the Gregorian calendar, although the Western system has become more popular among younger Taiwanese since the hype surrounding the year 2000 ("Y2K").

A.D. ROC A.D. ROC A.D. ROC
1912 民國 1 年 1952 民國 41 年 1992 民國 81 年
1913 民國 2 年 1953 民國 42 年 1993 民國 82 年
1914 民國 3 年 1954 民國 43 年 1994 民國 83 年
1915 民國 4 年 1955 民國 44 年 1995 民國 84 年
1916 民國 5 年 1956 民國 45 年 1996 民國 85 年
1917 民國 6 年 1957 民國 46 年 1997 民國 86 年
1918 民國 7 年 1958 民國 47 年 1998 民國 87 年
1919 民國 8 年 1959 民國 48 年 1999 民國 88 年
1920 民國 9 年 1960 民國 49 年 2000 民國 89 年
1921 民國 10 年 1961 民國 50 年 2001 民國 90 年
1922 民國 11 年 1962 民國 51 年 2002 民國 91 年
1923 民國 12 年 1963 民國 52 年 2003 民國 92 年
1924 民國 13 年 1964 民國 53 年 2004 民國 93 年
1925 民國 14 年 1965 民國 54 年 2005 民國 94 年
1926 民國 15 年 1966 民國 55 年 2006 民國 95 年
1927 民國 16 年 1967 民國 56 年 2007 民國 96 年
1928 民國 17 年 1968 民國 57 年 2008 民國 97 年
1929 民國 18 年 1969 民國 58 年 2009 民國 98 年
1930 民國 19 年 1970 民國 59 年 2010 民國 99 年
1931 民國 20 年 1971 民國 60 年 2011 民國 100 年
1932 民國 21 年 1972 民國 61 年 2012 民國 101 年
1933 民國 22 年 1973 民國 62 年 2013 民國 102 年
1934 民國 23 年 1974 民國 63 年 2014 民國 103 年
1935 民國 24 年 1975 民國 64 年 2015 民國 104 年
1936 民國 25 年 1976 民國 65 年 2016 民國 105 年
1937 民國 26 年 1977 民國 66 年 2017 民國 106 年
1938 民國 27 年 1978 民國 67 年 2018 民國 107 年
1939 民國 28 年 1979 民國 68 年 2019 民國 108 年
1940 民國 29 年 1980 民國 69 年 2020 民國 109 年
1941 民國 30 年 1981 民國 70 年 2021 民國 110 年
1942  民國 31 年  1982  民國 71 年  2022  民國 111 年 
1943 民國 32 年 1983 民國 72 年
1944 民國 33 年 1984 民國 73 年
1945 民國 34 年 1985 民國 74 年
1946 民國 35 年 1986 民國 75 年
1947 民國 36 年 1987 民國 76 年
1948 民國 37 年 1988 民國 77 年
1949 民國 38 年 1989 民國 78 年
1950 民國 39 年 1990 民國 79 年
1951 民國 40 年 1991 民國 80 年

TOP   HOME

Before the ROC

In today's Taiwan, biographies in official records have yet another method to refer to the years prior to the Hsinhai Revolution—the "year before the Republic" (minguoqian 民國前). Since that method applies to years in the last decades of the Qing dynasty (1644-1911), those years would have two denominations, i. e. its respective year before the republic and its reign year of the Qing emperor. The last five Qing emperors were Daoguang 道光, Xianfeng 咸豐, Tongzhi 同治, Guangxu 光緒, and Xuantong 宣統.

Emperor Born Ascension Died Reign Year 1 Lunar New Year
Daoguang 1782, Sept. 16 1820, Oct. 3 1850, Feb. 25 1821 1821—Feb. 3
Xianfeng 1831, July 17 1850, March 9 1861, Aug. 22 1851 1851—Feb. 1
Tongzhi 1856, April 27 1861, Nov. 11 1875, Jan. 12 1862 1862—Jan. 30
Guangxu 1871, Aug. 14 1875, Feb. 25 1908, Nov. 14 1875 1875—Feb. 6
Xuantong 1906, Feb. 7 1908, Dec. 2 1967, Oct. 17 1909 1909—Jan. 22

Please note that among those five emperors, only in the case of Guangxu the first year of the new ruler's reign (as counted in the solar calendar) was the same as the year of his actual ascension, because when his predecessor died in 1875, the date of Tongzhi's death (Jan. 12) was shortly before Lunar New Year (Feb. 6) that year.

Therefore, according to the counting method of year before the republic, 1911 was not only emperor Xuantong's year 3, but also the year 1 before the Republic (minguoqian yinian 民國前一年), 1900 the year 12 before the Republic and so on, as years prior to 1912 can be counted backwards in that manner. The table below shows the data for the last five decades of the Qing dynasty.

Before ROC Qing Dynasty A. D. Before ROC Qing Dynasty A. D.
民國前 1 年 清宣統 3 年 1911 民國前 26 年 清光緒 12 年 1886
民國前 2 年 清宣統 2 年 1910 民國前 27 年 清光緒 11 年 1885
民國前 3 年 清宣統元年 1909 民國前 28 年 清光緒 10 年 1884
民國前 4 年 清光緒 34 年 1908 民國前 29 年 清光緒 9 年 1883
民國前 5 年 清光緒 33 年 1907 民國前 30 年 清光緒 8 年 1882
民國前 6 年 清光緒 32 年 1906 民國前 31 年 清光緒 7 年 1881
民國前 7 年 清光緒 31 年 1905 民國前 32 年 清光緒 6 年 1880
民國前 8 年 清光緒 30 年 1904 民國前 33 年 清光緒 5 年 1879
民國前 9 年 清光緒 29 年 1903 民國前 34 年 清光緒 4 年 1878
民國前 10 年 清光緒 28 年 1902 民國前 35 年 清光緒 3 年 1877
民國前 11 年 清光緒 27 年 1901 民國前 36 年 清光緒 2 年 1876
民國前 12 年 清光緒 26 年 1900 民國前 37 年 清光緒元年 1875
民國前 13 年 清光緒 25 年 1899 民國前 38 年 清同治 13 年 1874
民國前 14 年 清光緒 24 年 1898 民國前 39 年 清同治 12 年 1873
民國前 15 年 清光緒 23 年 1897 民國前 40 年 清同治 11 年 1872
民國前 16 年 清光緒 22 年 1896 民國前 41 年 清同治 10 年 1871
民國前 17 年 清光緒 21 年 1895 民國前 42 年 清同治 9 年 1870
民國前 18 年 清光緒 20 年 1894 民國前 43 年 清同治 8 年 1869
民國前 19 年 清光緒 19 年 1893 民國前 44 年 清同治 7 年 1868
民國前 20 年 清光緒 18 年 1892 民國前 45 年 清同治 6 年 1867
民國前 21 年 清光緒 17 年 1891 民國前 46 年 清同治 5 年 1866
民國前 22 年 清光緒 16 年 1890 民國前 47 年 清同治 4 年 1865
民國前 23 年 清光緒 15 年 1889 民國前 48 年 清同治 3 年 1864
民國前 24 年 清光緒 14 年 1888 民國前 49 年 清同治 2 年 1863
民國前 25 年  清光緒 13 年  1887  民國前 50 年  清同治元年  1862 

Pronunciation examples in above table:
1911—minguo qian yinian 民國前 1 年 / Qing Xuantong sannian 清宣統 3 年;
1909—minguo qian san nian 民國前 3 年 / Qing Xuantong yuannian 清宣統元年;
1875—minguo qian sanshiqi nian 民國前 37 年 / Qing Guangxu yuannian 清光緒元年;
1862—minguo qian wushi nian 民國前 50 年 / Qing Tongzhi yuannian 清同治元年.

TOP   HOME

The Ganzhi cycle and its terminology

Although China adopted the Gregorian solar calendar in the 20th century, the traditional Chinese lunar calendar (nongli 農曆) is still widely used. Major holidays like Lunar New Year/Spring Festival (chunjie 春節 / guonian 過年), the Lantern Festival (yuanxiaojie 元宵節), the Dragon Boat Festival (duanwujie 端午節) and the Mid-Autumn Festival/Moon Festival (zhongqiujie 中秋節) are observed according to the lunar calendar.

China's lunar calendar consists of a 60-year cycle based on the ganzhi 干支 system. Ganzhi literally means "stem branch" and stands for a combination of the "Ten Heavenly Stems" (tiangan 天干) with the "Twelve Earthly Branches" (dizhi 地支).

The Ten Heavenly Stems represent the Five Primary Elements (wuxing 五行)—wood (mu 木), fire (huo 火), earth (tu 土), metal (jin 金), and water (shui 水)—with their respective Yin (陰) or Yang (陽) aspect:

1. jia = Yang wood 6. ji = Yin earth
2. yi = Yin wood 7. geng = Yang metal
3. bing = Yang fire 8. xin = Yin metal
4. ding = Yin fire 9. ren = Yang water
5. wu = Yang earth 10. gui = Yin water

The Twelve Earthly Branches represent the 12 animals signs of the Chinese zodiac (shengxiao 生肖):

zi = Rat (shu 鼠)
wu = Horse (ma 馬)
chou = Ox (niu 牛) wei = Sheep (yang 羊)
yin = Tiger (hu 虎) shen = Monkey (hou 猴)
mao = Rabbit (tu 兔) you = Rooster (ji 雞)
chen = Dragon (long 龍) xu = Dog (gou 狗)
si = Snake (she 蛇) hai = Pig (zhu 豬)

The First Chinese-Japanese War which broke out in 1894 is called Jiawu zhanzheng 甲午戰爭 in Chinese because that year had the ganzhi designation jiawu 甲午 (i. e. year of the horse, element wood, aspect yang). The name of the 1911 Hsinhai Revolution (xinhai geming 辛亥革命) refers to the ganzhi designation xinhai 辛亥 (year of the pig, element metal, aspect yin) of that year.

Ganzhi Years (A. D.)
gengzi 庚子 1780, 1840, 1900, 1960, 2020, 2080, ...
xinchou 辛丑 1781, 1841, 1901, 1961, 2021, 2081, ...
renyin 壬寅 1782, 1842, 1902, 1962, 2022, 2082, ...
guimao 癸卯 1783, 1843, 1903, 1963, 2023, 2083, ...
jiachen 甲辰 1784, 1844, 1904, 1964, 2024, 2084, ...
yisi 乙巳 1785, 1845, 1905, 1965, 2025, 2085, ...
bingwu 丙午 1786, 1846, 1906, 1966, 2026, 2086, ...
dingwei 丁未 1787, 1847, 1907, 1967, 2027, 2087, ...
wushen 戊申 1788, 1848, 1908, 1968, 2028, 2088, ...
jiyou 己酉 1789, 1849, 1909, 1969, 2029, 2089, ...
gengxu 庚戌 1790, 1850, 1910, 1970, 2030, 2090, ...
xinhai 辛亥 1791, 1851, 1911, 1971, 2031, 2091, ...
renzi 壬子 1792, 1852, 1912, 1972, 2032, 2092, ...
guichou 癸丑 1793, 1853, 1913, 1973, 2033, 2093, ...
jiayin 甲寅 1794, 1854, 1914, 1974, 2034, 2094, ...
yimao 乙卯 1795, 1855, 1915, 1975, 2035, 2095, ...
bingchen 丙辰 1796, 1856, 1916, 1976, 2036, 2096, ...
dingsi 丁巳 1797, 1857, 1917, 1977, 2037, 2097, ...
wuwu 戊午 1798, 1858, 1918, 1978, 2038, 2098, ...
jiwei 己未 1799, 1859, 1919, 1979, 2039, 2099, ...
gengshen 庚申 1800, 1860, 1920, 1980, 2040, 2100, ...
xinyou 辛酉 1801, 1861, 1921, 1981, 2041, 2101, ...
renxu 壬戌 1802, 1862, 1922, 1982, 2042, 2102, ...
guihai 癸亥 1803, 1863, 1923, 1983, 2043, 2103, ...
jiazi 甲子 1804, 1864, 1924, 1984, 2044, 2104, ...
yichou 乙丑 1805, 1865, 1925, 1985, 2045, 2105, ...
bingyin 丙寅 1806, 1866, 1926, 1986, 2046, 2106, ...
dingmao 丁卯 1807, 1867, 1927, 1987, 2047, 2107, ...
wuchen 戊辰 1808, 1868, 1928, 1988, 2048, 2108, ...
jisi 己巳 1809, 1869, 1929, 1989, 2049, 2109, ...
gengwu 庚午 1810, 1870, 1930, 1990, 2050, 2110, ...
xinwei 辛未 1811, 1871, 1931, 1991, 2051, 2111, ...
renshen 壬申 1812, 1872, 1932, 1992, 2052, 2112, ...
guiyou 癸酉 1813, 1873, 1933, 1993, 2053, 2113, ...
jiaxu 甲戌 1814, 1874, 1934, 1994, 2054, 2114, ...
yihai 乙亥 1815, 1875, 1935, 1995, 2055, 2115, ...
bingzi 丙子 1816, 1876, 1936, 1996, 2056, 2116, ...
dingchou 丁丑 1817, 1877, 1937, 1997, 2057, 2117, ...
wuyin 戊寅 1818, 1878, 1938, 1998, 2058, 2118, ...
jimao 己卯 1819, 1879, 1939, 1999, 2059, 2119, ...
gengchen 庚辰 1820, 1880, 1940, 2000, 2060, 2120, ...
xinsi 辛巳 1821, 1881, 1941, 2001, 2061, 2121, ...
renwu 壬午 1822, 1882, 1942, 2002, 2062, 2122, ...
guiwei 癸未 1823, 1883, 1943, 2003, 2063, 2123, ...
jiashen 甲申 1824, 1884, 1944, 2004, 2064, 2124, ...
yiyou 乙酉 1825, 1885, 1945, 2005, 2065, 2125, ...
bingxu 丙戌 1826, 1886, 1946, 2006, 2066, 2126, ...
dinghai 丁亥 1827, 1887, 1947, 2007, 2067, 2127, ...
wuzi 戊子 1828, 1888, 1948, 2008, 2068, 2128, ...
jichou 己丑 1829, 1889, 1949, 2009, 2069, 2129, ...
gengyin 庚寅 1830, 1890, 1950, 2010, 2070, 2130, ...
xinmao 辛卯 1831, 1891, 1951, 2011, 2071, 2131, ...
renchen 壬辰 1832, 1892, 1952, 2012, 2072, 2132, ...
guisi 癸巳 1833, 1893, 1953, 2013, 2073, 2133, ...
jiawu 甲午 1834, 1894, 1954, 2014, 2074, 2134, ...
yiwei 乙未 1835, 1895, 1955, 2015, 2075, 2135, ...
bingshen 丙申 1836, 1896, 1956, 2016, 2076, 2136, ...
dingyou 丁酉 1837, 1897, 1957, 2017, 2077, 2137, ...
wuxu 戊戌 1838, 1898, 1958, 2018, 2078, 2138, ...
jihai 己亥 1839, 1899, 1959, 2019, 2079, 2139, ...

TOP   HOME

The Lunar New Year

Lunar New Year (guonian 過年) aka Spring Festival (chunjie 春節) falls on the first day of the first lunar month. Between 1800 and 2100, Lunar New Year never came earlier than January 21 or later than February 20. Please note that "LNY" is sometimes used as abbreviation for Lunar New Year.

Lunar New Year 1800-1859

Year Date Year Date Year Date
1800 Jan. 25 1820 Feb. 14 1840 Feb. 3
1801 Feb. 13 1821 Feb. 3 1841 Jan. 23
1802 Feb. 3 1822 Jan. 23 1842 Feb. 10
1803 Jan. 23 1823 Feb. 11 1843 Jan. 30
1804 Feb. 11 1824 Jan. 31 1844 Feb. 18
1805 Jan. 31 1825 Feb. 18 1845 Feb. 7
1806 Feb. 18 1826 Feb. 7 1846 Jan. 27
1807 Feb. 7 1827 Jan. 27 1847 Feb. 15
1808 Jan. 28 1828 Feb. 15 1848 Feb. 5
1809 Feb. 14 1829 Feb. 4 1849 Jan. 24
1810 Feb. 4 1830 Jan. 25 1850 Feb. 12
1811 Jan. 25 1831 Feb. 13 1851 Feb. 1
1812 Feb. 13 1832 Feb. 2 1852 Feb. 20
1813 Feb. 1 1833 Feb. 20 1853 Feb. 8
1814 Jan. 21 1834 Feb. 9 1854 Jan. 29
1815 Feb. 9 1835 Jan. 29 1855 Feb. 17
1816 Jan. 29 1836 Feb. 17 1856 Feb. 6
1817 Feb. 16 1837 Feb. 5 1857 Jan. 26
1818 Feb. 5 1838 Jan. 26 1858 Feb. 14
1819 Jan. 26 1839 Feb. 14 1859 Feb. 3

Lunar New Year 1860-1919

Year Date Year Date Year Date
1860 Jan. 23 1880 Feb. 10 1900 Jan. 31
1861 Feb. 10 1881 Jan. 30 1901 Feb. 19
1862 Jan. 30 1882 Feb. 18 1902 Feb. 8
1863 Feb. 18 1883 Feb. 8 1903 Jan. 29
1864 Feb. 8 1884 Jan. 28 1904 Feb. 16
1865 Jan. 27 1885 Feb. 15 1905 Feb. 4
1866 Feb. 15 1886 Feb. 4 1906 Jan. 25
1867 Feb. 5 1887 Jan. 24 1907 Feb. 13
1868 Jan. 25 1888 Feb. 12 1908 Feb. 2
1869 Feb. 11 1889 Jan. 31 1909 Jan. 22
1870 Jan. 31 1890 Jan. 21 1910 Feb. 10
1871 Feb. 19 1891 Feb. 9 1911 Jan. 30
1872 Feb. 9 1892 Jan. 30 1912 Feb. 18
1873 Jan. 29 1893 Feb. 17 1913 Feb. 6
1874 Feb. 17 1894 Feb. 66 1914 Jan. 26
1875 Feb. 6 1895 Jan. 26 1915 Feb. 14
1876 Jan. 26 1896 Feb. 13 1916 Feb. 3
1877 Feb. 13 1897 Feb. 2 1917 Jan. 23
1878 Feb. 2 1898 Jan. 22 1918 Feb. 11
1879 Jan. 22 1899 Feb. 10 1919 Feb. 1

Lunar New Year 1920-1979

Year Date Year Date Year Date
1920 Feb. 20 1940 Feb. 8 1960 Jan. 28
1921 Feb. 8 1941 Jan. 27 1961 Feb. 15
1922 Jan. 28 1942 Feb. 15 1962 Feb. 5
1923 Feb. 16 1943 Feb. 5 1963 Jan. 25
1924 Feb. 5 1944 Jan. 25 1964 Feb. 13
1925 Jan. 24 1945 Feb. 13 1965 Feb. 2
1926 Feb. 13 1946 Feb. 2 1966 Jan. 21
1927 Feb. 2 1947 Jan. 22 1967 Feb. 9
1928 Jan. 23 1948 Feb. 10 1968 Jan. 30
1929 Feb. 10 1949 Jan. 29 1969 Feb. 17
1930 Jan. 30 1950 Feb. 17 1970 Feb. 6
1931 Feb. 17 1951 Feb. 6 1971 Jan. 27
1932 Feb. 6 1952 Jan. 27 1972 Feb. 15
1933 Jan. 26 1953 Feb. 14 1973 Feb. 3
1934 Feb. 14 1954 Feb. 3 1974 Jan. 23
1935 Feb. 4 1955 Jan. 24 1975 Feb. 11
1936 Jan. 24 1956 Feb. 12 1976 Jan. 31
1937 Feb. 11 1957 Jan. 31 1977 Feb. 18
1938 Jan. 31 1958 Feb. 18 1978 Feb. 7
1939 Feb. 19 1959 Feb. 8 1979 Jan. 28

Lunar New Year 1980-2039

Year Date Year Date Year Date
1980 Feb. 16 2000 Feb. 5 2020 Jan. 25
1981 Feb. 5 2001 Jan. 24 2021 Feb. 12
1982 Jan. 25 2002 Feb. 12 2022 Feb. 1
1983 Feb. 13 2003 Feb. 1 2023 Jan. 22
1984 Feb. 2 2004 Jan. 22 2024 Feb. 10
1985 Feb. 20 2005 Feb. 9 2025 Jan. 29
1986 Feb. 9 2006 Jan. 29 2026 Feb. 17
1987 Jan. 29 2007 Feb. 18 2027 Feb. 6
1988 Feb. 17 2008 Feb. 7 2028 Jan. 26
1989 Feb. 6 2009 Jan. 26 2029 Feb. 13
1990 Jan. 27 2010 Feb. 14 2030 Feb. 2
1991 Feb. 15 2011 Feb. 3 2031 Jan. 23
1992 Feb. 4 2012 Jan. 23 2032 Feb. 11
1993 Jan. 23 2013 Feb. 10 2033 Jan. 31
1994 Feb. 10 2014 Jan. 31 2034 Feb. 19
1995 Jan. 31 2015 Feb. 19 2035 Feb. 8
1996 Feb. 19 2016 Feb. 8 2036 Jan. 28
1997 Feb. 7 2017 Jan. 28 2037 Feb. 15
1998 Jan. 28 2018 Feb. 16 2038 Feb. 4
1999 Feb. 16 2019 Feb. 5 2039 Jan. 24

Lunar New Year 2040-2100

Year Date Year Date Year Date
2040 Feb. 12 2060 Feb. 2 2080 Jan. 22
2041 Feb. 1 2061 Jan. 21 2081 Feb. 9
2042 Jan. 22 2062 Feb. 9 2082 Jan. 29
2043 Feb. 10 2063 Jan. 29 2083 Feb. 17
2044 Jan. 30 2064 Feb. 17 2084 Feb. 6
2045 Feb. 17 2065 Feb. 5 2085 Jan. 26
2046 Feb. 6 2066 Jan. 26 2086 Feb. 14
2047 Jan. 26 2067 Feb. 14 2087 Feb. 3
2048 Feb. 14 2068 Feb. 3 2088 Jan. 24
2049 Feb. 2 2069 Jan. 23 2089 Feb. 10
2050 Jan. 23 2070 Feb. 11 2090 Jan. 30
2051 Feb. 11 2071 Jan. 31 2091 Feb. 18
2052 Feb. 1 2072 Feb. 19 2092 Feb. 7
2053 Feb. 19 2073 Feb. 7 2093 Jan. 27
2054 Feb. 8 2074 Jan. 27 2094 Feb. 15
2055 Jan. 28 2075 Feb. 15 2095 Feb. 5
2056 Feb. 15 2076 Feb. 5 2096 Jan. 25
2057 Feb. 4 2077 Jan. 24 2097 Feb. 12
2058 Jan. 24 2078 Feb. 12 2098 Feb. 1
2059 Feb. 12 2079 Feb. 2 2099 Jan. 21
2100 Feb. 9

For more details about the Lunar Calendar click here.

TOP   HOME

Overview of holidays in the ROC

In the course of the year, numerous holidays are celebrated in the ROC. Holidays based on cultural traditions are mostly observed according to the Lunar Calendar, while dates of holidays based on political or modern social events are usually determined following the Gregorian Calendar. Public holidays in the tables below are marked with a “✿”. Since 2015, any public holiday that falls on the weekend has the preceding or following workday designated as day off in compensation.

Holidays according to the Gregorian Calendar

DateHolidayRemarks
Jan. 1ROC Founding Day (Zhonghua minguo kaiguo jinianri 中華民國開國紀念日)
Feb. 28Peace Memorial Day (ererba heping jinianri 二二八和平紀念日)✿ Was declared a public holiday in 1997
March 8Women’s Day (funüjie 婦女節)
March 12Arbor Day (zhishujie 植樹節)Was also observed as Day of Dr. Sun Yat-sen’s Passing (guofu shishi jinianri 國父逝世紀念日)
March 29Youth Day (qingnianjie 青年節)Sometimes also referred to in English as Martyr’s Day
April 4Children’s Day (ertongjie 兒童節)
April 5Tomb Sweeping Day (qingmingjie 清明節 aka saomujie 掃墓節)
April 7Freedom of Expression Day (yanlun ziyouri 言論自由日)Observed since 2017 to commemorate the death of Nylon Cheng 鄭南榕
May 1Labour Day (laodongjie 勞動節)✿ An official holiday for blue-collar workers
May 4Literary Day (wenyijie 文藝節)
June 3Opium Suppression Movement Day (jinyanjie 禁菸節)
June 15National Police Day (jingchajie 警察節)
Aug. 1Indigenous People’s Day (Taiwan yuanzhu minzuri 台灣原住民族日
Aug. 8Father’s Day (fuqinjie 父親節 aka babajie 八八節 / 爸爸節)
Sept. 1Journalists Day (jizhejie 記者節)
Sept. 3Armed Forces Day (junrenjie 軍人節)
Sept. 28Teacher’s Day (jiaoshijie 教師節)Also celebrated as Confucius’ Birthday (Kongzi danchen jinianri 孔子誕辰紀念日)
Oct. 10National Day (guoqingri 國慶日 aka shuangshijie 雙十節)
Oct. 21Overseas Chinese Day (huaqiaojie 華僑節)
Oct. 25Taiwan Retrocession Day (Taiwan guangfujie 台灣光復節)
Oct. 31Chiang Kai-shek’s Birthday (xian zongtong Jiang gong danchen jinianri 先總統蔣公誕辰紀念日)Cancelled as a holiday in 2007
Nov. 12Sun Yat-sen Birthday (guofu danchen jinianri 國父誕辰紀念日)Was also observed as Cultural Renaissance Day (Zhonghua wenhua fuxingjie 中華文化復興節); cancelled as a holiday in 2016
Dec. 25Constitution Day (xingxian jinianri 行憲紀念日)

Notes
The date of Tomb Sweeping Day may vary as it is celebrated on the 15th day after the spring equinox (aka vernal equinox). Between 1975 and 2007 April 5 was also observed as Anniversary of Chiang Kai-shek’s Passing (xian zongtong Jiang gong shishi jinianri 先總統蔣公逝世紀念日).

Furthermore, there are other holidays with non-fixed dates according to the Gregorian Calendar, e. g. Farmers Day (nongminjie 農民節) which is observed at the beginning of spring, Mother’s Day (muqinjie 母親節) on the second Sunday in May, and the Tung Chih Festival which is observed on the winter solstice.

Eight astronomical events of the solar system—the beginning dates of the four seasons, the equinoxes and the solstices—are sometimes referred to as "Eight Festivals" (bajie 八節). The dates shown in the table directly below may vary depending on the year.

DateEvent DateEvent
Feb. 5Spring begins [lichun 立春] March 20Spring equinox [chunfen 春分]
May 5Summer begins [lixia 立夏] June 20/21Summer solstice [xiazhi 夏至]
Aug. 7Autumn begins [liqiu 立秋] Sept. 22/23Autumnal equinox [qiufen 秋分]
Nov. 7Winter begins [lidong 立冬] Dec. 21/22Winter solstice [dongzhi 冬至]

Holidays according to the Lunar Calendar

Dates of the Lunar Calendar are shown here like this—“1-15” stands for the fifteenth day of the first lunar month.

DateHolidayRemarks
1-1Lunar New Year (chunjie 春節 / guonian 過年)
1-15Lantern Festival (yuanxiaojie 元宵節)Also celebrated as Tourism Day (guanguangjie 觀光節)
2-2Earth God’s Birthday (tudigong danchen 土地公誕辰)
2-19Guan Yin’s Birthday (Guanyin danchen 觀音誕辰)Guan Yin is also known as the Goddess of Mercy
3-15God of Medicine’s Birthday (baosheng dadi danchen 保生大帝誕辰)
3-23Matsu’s Birthday (Mazu danchen 媽祖誕辰 / tianhou baodan 天后寶誕)Matsu or Lin Moniang 林默娘 (960-987 CE) is revered as Goddess of the Sea
4-8Buddha’s Birthday (fo danchen 佛誕辰)
5-5Dragon Boat Festival (duanwujie 端午節)
5-13Guan Gong’s Birthday (Guan Gong danchen 關公誕辰)Guan Gong aka Guan Yu 關羽 (162-220 CE), a historical figure, was a general and is sometimes called the God of War; the holiday is also sometimes referred to as “Cheng Huang’s Birthday” (Cheng Huang ye danchen 城隍爺誕辰)
7-7Double Seventh Festival (qixi 七夕) aka Qixi Festival (qixijie 七夕節)Chinese Valentine’s Day
7-14Koxinga’s Birthday (Zheng Chenggong danchen 鄭成功誕辰)
7-15Ghost Festival (zhongyuanjie 中元節)
8-15Mid-Autumn Festival (zhongqiujie 中秋節)✿ Sometimes also referred to in English as “Moon Festival”
9-9Double Ninth Festival (chongjiu 重九 / chongyangjie 重陽節)
10-15Xia Yuan Festival (xiayuanjie 下元節)Emperor Yu’s Birthday—the legendary Yu the Great 大禹 is traditionally worshipped the founder of the Xia Dynasty 夏 who “conquered the flood”; on that day the indigenous Saisiat Festival (saixiajie 賽夏節) is also celebrated in Taiwan
12-23Kitchen God Festival (jizaojie 祭灶節)
12-29/30Lunar New Year’s Eve (nongli chuxi 農曆除夕)

According to the Republic of China Yearbook 1989 (p. 774), Koxinga’s Birthday falls on 1-16 of the Lunar Calendar.

TOP   HOME

===== ===== ===== =====

Japan's Taiwan

Japan's colonial calendar

Japan has a calendar reminiscent of the Chinese system, based on the reign of their Emperor (tianhuang 天皇/Tennō), and it was used in Taiwan during the Japanese colonial period (1895-1945). At that time, a succession of three Emperors ruled the Land of the Rising Sun:

  • Mutsuhito (Muren 睦仁 /~) in the Meiji Era (mingzhi 明治 /~),
  • Yoshihito (Jiaren 嘉仁 /~) in the Taisho Era (dazheng 大正 /Taishō), and
  • Hirohito (Yuren 裕仁 /~) in the Showa Era (zhaohe 昭和 /Shōwa).

Note: The tilde (~) is used to indicate that the common English depiction of the Japanese term is identical with the correct Romanization as used by linguists.

After Hirohito's death in 1989, he was followed on the throne by his son Akihito (Mingren 明仁 /~) who ushered the Heisei Era (pingcheng 平成 /~). Akihito abdicated according to his wishes on April 30, 2019 and was succeeded by his son Naruhito (Deren 德仁 /~), and on April 1, 2019 the Japanese cabinet announced that the incoming emperor's era title (yuanhao 元號 /gengō) would be Reiwa (linghe 令和 /~), effective beginning May 1, 2019.

The table below shows biographical details of Japan's emperors since 1867.

Name Born Ascension Died Era name
Mutsuhito 睦仁 1852, Nov. 3 1867, Feb. 3 1912, July 30 Meiji 明治
Yoshihito 嘉仁 1879, Aug. 31 1912, July 30 1926, Dec. 25 Taisho 大正
Hirohito 裕仁 1901, April 29 1926, Dec. 25 1989, Jan. 7 Showa 昭和
Akihito 明仁 1933, Dec. 23 1989, Jan. 7 Heisei 平成
Naruhito 德仁 1960, Feb. 23 2019, April 30 Reiwa 令和

The following table lists selected years of the emperors' eras according to the Japanese system for orientation.

1868 Meiji Year 1 (明治元年) 1945 Showa Year 20 (昭和 20 年)
1895 Meiji Year 28 (明治 28 年) 1989 Showa Year 64 (昭和 64 年)
= Heisei Year 1 (平成元年)
1912 Meiji Year 45 (明治 45 年)
= Taisho Year 1 (大正元年)
2019 Heisei Year 31 (平成 31 年)
= Reiwa Year 1 (令和元年)
1926 Taisho Year 15 (大正 15 年)
= Showa Year 1 (昭和元年)

Brief outline of Japan’s history

Name of period / era Years
Jōmon period 繩文ca. 14,000 — 1000 BC
Yayoi period 彌生1000 BC — 300 A.D.
Kofun period 古墳
(aka Yamato period 大和)
300–538
Asuka period 飛鳥538–710
Nara period 奈良710–794
Heian period 平安794–1185
Kamakura period 鐮倉1185–1333
Muromachi period 室町
(aka Ashikaga period 足利)
1336–1573
Azuchi-Momoyama period 安土 桃山1573–1603
Edo period 江戶
(aka Tokugawa period 德川)
1603–1868
Meiji era 明治1868–1912 (Emperor Mutsuhito 睦仁, 1852-1912)
Taishō era 大正1912–1926 (Emperor Yoshihito 嘉仁, 1879-1926)
Shōwa era 昭和1926–1989 (Emperor Hirohito 裕仁, 1901-1989)
Heisei era 平成1989–2019 (Emperor Akihito 明仁, b. 1933; abdicated)
Reiwa era 令和since 2019 (Emperor Naruhito 德仁, b. 1960)

TOP   HOME

Relevant Japanese terms glossary

List of agencies, organizations and companies

Most (but not all) agencies, organizations and companies listed below were established by Japan during the period of Japanese colonial rule in Taiwan (1895-1945).

Name (English) Japanese kanji Hiragana Romanization
Aboriginal Affairs Headquarters 蕃務本署 ばんむほんしょ Banmu Honsho
Advanced Academy of Agronomy and Forestry 台湾総督府農林専門学校 たいわんそうとくふのうりんせんもんがっこう Taiwan Sōtokufu Nōrin Senmon Gakkō
Agricultural Experiment Station 水稲試作所 すいとうしさくじょ Suitō Shisakujo
Agriculture Department, Taiwan Governor's Central Research Institute 台湾総督府中央研究所農業部 たいわんそうとくふちゅうおうけんきゅうじょのうぎょうぶ Taiwan Sōtokufu Chūō Kenkyūjo Nōgyōbu
Agriculture Experiment Station 農事試験場 のうじしけんじょう Nōji Shikenjō
Animal Antiserum Production Laboratory 獣疫血清製造所 じゅうえきけっせいせいぞうしょ Jūeki Kessei Seizōsho
Association of East Asian Relations 亜東関係協会 あとうかんけいきょうかい Atō Kankei Kyōkai
Bank of Taiwan (BOT) 台湾銀行 たいわんぎんこう Taiwan Ginkō
Bureau of Foreign Affairs 外事部 がいじぶ Gaiji Bu
Bureau of Judicial Affairs 法務部 ほうむぶ Hōmu Bu
Changhua Youth Normal School 台湾総督府彰化青年師範学校 たいわんそうとくふしょうかせいねんしはんがっこう Taiwan Sōtokufu Shōka Seinen Shihan Gakkō
Chia-I Bank 嘉義銀行 かぎぎんこう Kagi Ginkō
Commercial and Industrial Bank of Taiwan 台湾商工銀行 たいわんこうしょうぎんこう Taiwan Kōshō Ginkō
Dadao Municipal Government of Shanghai 上海市大道政府 シャンハイしだいどうせいふ Shanhai Shi Daidō Seifu
Dai-Nippon Sugar Manufacturing Company 大日本製糖株式会社 だいにほんせいとうかぶしきがいしゃ Dai Nihon Seitō Kabushiki Gaisha
Defense Agency 防衛庁 ぼうえいちょう Bōei Chō
Department of Agriculture and Commerce 農商局 のうしょうきょく Nōshō Kyoku
Department of Army 陸軍局 りくぐんきょく Rikugun Kyoku
Department of Civil Affairs (1895) 民政局 みんせいきょく Minsei Kyoku
Department of Civil Affairs (1898) 民政部 みんせいぶ Minseibu
Department of Communications 通信局 つうしんきょく Tsūshin Kyoku
Department of Education 文教局 ぶんきょうきょく Bunkyō Kyoku
Department of Engineering 土木局 どぼくきょく Doboku Kyoku
Department of Finance 財務局 ざいむきょく Zaimu Kyoku
Department of General Affairs 総務局 そうむきょく Sōmu Kyoku
Department of Internal Affairs 内務局L ないむきょく Naimu Kyoku
Department of Military Affairs 軍務局 ぐんむきょく Gunmu Kyoku
Department of Mines and Industry 礦工局 こうこうきょく Kōkō Kyoku
Department of Navy 海軍局 かいぐんきょく Kaigun Kyoku
Department of Police 警務局 けいむきょく Keimu Kyoku
Department of Postal Affairs 逓信局 ていしんきょく Teishin Kyoku
Department of Production 殖産局 しょくさんきょく Shokusan Kyoku
Ensuiko Sugar Refining Co. Ltd. 塩水港製糖株式会社 えんすいこうせいとうかぶしきがいしゃ Ensuik ō Seitō Kabushiki Gaisha
Forestry Experimental Plot 林業試験地 りんぎょうしけんち Ringyō Shikenchi
Great Japan Taiwan Hospital 大日本台湾病院 だいにっぽんたいわんびょういん Dai Nippon Taiwan Byōin
Horse Breeding Farm 種馬牧場 たねうまぼくじょう Taneuma Bokujō
Hsin-Kao Bank 新高銀行 にいたかぎんこう Niitaka Ginkō
Imperial Japanese Army 大日本帝国陸軍 だいにっぽんていこくりくぐん Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun
Imperial Japanese Navy 大日本帝国海軍 だいにっぽんていこくかいぐん Dai-Nippon Teikoku Kaigun
Interchange Association 財団法人交流協会 ざいだんほうじんこうりゅうきょうかい Zaidan Hōjin Kōryu Kyōkai
Japan-ROC Diet Members' Consultative Council 日華議員懇談会 にっかぎいんこんだんかい Nikka Giin Kondankai
Japan–Taiwan Exchange Association 公益財団法人日本台湾交流協会 こうえきざいだんほうじんにほんたいわんこうりゅうきょうかい Kōeki Zaidan Hōjin Nihon Taiwan Kōryū Kyōkai
Japanese Cultural Center 日本文化中心 にほんぶんかちゅうしん Nihon Bunka Chūshin
Japanese Overseas Agency in Taipei 日本駐台北海外事務所 にほんちゅう タイペイ かいがいじむしょ Nihon Chū Taipei Kaigai Jimusho
Kwantung Army 関東軍 かんとうぐん Kantō Gun
League for the Establishment of a Formosan Parliament 台湾議会期成同盟会 たいわんぎかいきせいどうめいかい Taiwan Gikai Kisei Dōmeikai
Manchukuo 満洲国 まんしゅうこく Manshū Koku
Meiji Sugar Company 明治製糖株式会社 めいじせいとうかぶしきがいしゃ Meiji Seitō
Kabushiki Gaisha
Ministry of Defense 防衛省 ぼうえいしょう Bōei Shō
Ministry of Taiwan Railway 台湾総督府鉄道部 たいわんそうとくふてつどうぶ Taiwan Sōtokufu Tetsudōbu
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Corporation 三菱重工業株式会社 みつびしじゅうこうぎょうかぶしきがいしゃ Mitsubishi Jūkōgyō Kabushiki Gaisha
Monopoly Bureau of the Taiwan Governor's Office 台湾総督府専売局 たいわんそうとくふせんばいきょく Taiwan Sōtokufu Senbaikyoku
National Defense Academy of Japan 防衛大学校 ぼうえいだいがっこう Bōei Daigakkō
New People Society 新民会 しんみんかい Shin Minkai
North Thermal Power Plant 北部火力発電所 ほくぶかりょくはつでんしょ Hokubu Hatsudensho
Peking government 北京政府 ぺきんせいふ Pekin Seifu
Police Headquarters 警察本署 けいさつほんしょ Keisatsu Honsho
Provisional Government of the Republic of China 中華民国臨時政府 ちゅうかみんこくりんじせいふ Chūka Minkoku Rinji Seifu
Railway Ministry 台湾総督府交通局鉄道部 たいわんそうとくふこうつうきょくてつどうぶ Taiwan Sōtokufu Kōtsū Kyoku Tetsudōbu
Reformed Government of the Republic of China 中華民国維新政府 ちゅうかみんこくいしんせいふ Chūka Minkoku Ishin Seifu
Rinderpest Antiserum Production Laboratory 牛疫血清作業所 ぎゅうえきけっせいさぎょうしょ Gyūeki Kessei Sagyōsho
Ryukyu Domain 琉球藩 りゅうきゅうはん Ryūkyū Han
Ryukyu Kingdom 琉球国 りゅうきゅうこく Ryūkyū Koku
Savings Bank of Taiwan 台湾貯蓄銀行 たいわん ちょちく ぎんこう Taiwan Chochiku Ginkō
Secretariat to the Governor-General 総督官房 そうとくか ん ぼう Sōtoku Kanbō
Songshan Air Base 松山飛行基地 まつやまひこうきち Matsuyama Hikō Kichi
Songshan Airport 松山飛行場 まつやま ひこうじょう Matsuyama Hikōjō
Sugarcane Seedling Nursery 蔗苗養成所 しゃ びょう ようせいじょ ShabyōYōseijo
Taichu Advanced College of Agronomy and Forestry 台中高等農林学校 たいちゅうこうとうのうりんがっこう Taichū Kōtō Nōrin Gakkō
Taichu Prefectural Library 台中州立図書館 たいちゅうしゅうりつとしょかん Taichū Shūritsu Toshokan
Taihoku Botanical Garden 台北植物園 たいほく しょくぶつえん Taihoku Shokubutsuen
Taihoku College 台湾総督府台北高等学校 たいわんそうとくふたいほくこうとうがっこう Taiwan Sōtokufu Taihoku Kōtōgakkō
Taihoku Imperial University 台北帝国大学 たいほくていこくだいがく Taihoku Teikoku Daigaku
Taihoku Observatory 台北観測所 たいほくかんそくしょ Taihoku Kansokujo
Taihoku Regional Court 台北地方法院 たいほくちほうほういん Taihoku Chihō Hōin
Taihoku Seedling Nursery 台北苗圃 たいほく びょうほ Taihoku Byōho
Taihoku Weather Monitoring Station under the Taiwan Governor's Office 台湾総督府台北測候所 たいわんそうとくふたいほくそっこうじょ Taiwan Sōtokufu Taihoku Sokkōjo
Tainan Technical College (1931) 台南高等工業学校 たいなんこうとうこうぎょうがっこう Tainan Kōtō Kōgyō Gakkō
Tainan Technical College (1944) 台南工業專門学校 たいなんこうぎょうせんもんがっこう Tainan Kōgyō Senmon Gakkō
Taipei Culture Center 台北文化中心 たいほくぶんかちゅうしん Taihoku Bunka Chūshin
Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office 台北経済文化代表処 タイペイけいざいぶんかだいひょうしょ Taipei Keizai Bunka Daihyōsho
Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in Japan 台北駐日経済文化代表処 タイペイちゅうにちけいざいぶんかだいひょうしょ Taipei Chūnichi Keizai Bunka Daihyōsho
Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in Japan 台北駐日経済文化代表処 たいぺいちゅうにちけいざいぶんかだいひょうしょ Taipei Chūnichi Keizai Bunka Daihyōsho
Taiwan Assimilation Society 台湾同化会 たいわんどうかかい Taiwan Dōkakai
Taiwan Camphor Bureau 台湾樟脳局 たいわんしょうのうきょく Taiwan Shōnō Kyoku
Taiwan Dockyard Corporation 台湾船渠株式会社 たいわんせんきょかぶしきがいしゃ Taiwan Senkyo Kabushiki Gaisha
Taiwan Governor's Agriculture Laboratory 台湾総督府農業試験所 たいわんそうとくふのうぎょうしけんじょ Taiwan Sōtokufu Nōgyō Shikenjo
Taiwan Governor's Bureau of Productive Industries 台湾総督府殖産局 たいわんそうとくふしょくさんきょく Taiwan Sōtokufu Shōkusan Kyoku
Taiwan Governor’s High Court 台湾総督府高等法院 たいわんそうとくふこうとうほういん Taiwan Sōtokufu Kōtō Hōin
Taiwan Governor's High Court Prosecution Bureau 台湾総督府高等法院検察局 たいわんそうとくふこうとうほういんけんさつきょく Taiwan Sōtokufu Kōtō Hōin Kensatsu Kyoku
Taiwan Governor's Library 台湾総督府図書館 たいわんそうとくふとしょうかん Taiwan Sōtokufu Toshōkan
Taiwan Governor Museum 台湾総督府民政部殖産局附属博物館 たいわんそうとくふみんせいぶしょくさんきょくふぞくはくぶつかん Taiwan Sōtokufu Minseibu Shokusan Kyoku Fuzoku Hakubutsukan
Taiwan Governor's Office Weather Observatory 台湾総督府気象台 たいわんそうとくふきしょうだい Taiwan Sōtokufu Kishōdai
Taiwan Independence Revolutionary Council 台湾独立革命委員会 たいわんどくりつかくめいいいんかい Taiwan Dokuritsu Kakumei Iinkai
Taiwan Medical School 台湾総督府医学校 たいわんそうとくふいがっこう Taiwan Sōtokufu Igakkō
Taiwan People's Party 台湾民党 たいわんみんとう Taiwan Mintō
Taiwan Pharmaceutical Factory 台湾製薬所 たいわんせいやくしょ Taiwan Seiyakusho
Taiwan Power Corporation 台湾電力株式会社 たいわんでんりょくかぶしきがいしゃ Taiwan Denryoku Kabushiki Gaisha
Taiwan Provincial College 台湾総督府高等学校 たいわんそうとくふこうとうがっこう Taiwan Sōtokufu Kōtōgakkō
Taiwan Salt Bureau 台湾塩務局 たいわんえんむきょく Taiwan Enmu Kyoku
Taiwan Shinkansen 台湾新幹線 たいわんしんかんせん Taiwan Shinkansen
Taiwan Steel Works 株式会社台湾鉄工所 かぶしきがいしゃたいわんてっこうしょ Kabushiki Gaisha Taiwan Tekkōjo
Taiwan Sugar Company 台湾製糖株式会社 たいわんせいとうかぶしきがいしゃ Taiwan Seitō Kabushiki Gaisha
Taiwanese Alliance for Home Rule 台湾地方自治聯盟 たいわんちほうじちれんめい Taiwan Chihō Jichi Renmei
Taiwanese Communist Party 台湾共産党 たいわんき ょうさんとう Taiwan Kyōsantō
Taiwanese Cultural Association 台湾文化協会 たいわんぶんかきょうかい Taiwan Bunka Kyōkai
Taiwanese Popular Party 台湾民衆党 たいわんみんしゅうとう Taiwan Minshūtō
Takasago Malted Beer Company 高砂麦酒株式会社 たかさごびーるかぶしきがいしゃ Takasago Bīru Kabushiki Gaisha
Takasago Volunteers 高砂義勇隊 たかさごぎゆうたい Takasago Giyūtai
Tatung Iron Works 株式会社大同鉄工所 かぶしきがいしゃだいどうてっこうじょ Kabushiki Gaisha Daitō Tekkōjo
Tea Manufacture Experiment Station 台湾総督府殖産局附属製茶試験場 たいわんそうとくふしょくさんきょくふぞくせいちゃしけんじょう Taiwan Sōtokufu Shōkusan Kyoku Fuzoku Seicha Shikenjō
Toko Kogyo Corporation 東光興業株式会社 とうこうこうぎょうかぶしきがいしゃ Tōkō Kōgyō Kabushiki Gaisha
Tokyo Office, Association of East Asian Relations 亜東関係協会東京弁事処 あとうかんけいきょうかいとうきょうべんじしょ Atō Kankei Kyōkai Tōkyō Benjisho
Tribute to the Emperor Society 皇民奉公会 こうみんほうこうかい Kōmin Hōkōkai
Unit 731 731 部隊 ななさんいちぶたい Nana San Ichi Butai
Wushantou Reservoir 烏山頭貯水池 うさんとうちょすいち Usantō Chosuichi
Yasukuni Shrine 靖国神社 やすくにじんじゃ Yasukuni Jinja
Zuoying Harbour 左営港 さえいこう Saei Kō

List of treaties, documents and other important terms

Please note that in the table below the pronunciation for some geographical names of places outside Japan (e. g. Potsdam, Versailles) is shown not in Hiragana but in Katakana.

Name (English) Japanese kanji Hiragana Romanization
Chang Tso-lin Incident 張作霖爆殺事件 ちょうさくりんばくさつじけん Chō Sakurin Baku Satsu Jiken
First Instrument of Surrender 日本の降伏文書 にほんのこうふくぶんしょ Nipponno Kōfuku Bunsho
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere 大東亜共栄圏 だいとうあきょうえいけん Dai Tōa Kyōeiken
Jinan Incident 済南事件 さいなんじけん Sainan Jiken
Liaotung Convention 遼東還付条約 りょうとうかんぷじょうやく Ryōtō Kanpu Jōyaku
Manchuria Incident 満洲事変 まんしゅうじへん Manshū Jihen
Okinawa Reversion Agreement 沖縄返還協定 おきなわへんかんきょうてい Okinawa Henkan Kyōtei
Operation Ichi-Go 大陸打通作戦 たいりくだつうさくせん Tairiku Datsū Sakusen
Peace Treaty between the ROC and Japan 日本国と中華民国との間の平和条約 にほんこくとちゅうかみんこくとのあいだのへいわじょうやく Nippon Kokuto Chuka Minkoku Tono Aidano Heiwa Jōyaku
Potsdam Agreement ポツダム協定 ポツダムきょうてい Potsudamu Kyōtei
Potsdam Declaration ポツダム宣言 ポツダムせんげん Potsudamu Sengen
San Francisco Peace Treaty 日本国との平和条約 にっぽんこくとのへいわじょうやく Nippon Kokutono Heiwa Jōyaku
Sino-Japanese War 日清戦争 にっしんせんそう Nisshin Sensō
Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact 日ソ中立条約 にっ ソちゅうりつじょうやく Nisso Chūritsu Jōyaku
Taiwan-Japan Fisheries Agreement 日台漁業取り決め にったいぎょぎょうとりきめ Nittai Gyogyō Tori Kime
Tanggu Truce 塘沽協定 タンクきょうてい Tanku Kyōtei
Treaty of Peace and Friendship 日本国と中華人民共和国との間の平和友好条約 にほんこくとちゅうかじんみんきょうわこくとのあいだのへいわゆうこうじょうやく Nippon Kokuto Chūgoku Jimmin Kyōwakoku Tono Aidano Heiwa Yūkō Jōyaku
Treaty of Shimonoseki 下関条約 しものせきじょうやく Shimonoseki Jōyaku
Treaty of Versailles ヴェルサイユ条約 ヴェルサイユじょうやく Verusaiyu Jōyaku
Triple Intervention 三国干渉 さんごくかんしょう San Goku Kanshō
Twenty-One Demands 対華二十一ヵ条要求 たいか 21 かじょうようきゅう Taika Nijūikkajō Yōkyū

The Japanese writing system has its roots in Chinese characters. More details about this topic can be found in a separate PDF file (18 pages in A4 format), click here.

Another PDF file (73 pages in A4 format) provides information about the 3,000 most frequently used Chinese characters and more—click here.

* * * SEE ALSO * * *

Additional information pertaining to that subject can be found on the following pages of this website.

🔴 "Introduction Taiwan / ROC", Facts about Japan's colonial rule over Taiwan
🔴 "Foreign relations of the ROC", The ROC and Japan

TOP   HOME

===== ===== ===== =====

The dynasties of imperial China: An overview

Dynasty / period Dates
Xia 夏 (legendary) (trad. 2205-1766 BC)
ca. 2000-1500 BC
Shang 商 aka Yin 殷 (trad. 1766-1122 BC)
ca. 1500-1000 BC
Zhou 周 ca. 1000-221 BC
—Western Zhou 西周 (trad. 1122-770 BC)  
ca. 1000-770 BC  
—Eastern Zhou 東周 770-221 BC  
——Spring and Autumn Period 春秋 trad. 770-476 BC  
——Warring States Period 戰國時代 trad. 475-221 BC  
Qin 秦 221-207 BC
Han 漢 207 BC – 220 AD
—Western Han 西漢 207 BC – 8 AD  
—Xin 新 (Interregnum of Wang Mang 王莽) 9-23 AD  
—Eastern Han 東漢 23-220 AD  
Three Kingdoms 三國時代 220-280
—Wei 魏 (Cao Wei 曹魏) 220-265  
—Shu 蜀 (Minor Han/Shu Han 蜀漢) 221-263  
—Wu 吳 222-280  
Western Jin 西晉 265/280-316
• PERIOD OF DIVISION •
North China The Sixteen Nations 五胡十六國 304-439  
Northern Dynasties 北朝 386-589  
South China Eastern Jin 東晉 317-419  
Southern Dynasties 南朝 386-589  
Sui 隋 581/589-618
Tang 唐 618-907
• PERIOD OF DIVISION: The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms 五代十國 •
—Five Dynasties 五代 907-960  
—Ten Kingdoms 十國 902-979  
Song 宋 960/979-1279
—Northern Song 北宋 960/979-1126  
—Southern Song 南宋 1126-1279  
Yuan 元 [Mongols] 1279-1368
Ming 明 1368-1644
Qing 清 [Manchus] 1644-1911

For a more detailed account of Imperial China's history click here.

TOP   HOME

===== ===== ===== =====

Major time zones in Taiwan and the world

The table below shows Taiwan's time zone in comparison with selected major time zones in the US and Europe plus Japan, including the following: Coordinated Universal Time (abbrev. UTC)/Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) as the world's primary time standard; in the US—Pacific Standard Time (PST), Mountain Standard Time (MST), Central Standard Time (CST), Eastern Standard Time (EST); in Europe—Central European Time (CET).

PST
(UTC –8)
MST
(UTC –7)
CST
(UTC –6)
EST
(UTC –5)
UTC
CET
(UTC +1)
Taiwan
(UTC +8)
Japan
(UTC +9)
1700 1800 1900 2000 0100 0200 0900 1000
1800 1900 2000 2100 0200 0300 1000 1100
1900 2000 2100 2200 0300 0400 1100 1200
2000 2100 2200 2300 0400 0500 1200 1300
2100 2200 2300 2400 0500 0600 1300 1400
2200 2300 2400 0100 0600 0700 1400 1500
2300 2400 0100 0200 0700 0800 1500 1600
2400 0100 0200 0300 0800 0900 1600 1700
0100 0200 0300 0400 0900 1000 1700 1800
0200 0300 0400 0500 1000 1100 1800 1900
0300 0400 0500 0600 1100 1200 1900 2000
0400 0500 0600 0700 1200 1300 2000 2100
0500 0600 0700 0800 1300 1400 2100 2200
0600 0700 0800 0900 1400 1500 2200 2300
0700 0800 0900 1000 1500 1600 2300 2400
0800 0900 1000 1100 1600 1700 2400 0100
0900 1000 1100 1200 1700 1800 0100 0200
1000 1100 1200 1300 1800 1900 0200 0300
1100 1200 1300 1400 1900 2000 0300 0400
1200 1300 1400 1500 2000 2100 0400 0500
1300 1400 1500 1600 2100 2200 0500 0600
1400 1500 1600 1700 2200 2300 0600 0700
1500 1600 1700 1800 2300 2400 0700 0800
1600 1700 1800 1900 2400 0100 0800 0900

Please note that the same time applies year-round in Taiwan as there is no Daylight Saving Time (DST). Major zones with DST in the US and Europe are calculated as follows: PDT (UTC –7), MDT (UTC –6), CDT (UTC –5), EDT (UTC –4); Central European Summer Time (CEST) = UTC +2.

TOP   HOME

===== ===== ===== =====