Taiwan Politics Database
www.taiwan-database.net

Democratic elections

  1. History of democratic elections in the ROC
  2. Direct presidential elections since 1996
  3. Parliamentary elections since 1991
  4. Provincial elections
  5. Elections for mayors of special municipalities since 1994
  6. Referendums since 2004
  7. Glossary: Election terms English–Chinese

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History of democratic elections in the ROC

Although the ROC was the first republic in Asia, it became a true democracy only after martial law ended in July 1987 and a ban for the establishment of new politicial parties was lifted. Another significant change brought about by constitutional amendments was that since March 1996 the ROC president is no longer elected by the National Assembly but directly by the ROC's citizens. On Dec. 25, 2020 the Legislative Yuan passed amendments to the Civil Code (minfa 民法), lowering the minimum voting age in the ROC from previously 20 years of age to 18, effective Jan. 1, 2023.

Since 2012 ROC presidential and legislative elections have been held simultaneously, but observers have noted the difference in the number of respective eligible voters which is due to stipulations in the ROC election laws according to which citizens must have at some point lived in the ROC for no less than six consecutive months before being eligible to vote for president, while the requirement for other civil servant elections is four months.

Chronology of democratic elections in the ROC since 1987

Year Date Election
1989 Dec. 2 First Legislative Yuan (by-election Taiwan area)
 " Ninth Provincial Assembly of Taiwan
 " ROC city mayors (county level), county magistrates
 " City councils (special municipalities)—Taipei, Kaohsiung
1991 Dec. 21 Second National Assembly
1992 Dec. 19 Second Legislative Yuan
1993 Nov. 27 ROC city mayors (county level), county magistrates
1994 Dec. 3 Tenth Provincial Assembly of Taiwan
 " Taiwan provincial governor
 " Mayors (special municipalities)—Taipei, Kaohsiung
 " City councils (special municipalities)—Taipei, Kaohsiung
1995 Dec. 3 Third Legislative Yuan
1996 March 23 9th President ROC
 " Third National Assembly
1997 Nov. 29 ROC city mayors (county level), county magistrates
1998 Dec. 5 Fourth Legislative Yuan
 " Mayors (special municipalities)—Taipei, Kaohsiung
 " City councils (special municipalities)—Taipei, Kaohsiung
2000 March 18 10th President ROC
2001 Dec. 1 Fifth Legislative Yuan
 " ROC city mayors (county level), county magistrates
2002 Jan. 26 ROC county / community councils
 " ROC township heads
Dec. 7 Mayors (special municipalities)—Taipei, Kaohsiung
 " City councils (special municipalities)—Taipei, Kaohsiung
2004 March 20 11th President ROC; nationwide referendum 1 + 2
Dec. 11 Sixth Legislative Yuan
2005 May 14 Ad Hoc-National Assembly
Dec. 3 ROC city mayors (county level), county magistrates
 " ROC city and county councils
 " ROC township heads
2006 Dec. 9 Mayors (special municipalities)—Taipei, Kaohsiung
 " City councils (special municipalities)—Taipei, Kaohsiung
2008 Jan. 12 Seventh Legislative Yuan; nationwide referendum 3 + 4
March 22 12th President ROC; nationwide referendum 5 + 6
Nov. 15 Local referendum 1 (Kaohsiung City)
2009 Sept. 26 Local referendum 2 (Penghu County)
Dec. 5 ROC city mayors (county level), county magistrates
 " ROC city and county councils
 " ROC township heads
2010 Nov. 27 Mayors (special municipalities)—Taipei, Kaohsiung, New Taipei City, Taichung, Tainan
 " City councils (special municipalities)—Taipei, Kaohsiung, New Taipei City, Taichung, Tainan
2012 Jan. 14 13th President ROC
 " Eighth Legislative Yuan
July 7 Local referendum 3 (Lienchiang County)
2014 Nov. 29 Mayors (special municipalities)—Taipei, Kaohsiung, New Taipei City, Taoyuan, Taichung, Tainan
 " City councils (special municipalities)—Taipei, Kaohsiung, New Taipei City, Taoyuan, Taichung, Tainan
 " ROC city mayors (county level), county magistrates
 " ROC city and county councils
 " ROC township heads
2016 Jan. 16 14th President ROC
 " Ninth Legislative Yuan
Oct. 15 Local referendum 4 (Penghu County)
2017 Oct. 28 Local referendum 5 (Kinmen County)
2018 Nov. 24 Mayors (special municipalities)—Taipei, Kaohsiung, New Taipei City, Taoyuan, Taichung, Tainan
 " City councils (special municipalities)—Taipei, Kaohsiung, New Taipei City, Taoyuan, Taichung, Tainan
 " ROC city mayors (county level), county magistrates
 " ROC city and county councils
 " ROC township heads
 " Nationwide referendums 7–16
2020 Jan. 11 15th President ROC
 " Tenth Legislative Yuan
June 6 Recall vote against Kaohsiung mayor Han Kuo-yu
Aug. 15 Kaohsiung mayor by-election
2021 Dec. 18 Nationwide referendums 17–20
 " Local referendum 6 (Hsinchu City)
2022 Nov. 26 Mayors (special municipalities)—Taipei, Kaohsiung, New Taipei City, Taoyuan, Taichung, Tainan
 " City councils (special municipalities)—Taipei, Kaohsiung, New Taipei City, Taoyuan, Taichung, Tainan
 " ROC city mayors (county level), county magistrates
 " ROC city and county councils

Please note that besides the direct presidential elections, parliamentary elections on the central level, provincial elections (provincial assembly, governor) and elections for mayors of special municipalities, there are other elections on the local level like ballots for members of municipal councils and city councils (shiyihui 市議會), members of county councils (xianyihui 縣議會), town / township mayors (zhenzhang 鎮長 / xiangzhang 鄉長), town / township citizen's representatives (zhenmin daibiao 鎮民代表 / xiangmin daibiao 鄉民代表), borough wardens (lizhang 里長) and village chiefs (cunzhang 村長) which are omitted on this website.

Main source for the election results shown on this page is the website of the ROC Central Election Commission (CEC) and its Chinese-language database.

The symbol on the right is often displayed in Taiwan in connection with elections.

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Direct presidential elections since 1996

Since March 1996, the ROC president is elected directly by citizens of the ROC according to constitutional amendments promulgated in May 1992 and July 1994. Before that, the ROC president was elected by the members of the ROC National Assembly which was abolished in June 2005. According to Article 47 of the ROC Constitution, the ROC president is barred from serving more than two consecutive terms of office. ROC presidential elections are decided by a plurality, or relative majority—the candidate receiving the most votes wins, even if he or she fails to gain an absolute majority of ballots. If no candidate garnered more than 50 percent of the valid votes, the electoral rules of the ROC do not require a runoff between the two strongest contenders in a second round of voting as featured in a majority system (e. g. France), so a simple majority can be enough to become ROC president.

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Presidential Election 1996

Term for the election in Chinese: jiuren zongtong fuzongtong xuanju 九任總統副總統選舉

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date March 23, 1996
Eligible voters 14,313,288 voters
Total votes cast 10,883,279 votes
Voter turnout (%) 76.036 percent
Valid votes 10,766,119 votes (98.923 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 117,160 votes (1.076 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates

Candidate for ROC President
(1996)
Running Mate Political Party
Affiliation
Lee Teng-hui 李登輝 (1923-2020) Lien Chan 連戰 (b. 1936) KMT
Peng Ming-min 彭明敏 (1923-2022) Frank Hsieh 謝長廷 (b. 1946) DPP
Lin Yang-kang 林洋港 (1927-2013) Hau Pei-tsun 郝柏村 (1919-2020) Independent
Chen Li-an 陳履安 (b. 1937) Wang Ching-feng 王清峰 (b. 1952) Ind.

Result details

Presidential Candidates Valid Votes Received Percent of Valid Votes Winner
Lee–Lien 5,913,699 54.928 %
Peng–Hsieh 2,274,586 21.127 %  
Lin–Hau 1,603,790 14.896 %  
Chen–Wang 1,074,044 9.976 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 3,639,113 votes (33.801 percent of valid votes)

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Presidential Election 2000

Term for the election in Chinese: shiren zongtong fuzongtong xuanju 十任總統副總統選舉

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date March 18, 2000
Eligible voters 15,462,625 voters
Total votes cast 12,786,671 votes
Voter turnout (%) 82.694 percent
Valid votes 12,664,393 votes (99.043 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 122,278 votes (0.956 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates

Candidate for ROC President
(2000)
Running Mate Political Party
Affiliation
Lien Chan 連戰 (b. 1936) Vincent Siew 蕭萬長 (b. 1939) KMT
Chen Shui-bian 陳水扁 (b. 1950) Annette Lu 呂秀蓮 (b. 1944) DPP
James Soong 宋楚瑜 (b. 1942) Chang Chao-hsiung 張昭雄 (b. 1942) Ind.
Hsu Hsin-liang 許信良 (b. 1941) Josephine Chu 朱惠良 (b. 1950) Ind.
Li Ao 李敖 (1935-2018) Elmer Fung 馮滬祥 (1948-2021) Ind. / NP

Result details

Presidential Candidates Valid Votes Received Percent of Valid Votes Winner
Chen–Lu 4,977,737 39.304 %
Soong–Chang 4,664,932 36.835 %  
Lien–Siew 2,925,513 23.100 %  
Hsu–Chu 79,429 0.627 %  
Li–Fung 16,782 0.132 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 312,805 votes (2.469 percent of valid votes)

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Presidential Election 2004

Term for the election in Chinese: shiyiren zongtong fuzongtong xuanju 十一任總統副總統選舉

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date March 20, 2004
Eligible voters 16,507,179 voters
Total votes cast 13,251,719 votes
Voter turnout (%) 80.278 percent
Valid votes 12,914,422 votes (97.454 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 337,297 votes (2.545 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates

Candidate for ROC President
(2004)
Running Mate Political Party
Affiliation
Chen Shui-bian 陳水扁 (b. 1950) Annette Lu 呂秀蓮 (b. 1944) DPP
Lien Chan 連戰 (b. 1936) James Soong 宋楚瑜 (b. 1942) KMT

Result details

Presidential Candidates Valid Votes Received Percent of Valid Votes Winner
Chen–Lu 6,471,970 50.114 %
Lien–Soong 6,442,452 49.885 %  

Difference of valid votes between DPP and KMT: 29,518 votes (0.2285 percent of valid votes). Please note that the number of invalid votes was more than 11.4 times higher than the DPP's winning margin.

Timeline of the 3-19 shooting investigation

The election result has been surrounded by controversy as the election took place one day after Chen Shui-bian and Annette Lu sustained gunshot wounds in an apparent assassination attempt during an election rally in Tainan. The following is a chronological summary of relevant events in the aftermath of the election.

2004 April 9: American forensics expert Dr. Henry C. Lee 李昌鈺 arrives in Taiwan to investigate the 3-19 shooting
Aug. 24: The Fifth Legislative Yuan—where the KMT, PFP and NP combined had an absolute majority—approves the "Organic Statute for the 3-19 Shooting Truth Investigation Special Committee" (sanyijiu qiangji shijian zhenxiang diaocha tebie weiyuanhui tiaoli 三一九槍擊事件真相調查特別委員會條例) to probe the 3-19 shooting
Dec. 13: The Criminal Investigation Bureau (CIB) under the MOI NPA identifies Tang Shou-yi 唐守義 as the maker of the bullets used in the 3-19 shooting
2005 Jan. 17: The March 19 Shooting Truth Investigation Special Committee announces that the shooting of Chen Shui-bian did not occur as reported
Jan. 19: The CIB dismisses the findings of the March 19 Shooting Truth Investigation Special Committee and defends its own study results as scientific and indisputable as well as in line with Henry C. Lee's conclusions
March 7: During a press conference, Taiwanese police name retired construction worker Chen Yi-hsiung 陳義雄—who was found drowned in Tainan harbour on March 29, 2004 after an apparent suicide—as main suspect in the 3-19 shooting
Aug. 17: The ROC Supreme Prosecutors Office (zuigao fayuan jianchashu 最高法院檢察署) declares its investigation into the 3-19 assassination attempt closed, concluding that Chen Yi-hsiung was entirely responsible for the shooting but also pointing out that the gun used in the shooting had not been found
2006 Dec. 6: The KMT demands a new probe into the 3-19 shooting after alleged gunsmith Tang Shou-yi retracted his confession
2008 March 26: Frank Hsieh steps down as DPP chairman and urges ROC President-elect Ma Ying-jeou to have the 3-19 shooting re-investigated

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Presidential Election 2008

Term for the election in Chinese: shierren zongtong fuzongtong xuanju 十二任總統副總統選舉

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date March 22, 2008
Eligible voters 17,321,622 voters
Total votes cast 13,221,609 votes
Voter turnout (%) 76.330 percent
Valid votes 13,103,963 votes (99.110 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 117,646 votes (0.889 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates

Candidate for ROC President
(2008)
Running Mate Political Party
Affiliation
Frank Hsieh 謝長廷 (b. 1946) Su Tseng-chang 蘇貞昌 (b. 1947) DPP
Ma Ying-jeou 馬英九 (b. 1950) Vincent Siew 蕭萬長 (b. 1939) KMT

Result details

Presidential Candidates Valid Votes Received Percent of Valid Votes Winner
Ma–Siew 7,658,724 58.445 %
Hsieh–Su 5,445,239 41.554 %  

Difference of valid votes between KMT and DPP: 2,213,485 votes (16.891 percent of valid votes)

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Presidential Election 2012

Term for the election in Chinese: shisanren zongtong fuzongtong xuanju 十三任總統副總統選舉

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Jan. 14, 2012
Eligible voters 18,086,455 voters
Total votes cast 13,452,016 votes
Voter turnout (%) 74.376 percent
Valid votes 13,354,305 votes (99.273 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 97,711 votes (0.726 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates

Candidate for ROC President
(2012)
Running Mate Political Party
Affiliation
Ma Ying-jeou 馬英九 (b. 1950) Wu Den-yih 吳敦義 (b. 1948) KMT
Tsai Ing-wen 蔡英文 (b. 1956) Su Jia-chyuan 蘇嘉全 (b. 1956) DPP
James Soong 宋楚瑜 (b. 1942) Lin Ruey-shiung 林瑞雄 (b. 1939) PFP

Result details

Presidential Candidates Valid Votes Received Percent of Valid Votes Winner
Ma–Wu 6,891,139 51.602 %
Tsai–Su 6,093,578 45.630 %  
Soong–Lin 369,588 2.767 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 797,561 votes (5.972 percent of valid votes)

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Presidential Election 2016

Term for the election in Chinese: shisiren zongtong fuzongtong xuanju 十四任總統副總統選舉

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Jan. 16, 2016
Eligible voters 18,782,991 voters
Total votes cast 12,448,302 votes
Voter turnout (%) 66.274 percent
Valid votes 12,284,970 votes (98.687 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 163,332 votes (1.312 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates

Candidate for ROC President
(2016)
Running Mate Political Party
Affiliation
Eric Chu 朱立倫 (b. 1961) Jennifer Wang Ju-hsuan 王如玄 (b. 1961) KMT / Ind.
Tsai Ing-wen 蔡英文 (b. 1956) Chen Chien-jen 陳建仁 (b. 1951) DPP / Ind.
James Soong 宋楚瑜 (b. 1942) Hsu Hsin-ying 徐欣瑩 (b. 1972) PFP / MKT

The KMT had initially nominated Hung Hsiu-chu 洪秀柱 (b. 1948) as presidential candidate on July 19, 2015 but replaced her with Eric Chu on Oct. 17, 2015.

Result details

Presidential Candidates Valid Votes Received Percent of Valid Votes Winner
Tsai–Chen 6,894,744 56.123 %
Chu–Wang 3,813,365 31.040 %  
Soong–Hsu 1,576,861 12.835 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 3,081,379 votes (25.082 percent of valid votes)

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Presidential Election 2020

Term for the election in Chinese: shiwuren zongtong fuzongtong xuanju 十五任總統副總統選舉

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Jan. 11, 2020
Eligible voters 19,311,105 voters
Total votes cast 14,464,571 votes
Voter turnout (%) 74.902 percent
Valid votes 14,300,940 votes (98.868 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 163,631 votes (1.131 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates

Candidate for ROC President
(2020)
Running Mate Political Party
Affiliation
Tsai Ing-wen 蔡英文 (b. 1956) William Lai Ching-te 賴清德 (b. 1959) DPP
Daniel Han Kuo-yu 韓國瑜 (b. 1957) Simon Chang San-cheng 張善政 (b. 1954) KMT / Ind.
James Soong 宋楚瑜 (b. 1942) Sandra Yu 余湘 (b. 1959) PFP / Ind.

Result details

Presidential Candidates Valid Votes Received Percent of Valid Votes Winner
Tsai–Lai 8,170,231 57.130 %
Han–Chang 5,522,119 38.613 %  
Soong–Yu 608,590 4.255 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 2,648,112 votes (18.517 percent of valid votes)

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Retrospective: Non-direct ROC presidential elections before 1996

Elections of ROC Presidents by the National Assembly 1948–1990

Period Date Elected Presidential Candidate Votes Received (%) Total Votes
1 1948, April 19 Chiang Kai-shek 蔣介石 2,430 (89.866 %) 2,704
2 1954, March 22 Chiang Kai-shek 1,507 (95.804 %) 1,573
3 1960, March 21 Chiang Kai-shek 1,481 (93.972 %) 1,576
4 1966, March 21 Chiang Kai-shek 1,405 (94.422 %) 1,488
5 1972, March 21 Chiang Kai-shek 1,308 (95.196 %) 1,374
6 1978, March 21 Chiang Ching-kuo 蔣經國 1,184 (94.871 %) 1,248
7 1984, March 21 Chiang Ching-kuo 1,012 (95.112 %) 1,064
8 1990, March 21 Lee Teng-hui 李登輝 641 (95.958 %) 668

Other presidential candidates

1948—Chu Chen 居正 (1876-1951, Hubei), received 269 votes (9.948 %)

1954—Hsu Fu-lin 徐傅霖 (1878-1958, Guangdong), received 48 votes (3.051 %)

Elections of ROC VPs by the National Assembly 1948–1990

Period Date Elected VP Candidate Votes Received
(%)
Total
Votes
1 1948, April 29 Li Tsung-jen 李宗仁
(1891-1969, Guangxi)
1,438 (53.180 %) 2,704
2 1954, March 23 Chen Cheng 陳誠
(1898-1965, Zhejiang)
1,417 (90.082 %) 1,573
3 1960, March 22 Chen Cheng 1,381 (87.626 %) 1,576
4 1966, March 22 Yen Chia-kan 嚴家淦
(1905-1993, Jiangsu)
782 (52.553 %) 1,488
5 1972, March 22 Yen Chia-kan 1,095 (79.694 %) 1,374
6 1978, March 22 Shieh Tung-min 謝東閔
(1907-2001, Taiwan)
941 (75.400 %) 1,248
7 1984, March 22 Lee Teng-hui 李登輝 873 (82.048 %) 1,064
8 1990, March 22 Li Yuan-zu 李元簇
(1923-2017, Hunan)
602 (90.119 %) 668

Other VP candidates

1948—Sun Fo 孫科 (1891-1973, Guangdong), received 1295 votes (48.892 %); 4 more VP candidates: Cheng Chien 程潛 (1882-1968, Hunan), Yu Yu-jen 于右任 (1879-1964, Shaanxi), Mo Teh-hui 莫德惠 (1883-1968, Kirin), and Hsu Fu-lin 徐傅霖 (1878-1958, Guangdong). Li Tsung-jen was finally elected ROC VP on the 4th ballot

1954—Shih Chih-chuan 石志泉 (1886-1960, Hubei), received 109 votes (6.929 %)

Note: Chiang Kai-shek's first election to ROC president by the National Assembly in 1948 took place in Nanjing which was evacuated in April 1949. Between April and October 1949 Guangzhou served as the provisional capital; in December 1949 the ROC government moved to Taipei where all subsequent elections of the ROC president by the National Assembly took place.

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Parliamentary elections since 1991

The history of parliamentarism in the ROC reflects the political development of the country. The legislative body in today's ROC is the Legislative Yuan, which was established in 1928. Between the 1940s and 2005, there also was a National Assembly which had the function of electing the president, and its first general elections took place in 1947. When the Chinese civil war ended, the mainland was under Communist control, and the ROC could not hold elections for either the Legislative Yuan or the National Assembly, so it was decreed that their members would stay in office until new elections could be held on the mainland. Members who had been elected on the mainland were not replaced after their death, but the number of seats for Taiwanese delegates was gradually increased.

After martial law was lifted in 1987 and the "Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of Communist Rebellion" were abolished in 1991, a completely new National Assembly was finally elected in 1991. Likewise, the veteran members of the Legislative Yuan were forced to retire at the end of 1991 after more than four decades in office, and general elections were held on the territory effectively controlled by the ROC in 1992.

Further constitutional amendments reduced the powers of the National Assembly, most notably when the authority to elect the ROC president was removed. The National Assembly was subsequently transformed into a non-standing body, its delegates were nominated by political parties on the basis of proportional representation, and most of its functions were transferred to the Legislative Yuan. A last election for an Ad Hoc-National Assembly took place in 2005, and after the latest constitutional revisions took effect a month later, the National Assembly ceased to exist altogether, rendering its power to ratify constitutional amendments and territory changes to the public through referendums.

The following lists and tables show democratic parliamentary elections in the ROC on the central level which took place after the constitutional reforms in the early 1990s. (Source: Central Election Commission/CEC)

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Second National Assembly [325 seats]

Term for the election in Chinese: dierjie guomin dahui xuanju 第二屆國民大會選舉

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Dec. 21, 1991
Eligible voters 13,083,106 voters
Total votes cast 8,938,622 votes
Voter turnout (%) 68.321 percent
Valid votes 8,758,879 votes (97.989 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 179,743 votes (2.010 percent of all votes cast)

Result details

Political Party Valid Votes Received Percent of Valid Votes Seats
KMT 6,053,366 69.111 % 254
DPP 2,036,271 23.248 % 66
Nationwide Democratic
Nonpartisan Union
193,234 2.206 % 3
Independent 253,032 2.888 % 2
Others 222,976 2.545 % 0

The following 14 political parties also participated in the election but failed to win any seats—China Democratic Constitutional Party, China Democratic Socialist Party, China Great Harmony Democratic Party, China Justice Party, China National Welfare Party, China Old Veterans Unification Party, China Renaissance Party, Chinese Republican Party, China Social Democratic Party, Labor Party, National Revival Party, Peasant Party, Workers' Party, and Young China Party.

Note: When the ROC Second National Assembly convened on March 20, 1992, besides the 325 elected members (225 regional deputies, 80 nationwide deputies, 20 overseas Chinese deputies) 78 additional deputies (zeng'e guodai 增額國代)—64 KMT, 9 DPP, 1 Nationwide Democratic Nonpartisan Union, 1 Young China Party, 3 Independent—elected through a 1986 additional election also participated; the 78 additional deputies' six-year term expired on Jan. 31, 1993.

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Second Legislative Yuan

Term for the election in Chinese: dierjie lifayuan xuanju 第二屆立法院選舉

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Dec. 19, 1992
Eligible voters 13,421,170 voters
Total votes cast 9,666,020 votes
Voter turnout (%) 72.020 percent
Valid votes 9,489,305 votes (98.171 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 176,715 votes (1.828 percent of all votes cast)

Result details

Political Party Valid Votes Received Percent of Valid Votes Seats
KMT 5,741,462 60.504 % 102
DPP 3,022,833 31.855 % 51
Chinese Social
Democratic Party
126,213 1.330 % 1
Independent 542,714 5.719 % 7
Others 56,083 0.591 % 0

The following 11 political parties also participated in the election but failed to win any seats—China Democratic Socialist Party, China Great Harmony Democratic Party, China Justice Party, China National Welfare Party, China People's Action Party, China Solidarity Party, Labor Party, National Revival Party, Truth Party, Workers' Party, and Young China Party.

The Second Legislative Yuan had a total of 161 members—119 district representatives, 6 aboriginal representatives, 30 national representatives, and 6 overseas Chinese representatives.

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Third Legislative Yuan

Term for the election in Chinese: disanjie lifayuan xuanju 第三屆立法院選舉

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Dec. 3, 1995
Eligible voters 14,153,420 voters
Total votes cast 9,574,388 votes
Voter turnout (%) 67.647 percent
Valid votes 9,442,136 votes (98.618 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 132,252 votes (1.381 percent of all votes cast)

Result details

Political Party Valid Votes Received Percent of Valid Votes Seats
KMT 4,349,089 46.060 % 85
DPP 3,132,156 33.172 % 54
NP 1,222,931 12.951 % 21
Independent 729,987 7.731 % 4
Others 7,973 0.084 % 0

The following 4 political parties also participated in the election but failed to win any seats—Chinese Taiwan Aborigines Party, Civil Party, Nationwide Democratic Nonpartisan Union, and Labor Party.

The Third Legislative Yuan had a total of 164 members—122 district representatives, 6 aboriginal representatives, 30 national representatives, and 6 overseas Chinese representatives.

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Third National Assembly [334 seats]

Term for the election in Chinese: disanjie guomin dahui xuanju 第三屆國民大會選舉

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date March 23, 1996
Eligible voters 14,130,084 voters
Total votes cast 10,769,224 votes
Voter turnout (%) 76.214 percent
Valid votes 10,428,388 votes (96.835 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 340,836 votes (3.164 percent of all votes cast)

Result details

Political Party Valid Votes Received Percent of Valid Votes Seats
KMT 5,180,829 49.680 % 183
DPP 3,112,736 29.848 % 99
NP 1,425,896 13.673 % 46
Green Party Taiwan 113,942 1.092 % 1
Independent 572,961 5.494 % 5
Others 22,024 0.211 % 0

The following 4 political parties also participated in the election but failed to win any seats—Advance Party, Chinese Taiwan Aborigines Party, Labor Party, and Young China Party.

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Fourth Legislative Yuan

Term for the election in Chinese: disijie lifayuan xuanju 第四屆立法院選舉

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Dec. 5, 1998
Eligible voters 14,961,930 voters
Total votes cast 10,188,302 votes
Voter turnout (%) 68.094 percent
Valid votes 10,035,829 votes (98.503 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 152,473 votes (1.496 percent of all votes cast)

Result details

Political Party Valid Votes Received Percent of Valid Votes Seats
KMT 4,659,679 46.430 % 123
DPP 2,966,834 29.562 % 70
NP 708,465 7.059 % 11
Democratic Union of Taiwan 375,118 3.737 % 4
Nationwide Democratic
Nonpartisan Union
66,033 0.657 % 3
New Nation Alliance 157,826 1.572 % 1
TAIP 145,118 1.445 % 1
Independent 946,431 9.430 % 12
Others 10,325 0.102 % 0

The following 4 political parties also participated in the election but failed to win any seats—Chinese Taiwan Aborigines Party, Green Party Taiwan, National Democratic Party, and Young China Party

The Fourth Legislative Yuan had a total of 225 members—168 district representatives, 8 aboriginal representatives, 41 national representatives, and 8 overseas Chinese representatives.

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Fifth Legislative Yuan

Term for the election in Chinese: diwujie lifayuan xuanju 第五屆立法院選舉

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Dec. 1, 2001
Eligible voters 15,822,583 voters
Total votes cast 10,469,005 votes
Voter turnout (%) 66.164 percent
Valid votes 10,327,855 votes (98.651 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 141,150 votes (1.348 percent of all votes cast)

Result details

Political Party Valid Votes Received Percent of Valid Votes Seats
DPP 3,447,740 33.382 % 87
KMT 2,949,371 28.557 % 68
PFP 1,917,836 18.569 % 46
TSU 801,560 7.761 % 13
NP 269,620 2.610 % 1
Taiwan Number One Party 12,917 0.125 % 1
Independent 899,254 8.707 % 9
Others 29,557 0.286 % 0

The following 6 political parties also participated in the election but failed to win any seats—Chinese Taiwan Aborigines Party, Greater China Unification Front, Green Party Taiwan, Nationwide Democratic Nonpartisan Union, Taiwan Intelligence Action Volunteers Party, and TAIP.

The Fifth Legislative Yuan had a total of 225 members—168 district representatives, 8 aboriginal representatives, 41 national representatives, and 8 overseas Chinese representatives.

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Sixth Legislative Yuan

Term for the election in Chinese: diliujie lifayuan xuanju 第六屆立法院選舉

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Dec. 11, 2004
Eligible voters 16,559,254 voters
Total votes cast 9,796,299 votes
Voter turnout (%) 59.159 percent
Valid votes 9,717,359 votes (99.194 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 78,940 votes (0.805 percent of all votes cast)

Result details

Political Party Valid Votes Received Percent of Valid Votes Seats
DPP 3,471,429 35.723 % 89
KMT 3,190,081 32.828 % 79
PFP 1,350,613 13.898 % 34
TSU 756,712 7.787 % 12
NPSU 353,164 3.634 % 6
NP 12,137 0.124 % 1
Independent 577,292 5.940 % 4
Others 5,931 0.061 % 0

The following 3 political parties also participated in the election but failed to win any seats—Civil Service Alliance, Taiwan Intelligence Action Volunteers Party, and TAIP.

The Sixth Legislative Yuan had a total of 225 members—168 district representatives, 8 aboriginal representatives, 41 national representatives, and 8 overseas Chinese representatives.

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Ad Hoc-National Assembly

Term for the election in Chinese: renwuxing guomin dahui xuanju 任務型國民大會選舉

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date May 14, 2005
Eligible voters 16,750,867 voters
Total votes cast 3,913,338 votes
Voter turnout (%) 23.362 percent
Valid votes 3,875,598 votes (99.035 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 37,740 votes (0.964 percent of all votes cast)

Result details

Political Party (1: supporting constitutional
amendment; 2: opposing it)
Valid Votes
Received
Percent of
Valid Votes
Seats
1 DPP 1,647,791 42.517 % 127
KMT 1,508,384 38.920 % 117
Chinese People's Party 41,940 1.082 % 3
Peasant Party 15,516 0.400 % 1
Civil Party 8,609 0.222 % 1
2 TSU 273,147 7.047 % 21
PFP 236,716 6.107 % 18
150 persons union led by
Chang Yia-chung 張亞中
65,081 1.679 % 5
NP 34,253 0.883 % 3
NPSU 25,162 0.649 % 2
TAIP 11,500 0.296 % 1
20 persons union led by
Wang Ting-sing 王廷興
7,499 0.193 % 1

The 300-member Ad Hoc-National Assembly was elected for the purpose of voting on constitutional amendments. It convened on May 30, 2005 in Taipei, and during its final meeting on June 7, 2005 voted in favour of constitutional amendments passed by the ROC Legislative Yuan the previous August concerning the implementation of a new voting system and the abolishment of the National Assembly.

Note: The political organization led by Chang Yia-chung is also known as Democratic Action Alliance (DAA).

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Seventh Legislative Yuan

Term for the election in Chinese: diqijie lifayuan xuanju 第七屆立法院選舉

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date:
Jan. 12, 2008
District r. [1] Aboriginal r. [2] 1 + 2 National r. and
overseas Chinese r.
Eligible voters 16,856,584 323,072 17,179,656 17,288,551
Total votes cast 9,897,618 153,001 10,050,619 10,076,239
Voter turnout (%) 58.716 % 47.358 % 58.503 % 58.282 %
Valid votes
(% of all votes)
9,740,896
(98.416 %)
149,880
(97.960 %)
9,890,776
(98.409 %)
9,780,573
(97.065 %)
Invalid votes
(% of all votes)
156,722
(1.583 %)
3,121
(2.039 %)
159,843
(1.590 %)
295,666
(2.934 %)

The Seventh Legislative Yuan had a total of 113 members—73 district representatives, 6 aboriginal representatives, 34 national representatives and overseas Chinese representatives. According to constitutional amendments passed by the Fifth Legislative Yuan on Aug. 23, 2004 and confirmed by the Ad Hoc-National Assembly on June 7, 2005, the number of legislators was reduced from 225 to 113 and their terms increased from three to four years. Furthermore, for the election of the Seventh Legislative Yuan, a new electoral system was implemented, introducing a "single-member district, two-ballot" system (danyi xuanqu liangpiaozhi 單一選區兩票制) which replaced the electoral system of multi-member districts and a single vote. For the national and overseas Chinese representatives ("legislator-at-large seats"), a five-percent threshold was imposed.

• District representatives in the Seventh Legislative Yuan (73 seats)

Political Party Valid Votes Received Percent of Valid Votes Seats
KMT 5,209,237 53.478 % 57
DPP 3,765,222 38.653 % 13
NPSU 219,305 2.251 % 2
Independent 382,684 3.928 % 1
Others (incl. PFP) 164,448 1.688 % 0

• Aboriginal representatives in the Seventh Legislative Yuan (6 seats)

Plains Aborigines—Eligible voters 156,052; total votes cast 66,908 (turnout 42.875 %); valid votes 65,522 (97.928 % of total); invalid votes 1,386 (2.071 % of total).

Mountain Aborigines—Eligible voters 167,020; total votes cast 86,093 (turnout 51.546 %); valid votes 84,358 (97.984 % of total); invalid votes 1,735 (2.015 % of total).

 
Political Party
Plains Aborigines Mountain Aborigines
Votes Percent Seats Votes Percent Seats
KMT 37,225 56.812 % 2 45,050 53.403 % 2
PFP 11,925 18.199 % 1 14,265 16.910 % 0
NPSU 0 20,012 23.722 % 1
Ind./Others (incl. DPP) 16,372 24.987 % 0 5,031 5.963 % 0

Aborigines combined—KMT 82,275 (54.893 %, 4 seats); PFP 26,190 (17.473 %, 1 seat); NPSU 20,012 (13.352 %, 1 seat); Ind./Others (incl. DPP) 21,403 (14.280 %, 0 seats).

•   National representatives and overseas Chinese representatives in the Seventh Legislative Yuan (34 seats)

Political Party Valid Votes Received Percent of Valid Votes Seats
KMT 5,010,801 51.232 % 20
DPP 3,610,106 36.910 % 14
Others (incl. PFP, NPSU etc.) 1,159,666 11.856 % 0

Note: For the national representatives and overseas Chinese representatives, only two parties—the KMT and the DPP—managed to garner more than 5 percent of the valid votes. Altogether, the distribution of the 113 seats was 81 KMT, 27 DPP, 3 NPSU, 1 PFP, 1 Independent, giving the KMT more than a two-thirds majority.

The following 13 political parties also participated in the election but failed to win any seats—Civil Party, Dadao Compassion Jishih Party, Democratic Freedom Party, Green Party Taiwan, Hakka Party, Home Party, National Loyalty Party, NP, Taiwan Constitution Association, Taiwan Farmers' Party, Taiwan World Peace Party, Third Society Party, and TSU.

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Eighth Legislative Yuan

Term for the election in Chinese: dibajie lifayuan xuanju 第八屆立法院選舉

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date:
Jan. 14, 2012
District r. [1] Aboriginal r. [2] 1 + 2 National r. and
overseas Chinese r.
Eligible voters 17,625,632 354,946 17,980,578 18,090,295
Total votes cast 13,170,281 220,045 13,390,326 13,445,691
Voter turnout (%) 74.722 % 61.993 % 74.471 % 74.325 %
Valid votes
(% of all votes)
12,943,139
(98.275 %)
214,843
(97.635 %)
13,157,982
(98.264 %)
13,162,072
(97.890 %)
Invalid votes
(% of all votes)
227,142
(1.724 %)
5,202
(2.364 %)
232,344
(1.735 %)
283,619
(2.109 %)

The Eighth Legislative Yuan had a total of 113 members—73 district representatives, 6 aboriginal representatives, 34 national representatives and overseas Chinese representatives.

• District representatives in the Eighth Legislative Yuan (73 seats)

Political Party Valid Votes Received Percent of Valid Votes Seats
KMT 6,228,613 48.122 % 44
DPP 5,753,218 44.449 % 27
NPSU 139,341 1.076 % 1
Independent 498,820 3.853 % 1
Others (incl. PFP, TSU) 323,147 2.496 % 0

• Aboriginal representatives in the Eighth Legislative Yuan (6 seats)

Plains Aborigines—Eligible voters 171,548; total votes cast 100,671 (turnout 58.683 %); valid votes 98,131 (97.476 % of total); invalid votes 2,540 (2.523 % of total).

Mountain Aborigines—Eligible voters 183,398; total votes cast 119,374 (turnout 65.090 %); valid votes 116,712 (97.770 % of total); invalid votes 2,662 (2.229 % of total).

 
Political Party
Plains Aborigines Mountain Aborigines
Votes Percent Seats Votes Percent Seats
KMT 50,478 51.439 % 2 60,210 51.588 % 2
PFP 13,992 14.258 % 1 15,533 13.308 % 0
NPSU 0 29,520 25.293 % 1
Ind./Others (incl. DPP) 33,661 34.302 % 0 11,449 9.809 % 0

Aborigines combined—KMT 110,688 (51.520 %, 4 seats); PFP 29,525 (13.742 %, 1 seat); NPSU 29,520 (13.740 %, 1 seat); Ind./Others (incl. DPP) 45,110 (20.996 %, 0 seats).

•   National representatives and overseas Chinese representatives in the Eighth Legislative Yuan (34 seats)

Political Party Valid Votes Received Percent of Valid Votes Seats
KMT 5,863,279 44.546 % 16
DPP 4,556,424 34.617 % 13
TSU 1,178,797 8.956 % 3
PFP 722,089 5.486 % 2
Others (incl. NP etc.) 841,483 6.393 % 0

Note: For the national representatives and overseas Chinese representatives, four parties—the KMT, the DPP, the TSU and the PFP—managed to garner more than 5 percent of the valid votes. Altogether, the distribution of the 113 seats was 64 KMT, 40 DPP, 3 PFP, 3 TSU, 2 NPSU, 1 Independent.

The following 10 political parties also participated in the election but failed to win any seats—Green Party Taiwan, NHSA, NP, People's Democratic Front, People Party, R.O.C. The Basic Laws of Taiwan Corporation, Taiwan Global Commercial Party, Taiwan Ideology Party, Taiwan National Congress, and Zheng Party.

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Ninth Legislative Yuan

Term for the election in Chinese: dijiujie lifayuan xuanju 第九屆立法院選舉

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date:
Jan. 16, 2016
District r. [1] Aboriginal r. [2] 1 + 2 National r. and
overseas Chinese r.
Eligible voters 18,305,112 387,105 18,692,217 18,786,940
Total votes cast 12,187,924 212,102 12,400,026 12,447,036
Voter turnout (%) 66.582 % 54.791 % 66.337 % 66.253 %
Valid votes
(% of all votes)
11,941,091
(97.974 %)
207,572
(97.864 %)
12,148,663
(97.972 %)
12,190,139
(97.936 %)
Invalid votes
(% of all votes)
246,833
(2.025 %)
4,530
(2.135 %)
251,363
(2.027 %)
256,897
(2.063 %)

The Ninth Legislative Yuan had a total of 113 members—73 district representatives, 6 aboriginal representatives, 34 national representatives and overseas Chinese representatives.

• District representatives in the Ninth Legislative Yuan (73 seats)

Political Party Valid Votes Received Percent of Valid Votes Seats
DPP 5,382,949 45.07920 % 49
KMT 4,622,756 38.71301 % 20
NPP 351,244 2.94147 % 3
Independent 649,371 5.43812 % 1
Others (incl. PFP, TSU, NP) 934,771 7.82818 % 0

• Aboriginal representatives in the Ninth Legislative Yuan (6 seats)

Plains Aborigines—Eligible voters 187,076; total votes cast 96,761 (turnout 51.722 %); valid votes 94,607 (97.773 % of total); invalid votes 2,154 (2.226 % of total).

Mountain Aborigines—Eligible voters 200,029; total votes cast 115,341 (turnout 57.662 %); valid votes 112,965 (97.940 % of total); invalid votes 2,376 (2.059 % of total).

 
Political Party
Plains Aborigines Mountain Aborigines
Votes Percent Seats Votes Percent Seats
KMT 55,565 58.732 % 2 46,045 40.760 % 2
DPP 17,052 18.024 % 1 16,658 14.746 % 0
NPSU 0 27,690 24.512 % 1
Ind./Others 21,990 23.243 % 0 22,572 19.981 % 0

Aborigines combined—KMT 101,610 (48.951 %, 4 seats); DPP 33,710 (16.240 %, 1 seat); NPSU 27,690 (13.339 %, 1 seat); Ind./Others (incl. PFP, MKT) 44,562 (21.468 %, 0 seats).

•   National representatives and overseas Chinese representatives in the Ninth Legislative Yuan (34 seats)

Political Party Valid Votes Received Percent of Valid Votes Seats
DPP 5,370,953 44.0598 % 18
KMT 3,280,949 26.9147 % 11
PFP 794,838 6.5203 % 3
NPP 744,315 6.1058 % 2
Others (incl. NP, TSU etc.) 1,999,084 16.3991 % 0

Note: For the national representatives and overseas Chinese representatives, four parties—the DPP, the KMT, the PFP and the NPP—managed to garner more than 5 percent of the valid votes. Altogether, the distribution of the 113 seats was 68 DPP, 35 KMT, 5 NPP, 3 PFP, 1 NPSU, 1 Independent.

The following 19 political parties also participated in the election but failed to win any seats—China Production Party, Constitutional Conventions of Taiwan, FHL, Free Taiwan Party, Green Party Taiwan & Social Democratic Party Alliance, MCFAP, MKT, Motorists' Party of ROC, NHSA, NP, People's Democratic Front, PEUP, PPUP, Social Welfare Party, Taiwan First Nations Party, Taiwan Independence Party, Taiwan Labor Party, Taiwan Win Party, Trees Party, TSU, and Unionist Party.

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Tenth Legislative Yuan

Term for the election in Chinese: dishijie lifayuan xuanju 第十屆立法院選舉

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date:
Jan. 11, 2020
District r. [1] Aboriginal r. [2] 1 + 2 National r. and
overseas Chinese r.
Eligible voters 18,806,913 414,948 19,221,861 19,312,105
Total votes cast 14,129,999 272,076 14,402,075 14,456,293
Voter turnout (%) 75.1319 % 65.568 % 74.925 % 74.856 %
Valid votes
(% of all votes)
13,885,428
(98.269 %)
266,604
(97.988 %)
14,152,032
(98.2638 %)
14,160,138
(97.951 %)
Invalid votes
(% of all votes)
244,571
(1.7308 %)
5,472
(2.011 %)
250,043
(1.736 %)
296,155
(2.048 %)

The Tenth Legislative Yuan has a total of 113 members—73 district representatives, 6 aboriginal representatives, 34 national representatives and overseas Chinese representatives.

• District representatives in the Tenth Legislative Yuan (73 seats)

Political Party Valid Votes Received Percent of Valid Votes Seats
DPP 6,332,168 45.6029 % 46
KMT 5,633,749 40.5731 % 22
Taiwan Statebuilding Party 141,503 1.0190 % 1
Independent 1,013,347 7.2979 % 4
Others (incl. TPP, PFP) 764,661 5.5069 % 0

• Aboriginal representatives in the Tenth Legislative Yuan (6 seats)

Plains Aborigines—Eligible voters 199,833; total votes cast 124,504 (turnout 62.304 %); valid votes 121,880 (97.8924 % of total); invalid votes 2,624 (2.1075 % of total).

Mountain Aborigines—Eligible voters 215,115; total votes cast 147,572 (turnout 68.601 %); valid votes 144,724 (98.070 % of total); invalid votes 2,848 (1.929 % of total).

 
Political Party
Plains Aborigines Mountain Aborigines
Votes Percent Seats Votes Percent Seats
KMT 78,153 64.122 % 2 50,093 34.612 % 1
DPP 25,843 21.203 % 1 25,772 17.807 % 1
Independent 7,604 6.238 % 0 65,512 45.266 % 1
Others 10,280 8.434 % 0 3,347 2.312 % 0

Aborigines combined—KMT 128,246 (48.103 %, 3 seats); DPP 51,615 (19.360 %, 2 seats); Ind. 73,116 (27.425 %, 1 seat); Others (incl. United Action Alliance, Formosa Alliance, Green Party, Stabilizing Force Party etc.) 13,627 (5.111 %, 0 seats).

•   National representatives and overseas Chinese representatives in the Tenth Legislative Yuan (34 seats)

Political Party Valid Votes Received Percent of Valid Votes Seats
DPP 4,811,241 33.9774 % 13
KMT 4,723,504 33.3578 % 13
TPP 1,588,806 11.2203 % 5
NPP 1,098,100 7.7549 % 3
Others (incl. PFP, Green Party etc.) 1,938,487 13.6897 % 0

Note: For the national representatives and overseas Chinese representatives, four parties—the DPP, the KMT, the TPP and the NPP—managed to garner more than 5 percent of the valid votes. Altogether, the distribution of the 113 seats was 62 DPP, 38 KMT, 5 TPP, 3 NPP, 1 Taiwan Statebuilding Party, 4 Independent.

The following 14 political parties also participated in the election but failed to win any seats—PFP, TSU, NP, Green Party, Unionist Party, Labor Party, TAPA, Taiwan Renewal Party, Sovereign State for Formosa & Pescadores Party, Formosa Alliance, IFU, United Action Alliance, Stabilizing Force Party, and CPA.

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Provincial elections

Ninth Provincial Assembly of Taiwan [77 seats]

Term for the election in Chinese: dijiujie Taiwan sheng yiyuan xuanju 第 9 屆台灣省議員選舉

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Dec. 2, 1989
Eligible voters 9,964,303 voters
Total votes cast 7,561,562 votes
Voter turnout (%) 75.886 percent
Valid votes 7,301,076 votes (96.555 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 260,486 votes (3.444 percent of all votes cast)

Parties and Results

Political Party Valid Votes Received Percent of Valid Votes Seats
KMT N/A 62.10 % 54
DPP N/A 25.60 % 16
Independent/others N/A 12.30 % 7

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Tenth Provincial Assembly of Taiwan [79 seats]

Term for the election in Chinese: dishijie Taiwan sheng yiyuan xuanju 第 10 屆台灣省議員選舉

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Dec. 3, 1994
Eligible voters 11,111,460 voters
Total votes cast 8,480,041 votes
Voter turnout (%) 76.317 percent
Valid votes 8,278,011 votes (97.617 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 202,030 votes (2.382 percent of all votes cast)

Parties and Results

Political Party Valid Votes Received Percent of Valid Votes Seats
KMT 4,223,995 51.026 % 48
DPP 2,693,353 32.536 % 23
NP 309,648 3.740 % 2
Independent 1,051,015 12.696 % 6

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Taiwan Provincial Governor

Term for the election in Chinese: diyijie Taiwan shengzhang xuanju 第 1 屆台灣省長選舉

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Dec. 3, 1994
Eligible voters 11,184,258 voters
Total votes cast 8,517,124 votes
Voter turnout (%) 76.152 percent
Valid votes 8,405,930 votes (98.694 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 111,194 votes (1.305 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates and Results

Candidate for Taiwan Provincial
Governor (1994)
Political Party
Affiliation
Valid Votes
Received
Percent of
Valid Votes
Winner
James Soong 宋楚瑜 (b. 1942) KMT 4,726,012 56.222 %
Chen Ding-nan 陳定南 (1943-2006) DPP 3,254,887 38.721 %  
Ju Gau-jeng 朱高正 (1954-2021) NP 362,377 4.310 %  
Tsai Cheng-chih 蔡正治 (b. 1943) Ind. 37,256 0.443 %  
Wu Tzu 吳梓 (b. 1939) Ind. 25,398 0.302 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 1,471,125 votes (17.501 percent of valid votes)

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Elections for mayors of special municipalities since 1994

In the local politics of Taiwan ROC, special municipalities are of major significance, and the mayor of a special municipality is regarded as a political heavyweight. The first special municipality in Taiwan was Taipei which was elevated to that status in 1967, followed by Kaohsiung in 1979. In December 2010, the number of special municipalities in Taiwan ROC rose to five—Taipei County was upgraded and renamed "New Taipei City", Taichung City and Taichung County were merged and upgraded, likewise Tainan City and Tainan County, and Kaohsiung County was included into Kaohsiung Special Municipality. Taoyuan became the sixth special municipality in December 2014. The mayors of Taipei and Kaohsiung have been directly elected since 1994.

+++++ +++++ +++++ +++++ +++++ +++++ +++++ +++++ +++++ +++++

Taipei 1994

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Dec. 3, 1994
Eligible voters 1,816,986 voters
Total votes cast 1,426,852 votes
Voter turnout (%) 78.528 percent
Valid votes 1,408,554 votes (98.717 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 18,298 votes (1.282 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates and Results

Taipei City mayor
candidate (1994)
Political Party
Affiliation
Valid Votes
Received
Percent of
Valid Votes
Winner
Chen Shui-bian 陳水扁 (b. 1950) DPP 615,090 43.668 %
Jaw Shau-kong 趙少康 (b. 1950) NP 424,905 30.166 %  
Huang Ta-chou 黃大洲 (b. 1936) KMT 364,618 25.885 %  
Jih Rong-ze 紀榮治 (b. 1944) Ind. 3,941 0.279 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 190,185 votes (13.502 percent of valid votes)

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Kaohsiung 1994

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Dec. 3, 1994
Eligible voters 926,318 voters
Total votes cast 746,469 votes
Voter turnout (%) 80.584 percent
Valid votes 735,886 votes (98.582 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 10,583 votes (1.417 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates and Results

Kaohsiung City mayor
candidate (1994)
Political Party
Affiliation
Valid Votes
Received
Percent of
Valid Votes
Winner
Wu Den-yih 吳敦義 (b. 1948) KMT 400,766 54.460 %
Chang Chun-hsiung 張俊雄 (b. 1938) DPP 289,110 39.287 %  
Tang A-ken 湯阿根 (b. 1936) NP 25,413 3.453 %  
Shih Chung-hsiang 施鐘響 (b. 1937) Ind. 13,084 1.777 %  
Cheng Te-yiao 鄭德耀 (b. 1951) Ind. 7,513 1.020 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 111,656 votes (15.173 percent of valid votes)

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Taipei 1998

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Dec. 5, 1998
Eligible voters 1,868,860 voters
Total votes cast 1,511,635 votes
Voter turnout (%) 80.885 percent
Valid votes 1,498,901 votes (99.157 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 12,734 votes (0.842 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates and Results

Taipei City mayor
candidate (1998)
Political Party
Affiliation
Valid Votes
Received
Percent of
Valid Votes
Winner
Ma Ying-jeou 馬英九 (b. 1950) KMT 766,377 51.129 %
Chen Shui-bian 陳水扁 (b. 1950) DPP 688,072 45.905 %  
Wang Chien-shien 王建煊 (b. 1938) NP 44,452 2.965 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 78,305 votes (5.224 percent of valid votes)

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Kaohsiung 1998

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Dec. 5, 1998
Eligible voters 1,004,872 voters
Total votes cast 807,996 votes
Voter turnout (%) 80.407 percent
Valid votes 796,185 votes (98.538 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 11,811 votes (1.461 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates and Results

Kaohsiung City mayor
candidate (1998)
Political Party
Affiliation
Valid Votes
Received
Percent of
Valid votes
Winner
Frank Hsieh 謝長廷 (b. 1946) DPP 387,797 48.706 %
Wu Den-yih 吳敦義 (b. 1948) KMT 383,232 48.133 %  
Cheng Te-yiao 鄭德耀 (b. 1951) Ind. 18,699 2.348 %  
Wu Chien-kuo 吳建國 (b. 1950) NP 6,457 0.810 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 4,565 votes (0.573 percent of valid votes)

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Taipei 2002

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Dec. 7, 2002
Eligible voters 1,947,169 voters
Total votes cast 1,374,862 votes
Voter turnout (%) 70.608 percent
Valid votes 1,361,913 votes (99.058 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 12,949 votes (0.941 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates and Results

Taipei City mayor
candidate (2002)
Political Party
Affiliation
Valid Votes
Received
Percent of
Valid Votes
Winner
Ma Ying-jeou 馬英九 (b. 1950) KMT 873,102 64.108 %
Lee Ying-yuan 李應元 (1953-2021) DPP 488,811 35.891 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 384,291 votes (28.217 percent of valid votes)

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Kaohsiung 2002

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Dec. 7, 2002
Eligible voters 1,092,668 voters
Total votes cast 779,911 votes
Voter turnout (%) 71.376 percent
Valid votes 772,157 votes (99.005 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 7,754 votes (0.994 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates and Results

Kaohsiung City mayor
candidate (2002)
Political Party
Affiliation
Valid Votes
Received
Percent of
Valid Votes
Winner
Frank Hsieh 謝長廷 (b. 1946) DPP 386,384 50.039 %
Huang Chun-ying 黃俊英 (1941-2014) KMT 361,546 46.822 %  
Chang Po-ya 張博雅 (b. 1942) Ind. 13,479 1.745 %  
Shih Ming-teh 施明德 (b. 1941) Ind. 8,750 1.133 %  
Huang Tien-sheng 黃天生 (b. 1946) Ind. 1,998 0.258 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 24,838 votes (3.2167 percent of valid votes)

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Taipei 2006

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Dec. 9, 2006
Eligible voters 2,008,434 voters
Total votes cast 1,295,790 votes
Voter turnout (%) 64.517 percent
Valid votes 1,286,089 votes (99.251 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 9,701 votes (0.748 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates and Results

Taipei City mayor
candidate (2006)
Political Party
Affiliation
Valid Votes
Received
Percent of
Valid Votes
Winner
Hau Lung-bin 郝龍斌 (b. 1952) KMT 692,085 53.813 %
Frank Hsieh 謝長廷 (b. 1946) DPP 525,869 40.889 %  
James Soong 宋楚瑜 (b. 1942) PFP 53,281 4.142 %  
Li Ao 李敖 (1935-2018) Ind. 7,795 0.606 %  
Ke Tsi-hai 柯賜海 (b. 1956) Ind. 3,687 0.286 %  
Clara Chou 周玉蔻 (b. 1953) TSU 3,372 0.262 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 166,216 votes (12.924 percent of valid votes)

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Kaohsiung 2006

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Dec. 9, 2006
Eligible voters 1,140,110 voters
Total votes cast 774,490 votes
Voter turnout (%) 67.931 percent
Valid votes 767,868 votes (99.144 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 6,622 votes (0.855 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates and Results

Kaohsiung City mayor
candidate (2006)
Political Party
Affiliation
Valid Votes
Received
Percent of
Valid Votes
Winner
Chen Chu 陳菊 (b. 1950) DPP 379,417 49.411 %
Huang Chun-ying 黃俊英 (1941-2014) KMT 378,303 49.266 %  
Lo Chih-ming 羅志明 (b. 1957) TSU 6,599 0.859 %  
Lin Ching-yuan 林景元 (b. 1925) Ind. 1,803 0.234 %  
Roger Lin 林志昇 (1950-2019) TDA 1,746 0.227 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 1,114 votes (0.145 percent of valid votes)

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Taipei 2010

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Nov. 27, 2010
Eligible voters 2,045,925 voters
Total votes cast 1,445,370 votes
Voter turnout (%) 70.646 percent
Valid votes 1,433,736 votes (99.195 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 11,634 votes (0.804 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates and Results

Taipei City mayor
candidate (2010)
Political Party
Affiliation
Valid Votes
Received
Percent of
Valid Votes
Winner
Hau Lung-bin 郝龍斌 (b. 1952) KMT 797,865 55.649 %
Su Tseng-chang 蘇貞昌 (b. 1947) DPP 628,129 43.810 %  
Wu Wu-ming 吳武明 (b. 1957) Ind. 3,672 0.256 %  
Hsiao Shu-hua 蕭淑華 (b. 1961) Ind. 2,238 0.156 %  
Wu Yen-cheng 吳炎成 (b. 1942) Ind. 1,832 0.127 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 169,736 votes (11.8387 percent of valid votes)

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Kaohsiung 2010

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Nov. 27, 2010
Eligible voters 2,166,119 voters
Total votes cast 1,570,895 votes
Voter turnout (%) 72.521 percent
Valid votes 1,555,210 votes (99.001 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 15,685 votes (0.998 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates and Results

Kaohsiung City mayor
candidate (2010)
Political Party
Affiliation
Valid Votes
Received
Percent of
Valid Votes
Winner
Chen Chu 陳菊 (b. 1950) DPP 821,089 52.796 %
Yang Chiu-hsing 楊秋興 (b. 1956) Ind. 414,950 26.681 %  
Huang Chao-shun 黃昭順 (b. 1953) KMT 319,171 20.522 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 406,139 votes (26.1147 percent of valid votes)

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New Taipei City 2010

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Nov. 27, 2010
Eligible voters 3,006,877 voters
Total votes cast 2,142,410 votes
Voter turnout (%) 71.250 percent
Valid votes 2,120,436 votes (98.974 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 21,974 votes (1.025 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates and Results

New Taipei City mayor
candidate (2010)
Political Party
Affiliation
Valid Votes
Received
Percent of
Valid Votes
Winner
Eric Chu 朱立倫 (b. 1961) KMT 1,115,536 52.608 %
Tsai Ing-wen 蔡英文 (b. 1956) DPP 1,004,900 47.391 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 110,636 votes (5.217 percent of valid votes)

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Taichung 2010

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Nov. 27, 2010
Eligible voters 1,977,368 voters
Total votes cast 1,446,519 votes
Voter turnout (%) 73.153 percent
Valid votes 1,428,642 votes (98.764 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 17,877 votes (1.235 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates and Results

Taichung City mayor
candidate (2010)
Political Party
Affiliation
Valid Votes
Received
Percent of
Valid Votes
Winner
Jason Hu 胡志強 (b. 1948) KMT 730,284 51.117 %
Su Jia-chyuan 蘇嘉全 (b. 1956) DPP 698,358 48.882 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 31,926 votes (2.2347 percent of valid votes)

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Tainan 2010

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Nov. 27, 2010
Eligible voters 1,467,256 voters
Total votes cast 1,041,941 votes
Voter turnout (%) 71.012 percent
Valid votes 1,026,093 votes (98.478 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 15,848 votes (1.521 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates and Results

Tainan City mayor
candidate (2010)
Political Party
Affiliation
Valid Votes
Received
Percent of
Valid Votes
Winner
William Lai Ching-te 賴清德 (b. 1959) DPP 619,897 60.413 %
Kuo Tien-tsai 郭添財 (b. 1962) KMT 406,196 39.586 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 213,701 votes (20.8266 percent of valid votes)

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Taipei 2014

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Nov. 29, 2014
Eligible voters 2,147,213 voters
Total votes cast 1,512,724 votes
Voter turnout (%) 70.450 percent
Valid votes 1,494,046 votes (98.765 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 18,678 votes (1.234 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates and Results

Taipei City mayor
candidate (2014)
Political Party
Affiliation
Valid Votes
Received
Percent of
Valid Votes
Winner
Ko Wen-je 柯文哲 (b. 1959) Ind. 853,983 57.159 %
Sean Lien 連勝文 (b. 1970) KMT 609,932 40.824 %  
Chao Yen-ching 趙衍慶 (b. 1936) Ind. 15,898 1.064 %  
Neil Peng 馮光遠 (b. 1953) Ind. 8,080 0.540 %  
Lee Hung-hsin 李宏信 (b. 1940) Ind. 2,621 0.175 %  
Chen Yung-chang 陳永昌 (b. 1952) Ind. 1,908 0.127 %  
Chen Ju-pin 陳汝斌 (b. 1937) 1,624 0.108 %  

= Third Class Citizen Justice Human Rights Self-Help Party

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 244,051 votes (16.3349 percent of valid votes)

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Kaohsiung 2014

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Nov. 29, 2014
Eligible voters 2,231,225 voters
Total votes cast 1,482,425 votes
Voter turnout (%) 66.439 percent
Valid votes 1,458,872 votes (98.411 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 23,553 votes (1.588 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates and Results

Kaohsiung City mayor
candidate (2014)
Political Party
Affiliation
Valid Votes
Received
Percent of
Valid Votes
Winner
Chen Chu 陳菊 (b. 1950) DPP 993,300 68.086 %
Yang Chiu-hsing 楊秋興 (b. 1956) KMT 450,647 30.890 %  
Chou Ke-sheng 周可盛 (b. 1957) Ind. 14,925 1.023 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 542,653 votes (37.196 percent of valid votes)

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New Taipei City 2014

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Nov. 29, 2014
Eligible voters 3,156,402 voters
Total votes cast 1,946,063 votes
Voter turnout (%) 61.654 percent
Valid votes 1,916,283 votes (98.469 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 29,780 votes (1.530 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates and Results

New Taipei City mayor
candidate (2014)
Political Party
Affiliation
Valid Votes
Received
Percent of
Valid Votes
Winner
Eric Chu 朱立倫 (b. 1961) KMT 959,302 50.060 %
Yu Shyi-kun 游錫堃 (b. 1948) DPP 934,774 48.780 %  
Lee Chin-shun 李進順 (b. 1960) Ind. 22,207 1.158 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 24,528 votes (1.2799 percent of valid votes)

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Taoyuan 2014

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Nov. 29, 2014
Eligible voters 1,568,713 voters
Total votes cast 984,099 votes
Voter turnout (%) 62.732 percent
Valid votes 965,490 votes (98.109 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 18,609 votes (1.890 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates and Results

Taoyuan City mayor
candidate (2014)
Political Party
Affiliation
Valid Votes
Received
Percent of
Valid Votes
Winner
Cheng Wen-tsang 鄭文燦 (b. 1967) DPP 492,414 51.001 %
John Wu 吳志揚 (b. 1969) KMT 463,133 47.968 %  
Hsu Jui-chih 許睿智 (b. 1938) Ind. 9,943 1.029 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 29,281 votes (3.0327 percent of valid votes)

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Taichung 2014

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Nov. 29, 2014
Eligible voters 2,093,689 voters
Total votes cast 1,506,023 votes
Voter turnout (%) 71.931 percent
Valid votes 1,484,815 votes (98.591 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 21,208 votes (1.408 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates and Results

Taichung City mayor
candidate (2014)
Political Party
Affiliation
Valid Votes
Received
Percent of
Valid Votes
Winner
Lin Chia-lung 林佳龍 (b. 1964) DPP 847,284 57.063 %
Jason Hu 胡志強 (b. 1948) KMT 637,531 42.936 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 209,753 votes (14.1265 percent of valid votes)

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Tainan 2014

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Nov. 29, 2014
Eligible voters 1,512,778 voters
Total votes cast 996,688 votes
Voter turnout (%) 65.884 percent
Valid votes 976,093 votes (97.933 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 20,595 votes (2.066 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates and Results

Tainan City mayor
candidate (2014)
Political Party
Affiliation
Valid Votes
Received
Percent of
Valid Votes
Winner
William Lai Ching-te 賴清德 (b. 1959) DPP 711,557 72.898 %
Huang Hsiu-shuang 黃秀霜 (b. 1961) KMT 264,536 27.101 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 447,021 votes (45.7969 percent of valid votes)

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Taipei 2018

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Nov. 24, 2018
Eligible voters 2,164,155 voters
Total votes cast 1,427,225 votes
Voter turnout (%) 65.948 percent
Valid votes 1,413,870 votes (99.064 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 13,355 votes (0.935 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates and Results

Taipei City mayor
candidate (2018)
Political Party
Affiliation
Valid Votes
Received
Percent of
Valid Votes
Winner
Ko Wen-je 柯文哲 (b. 1959) Ind. 580,663 41.069 %
Ting Shou-chung 丁守中 (b. 1954) KMT 577,096 40.816 %  
Pasuya Yao Wen-chih 姚文智 (b. 1965) DPP 244,342 17.281 %  
Li Hsi-kun 李錫錕 (b. 1947) Ind. 6,158 0.435 %  
Wu E-yang 吳萼洋 (b. 1960) Ind. 5,611 0.396 %  

According to the first vote count which was conducted immediately after the poll stations closed on Nov. 24, 2018, Ko Wen-je defeated Ting Shou-chung with a margin of 3,254 votes (0.2299 percent of valid votes). After a recount was completed, the new results were released on Dec. 13, 2018, with Ko having a slightly increased winning margin of 3,567 votes (0.2522 percent of valid votes).

Taipei City mayor 2018 election First count Recount Difference
Total votes cast 1,427,643 votes 1,427,225 votes – 418 votes
Voter turnout (%) 65.967 percent 65.948 percent – 0.019 percent
Valid votes 1,414,816 votes 1,413,870 votes – 946 votes
Invalid votes 12,827 votes 13,355 votes + 528 votes
Ko Wen-je (Ind.) 580,820 votes 580,663 votes – 157 votes
Ting Shou-chung (KMT) 577,566 votes 577,096 votes – 470 votes
Pasuya Yao Wen-chih (DPP) 244,641 votes 244,342 votes – 299 votes
Li Hsi-kun (Ind.) 6,172 votes 6,158 votes – 14 votes
Wu E-yang (Ind.) 5,617 votes 5,611 votes – 6 votes

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Kaohsiung 2018

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Nov. 24, 2018
Eligible voters 2,281,338 voters
Total votes cast 1,677,650 votes
Voter turnout (%) 73.538 percent
Valid votes 1,656,907 votes (98.763 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 20,743 votes (1.236 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates and Results

Kaohsiung City mayor
candidate (2018)
Political Party
Affiliation
Valid Votes
Received
Percent of
Valid Votes
Winner
Daniel Han Kuo-yu 韓國瑜 (b. 1957) KMT 892,545 53.868 %
Chen Chi-mai 陳其邁 (b. 1964) DPP 742,239 44.796 %  
Su Ying-kuei 蘇盈貴 (b. 1958) Ind. 14,125 0.852 %  
Chu Mei-feng 璩美鳳 (b. 1966) Ind. 7,998 0.482 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 150,306 votes (9.0714 percent of valid votes)

Crime and punishment

Less than a year after assuming office as Kaohsiung mayor on Dec. 25, 2018, Han Kuo-yu on July 15, 2019 accepted the KMT's nomination as candidate for the ROC presidential election held on Jan. 11, 2020 and threw himself into the campaign. After losing the presidential election, a recall vote against the mayor was initiated which took place on June 6, 2020. Han lost that vote and was replaced in a by-election on Aug. 15, 2020 with DPP candidate Chen Chi-mai 陳其邁.

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New Taipei City 2018

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Nov. 24, 2018
Eligible voters 3,264,128 voters
Total votes cast 2,089,127 votes
Voter turnout (%) 64.002 percent
Valid votes 2,038,822 votes (97.592 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 50,305 votes (2.407 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates and Results

New Taipei City mayor
candidate (2018)
Political Party
Affiliation
Valid Votes
Received
Percent of
Valid Votes
Winner
Hou Yu-yi 侯友宜 (b. 1957) KMT 1,165,130 57.147 %
Su Tseng-chang 蘇貞昌 (b. 1947) DPP 873,692 42.852 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 291,438 votes (14.2944 percent of valid votes)

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Taoyuan 2018

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Nov. 24, 2018
Eligible voters 1,732,591 voters
Total votes cast 1,050,527 votes
Voter turnout (%) 60.633 percent
Valid votes 1,033,149 votes (98.345 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 17,378 votes (1.654 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates and Results

Taoyuan City mayor
candidate (2018)
Political Party
Affiliation
Valid Votes
Received
Percent of
Valid Votes
Winner
Cheng Wen-tsang 鄭文燦 (b. 1967) DPP 552,330 53.460 %
Chen Shei-saint 陳學聖 (b. 1957) KMT 407,234 39.416 %  
Yang Li-huan 楊麗環 (b. 1957) Ind. 51,518 4.986 %  
Chu Mei-hsueh 朱梅雪 (b. 1964) Ind. 18,200 1.761 %  
Wu Fu-tung 吳富彤 (b. 1959) Ind. 3,867 0.374 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 145,096 votes (14.044 percent of valid votes)

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Taichung 2018

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Nov. 24, 2018
Eligible voters 2,213,789 voters
Total votes cast 1,493,365 votes
Voter turnout (%) 67.457 percent
Valid votes 1,463,770 votes (98.018 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 29,595 votes (1.981 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates and Results

Taichung City mayor
candidate (2018)
Political Party
Affiliation
Valid Votes
Received
Percent of
Valid Votes
Winner
Lu Shiow-yen 盧秀燕 (b. 1961) KMT 827,996 56.565 %
Lin Chia-lung 林佳龍 (b. 1964) DPP 619,855 42.346 %  
Sung Yuan-tung 宋原通 (b. 1959) Ind. 15,919 1.087 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 208,141 votes (14.219 percent of valid votes)

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Tainan 2018

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Nov. 24, 2018
Eligible voters 1,546,862 voters
Total votes cast 990,204 votes
Voter turnout (%) 64.013 percent
Valid votes 966,670 votes (97.623 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 23,534 votes (2.376 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates and Results

Tainan City mayor
candidate (2018)
Political Party
Affiliation
Valid Votes
Received
Percent of
Valid Votes
Winner
Huang Wei-che 黃偉哲 (b. 1963) DPP 367,518 38.018 %
Kao Su-po 高思博 (b. 1968) KMT 312,874 32.366 %  
Chen Yung-ho 陳永和 (b. 1960) Ind. 117,179 12.121 %  
Mark Lin 林義豐 (b. 1948) Ind. 84,153 8.705 %  
Hsu Chun-hsin 許忠信 (b. 1965) Ind. 45,168 4.672 %  
Su Huan-chih 蘇煥智 (b. 1956) Ind. 39,778 4.114 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 54,644 votes (5.652 percent of valid votes)

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Kaohsiung mayor recall vote 2020

Recall vote date June 6, 2020
Eligible voters 2,299,981 voters
Majority threshold 574,996 votes
Total votes cast 969,259 votes
Voter turnout (%) 42.142 percent
Valid votes 964,141 votes (99.4719 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 5,118 votes (0.528 percent of all votes cast)
Agree (tongyi bamian 同意罷免) 👍 939,090 votes (97.4017 percent of valid votes)
Disagree (bu tongyi bamian 不同意罷免) 👎 25,051 votes (2.5982 percent of valid votes)

Result: APPROVED (majority of voters agreed, 25 % threshold surpassed); difference between Agree and Disagree votes: 914,039 votes (94.8034 percent of valid votes)

Background and aftermath

The first recall vote against a mayor of a special municipality in the history of the ROC was initiated on Jan. 17, 2020 after a petition to recall Kaohsiung mayor Han Kuo-yu 韓國瑜 cleared the first threshold with 28,560 signatures, exceeding the required 1 percent of the electorate (22,814 signatures). Han had assumed the office of Kaohsiung mayor on Dec. 25, 2018 after winning the mayoral election.

On April 7, 2020 the electoral commission of Kaohsiung City verified that 377,662 of approximately 406,000 signatures collected in the second phase of the recall petition were valid, clearing the threshold of 10 percent of the electorate. The Central Election Commission (CEC) certified the validity of collected signatures on April 17 and scheduled a recall vote that would require a quarter of eligible voters casting an "Agree" vote while outnumbering "Disagree" votes to remove mayor Han from office.

Due to the popular mandate to recall mayor Han a mayoral by-election was to be held within 90 days as required by law. Han did not challenge the recall vote result. On June 12, 2020 the CEC certified the result of the recall vote and set Aug. 15, 2020 as the date for the by-election.

Please note that the recall of Mayor Han was facilitated by amendments to the Civil Servants Election and Recall Act (gongzhi renyuan xuanju bamianfa 公職人員選舉罷免法) which were passed by the ROC Legislative Yuan on Nov. 29, 2016 with the support of the ruling DPP and the oppositional People First Party (PFP). The amendments dropped the threshold for recall petitions from 2 percent of voters within the elected official’s constituency to 1 percent, while the number of signatures supporting the proposal was cut from 13 percent to 10 percent. Furthermore, following the amendments the amount of votes supporting the recall now must reach at least a quarter of the original voting population of the constituency, down from half, with at least half voting for the recall.

Lawmakers supporting the 2016 amendments defended the new provisions as they ‘returned the power to recall elected officials to the public after it was previously withheld due to high thresholds’. The New Power Party (NPP) had advocated removing all of the thresholds as it felt that a simple majority would be the best method that represents public opinion, according to NPP legislator-at-large Hsu Yung-ming 徐永明.

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Kaohsiung mayor by-election 2020

Date, Voters, Turnout, Valid/invalid votes

Election date Aug. 15, 2020
Eligible voters 2,301,597 voters
Total votes cast 962,826 votes
Voter turnout (%) 41.8329 percent
Valid votes 959,242 votes (99.6277 percent of all votes cast)
Invalid votes 3,584 votes (0.3722 percent of all votes cast)

Candidates and Results

Kaohsiung City mayor
candidate (2020)
Political Party
Affiliation
Valid Votes
Received
Percent of
Valid Votes
Winner
Chen Chi-mai 陳其邁 (b. 1964) DPP 671,804 70.0348 %
Li Mei-jhen 李眉蓁 (b. 1979) KMT 248,478 25.9035 %  
Wu Yi-jheng 吳益政 (b. 1963) TPP 38,960 4.0615 %  

Difference of valid votes between the two strongest candidates: 423,326 votes (44.1313 percent of valid votes)

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Referendums since 2004

The ROC's Referendum Act (gongmin toupiaofa 公民投票法, abbrev. gongtoufa 公投法) which was promulgated on Nov. 27, 2003 distinguishes between nationwide referendums (quanguoxing gongmin toupiao 全國性公民投票) and local referendums (difangxing gongmin toupiao 地方性公民投票). Nationwide referendums were held on five occasions (March 20, 2004; Jan. 12, 2008; March 22, 2008; Nov. 24, 2018; and Dec. 18, 2021). Since the Referendum Act before January 2018 required a minimum turnout of 50 percent of eligible voters for a valid result, all of the first six nationwide referendums in the ROC were rejected due to low participation.

Local referendums in the ROC were held on six occasions—in 2008 in Kaohsiung City, in 2009 and 2016 in Penghu County, in 2012 in Lienchiang County (Matsu), in 2017 in Kinmen County, and in December 2021 in Hsinchu City. The 50 percent minimum turnout requirement was repealed for the local referendums in Penghu and Matsu after the ROC Legislative Yuan had passed amendments to the Offshore Islands Development Act (lidao jianshe tiaoli 離島建設條例) on Jan. 23, 2009.

On Dec. 12, 2017 the Legislative Yuan passed amendments to the Referendum Act to lower the thresholds for a referendum motion to be initiated and accepted, and for its result to be declared valid; opponents had criticized the old requirements as "birdcage referendum" (niaolong gongtou 鳥籠公投). The following provisions took effect two days after they were promulgated by the president on Jan. 3, 2018:

  • The result of a referendum will be declared legitimate if 25 percent of all eligible voters cast ballots and a majority votes in favor of the proposal.
  • The required number of signatures for a referendum initiative in the first stage was lowered from 0.5 percent to 0.01 percent of the total number of eligible voters in the most recent presidential election.
  • In the second stage, for such an initiative to be accepted, the threshold has been lowered from 5 percent to 1.5 percent of the total number of eligible voters in the most recent presidential election.
  • The ROC Executive Yuan was granted the right to propose referendums on major policies, proposing or vetoing a law.
  • Signature drives, which are necessary for a referendum, are now allowed to be conducted online; the lead initiator of a referendum should request an authentication code when filing a request for an online signature drive with the Central Election Commission (CEC).
  • Issues stipulated in the ROC Constitution—such as the nation's official title and territory—are not to be decided through referendums.
  • The legal minimum voting age for referendums was lowered from 20 to 18.

Following the 2018 nationwide referendums, a further amendment to the Referendum Act was passed by the Legislative Yuan on June 17, 2019—starting in 2021, referendums are to be held on the fourth Saturday of August once every two years, thus decoupling them from national elections. The task of dealing with the issue of fake signatures on referendum petitions will reportedly be given to the CEC.

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+++++ +++++ +++++ +++++ +++++ +++++ +++++ +++++ +++++ +++++

Lists of all referendums in the ROC since 2004

Nationwide referendums

No. Date Other ROC election held concurrently Eligible voters
1 + 2 2004, March 20 Presidential election 16,497,746
3 + 4 2008, Jan. 12 Legislative Yuan election 17,277,720
5 + 6 2008, March 22 Presidential election 17,313,854
7–16 2018, Nov. 24 9-in-1 local elections 19,760,982
17–20 2021, Dec. 18 [none] 19,825,468

Local referendums

No. Date ROC city/county where referendum was held Eligible voters
1 2008, Nov. 15 Kaohsiung City 1,159,368
2 2009, Sept. 26 Penghu County 73,651
3 2012, July 7 Lienchiang County 7,762
4 2016, Oct. 15 Penghu County 83,469
5 2017, Oct. 28 Kinmen County 114,426
6 2021, Dec. 18 Hsinchu City 357,083

Topics of nationwide referendums—an overview

No. Date Topic (brief description)
1 2004, March 20 Strengthen Taiwan’s self-defense capabilities 👎
2   " For negotiations of the government with PRC to build consensus 👎
3 2008, Jan. 12 Establish an act pertaining to political party assets, return improper KMT assets 👎
4   " Establish legislation to hold national leaders responsible for harming nation 👎
5 2008, March 22 Elevate Taiwan’s international status, join UN under the name “Taiwan” 👎
6   " Return to UN under the name “Taiwan”, “ROC” or other appropriate name 👎
7 2018, Nov. 24 Lower output of thermal power plants by 1% per year 👍
8   " Do not build new or expand existing coal-fired power plants 👍
9   " Ban import of food from Fukushima disaster areas in Japan 👍
10   " Civil Code should restrict marriage as between a man and a woman 👍
11   " MOE should not teach homosexual-related education in elementary and middle schools 👍
12   " Other types of unions than marriage to protect rights of same-sex couples 👍
13   " Participate in international sporting events under the name “Taiwan” 👎
14   " Civil Code should protect rights of same-sex couples to get married 👎
15   " Gender equity education should be taught at all stages of national curriculum 👎
16   " Rescind the planned phasing-out of nuclear power by 2025 👍
17 2021, Dec. 18 Activate the mothballed Fourth Nuclear Power Plant 👎
18   " Prohibit the import of pork containing ractopamine 👎
19   " Hold referendums concurrently with national elections 👎
20   " Relocate CPC’s planned LNG terminal to protect algal reefs 👎

Note: The column on the far right indicates whether the referendum in question was approved (👍) or rejected (👎).

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Nationwide referendum 1 + 2

Held on March 20, 2004; concurrently with the ROC presidential election

Eligible voters: 16,497,746

Nationwide refendum 1—Topic and results

Term for the referendum in Chinese: di yi an quanguoxing gongmin toupiaoan 第 1 案全國性公民投票案

"The People of Taiwan demand that the Taiwan Strait issue be resolved through peaceful means. Should Mainland China refuse to withdraw the missiles it has targeted at Taiwan and to openly renounce the use of force against us, would you agree that the Government should acquire more advanced anti-missile weapons to strengthen Taiwan's self-defense capabilities?"

「台灣人民堅持台海問題應該和平解決。如果中共不撤除瞄準台灣的飛彈、不放棄對台灣使用武力,你是不是同意政府增加購置反飛彈裝備, 強化台灣自我防衛能力?」

Total votes cast 7,452,340 votes
Voter turnout (%) 45.171 percent
Valid votes 7,092,629 votes (95.173 percent of total votes)
Invalid votes 359,711 votes (4.826 percent of total votes)
Agree 👍 6,511,216 votes (91.802 percent of valid votes)
Disagree 👎 581,413 votes (8.197 percent of valid votes)

Result: REJECTED (turnout below 50 percent)

Nationwide refendum 2—Topic and results

Term for the referendum in Chinese: di er an quanguoxing gongmin toupiaoan 第 2 案全國性公民投票案

"Would you agree that our Government should engage in negotiation with Mainland China on the establishment of a 'peace and stability' framework for cross-strait interactions in order to build consensus and for the welfare of the peoples on both sides?"

「你是不是同意政府與中共展開協商談判,推動建立兩岸和平穩定的互動架構,謀求兩岸的共識與人民的福祉?」

Total votes cast 7,444,148 votes
Voter turnout (%) 45.122 percent
Valid votes 6,865,574 votes (92.227 percent of total votes)
Invalid votes 578,574 votes (7.772 percent of total votes)
Agree 👍 6,319,663 votes (92.048 percent of valid votes)
Disagree 👎 545,911 votes (7.951 percent of valid votes)

Result: REJECTED (turnout below 50 percent)

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Nationwide referendum 3 + 4

Held on Jan. 12, 2008; concurrently with the elections to the ROC Legislative Yuan

Eligible voters: 17,277,720

Nationwide refendum 3—Topic and results

Term for the referendum in Chinese: di san an quanguoxing gongmin toupiaoan 第 3 案全國性公民投票案

"Do you agree to the establishment of an act pertaining to the disposition of assets improperly obtained by political parties, and the return of the KMT's assets to the public based on the following principles: All assets of the Kuomintang and its subsidiary organizations, excluding membership fees, political donations and elections subsidies, shall be deemed to be improperly obtained assets that should be returned to the public, and monies equal to the sum total of any already divested assets be returned to the public?" (DPP-initiated referendum)

「你是否同意依下列原則制定『政黨不當取得財產處理條例』將中國國民黨黨產還給全民:國民黨及其附隨組織的財產,除黨費、 政治獻金及競選補助金外,均推定為不當取得的財產,應還給人民。已處分者,應償還價額。」

Total votes cast 4,550,881 votes
Voter turnout (%) 26.339 percent
Valid votes 4,254,664 votes (93.490 percent of total votes)
Invalid votes 296,217 votes (6.509 percent of total votes)
Agree 👍 3,891,170 votes (91.456 percent of valid votes)
Disagree 👎 363,494 votes (8.543 percent of valid votes)

Result: REJECTED (turnout below 50 percent)

Nationwide refendum 4—Topic and results

Term for the referendum in Chinese: di si an quanguoxing gongmin toupiaoan 第 4 案全國性公民投票案

"Do you agree to the establishment of legislation holding the national leaders and subordinates legally responsible for causing serious harm to the nation, deliberately or through major error; that any investigation be conducted by a legislative investigative committee; and that government departments must cooperate and may not refuse to do so, all in the public interest, and that those who break the law or are derelict in their duties of office be punished and required to return any improperly obtained income?" (KMT-initiated referendum)

「您是否同意制定法律追究國家領導人及其部屬,因故意或重大過失之措施,造成國家嚴重損害之責任,並由立法院設立調查委員會調查, 政府各部門應全力配合,不得抗拒,以維全民利益,並懲處違法失職人員,追償不當所得?」

Total votes cast 4,505,927 votes
Voter turnout (%) 26.079 percent
Valid votes 3,961,026 votes (87.907 percent of total votes)
Invalid votes 544,901 votes (12.092 percent of total votes)
Agree 👍 2,304,136 votes (58.170 percent of valid votes)
Disagree 👎 1,656,890 votes (41.829 percent of valid votes)

Result: REJECTED (turnout below 50 percent)

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Nationwide referendum 5 + 6

Held on March 22, 2008; concurrently with the ROC presidential election

Eligible voters: 17,313,854

Nationwide refendum 5—Topic and results

Term for the referendum in Chinese: di wu an quanguoxing gongmin toupiaoan 第 5 案全國性公民投票案

"In 1971, the People's Republic of China joined the United Nations, replacing the Republic of China and making Taiwan an international orphan. Do you agree that the government, in a strong expression of the will of the Taiwanese people and in order to elevate Taiwan's international status and promote its international participation, should join the United Nations under the name 'Taiwan'?" (DPP-initiated referendum)

「1971 年中華人民共和國進入聯合國,取代中華民國,台灣成為國際孤兒。為強烈表達台灣人民的意志,提升台灣的國際地位及參與, 您是否同意政府以『台灣』名義加入聯合國?」

Total votes cast 6,201,677 votes
Voter turnout (%) 35.819 percent
Valid votes 5,881,589 votes (94.838 percent of total votes)
Invalid votes 320,088 votes (5.161 percent of total votes)
Agree 👍 5,529,230 votes (94.009 percent of valid votes)
Disagree 👎 352,359 votes (5.990 percent of valid votes)

Result: REJECTED (turnout below 50 percent)

Nationwide refendum 6—Topic and results

Term for the referendum in Chinese: di liu an quanguoxing gongmin toupiaoan 第 6 案全國性公民投票案

"Do you agree that our country should apply to return to the United Nations and enter other organizations using a pragmatic and flexible name strategy, that is, do you approve applying to return to the United Nations and joining other international organizations under the name 'Republic of China', 'Taiwan' or another name that facilitates success while maintaining dignity?" (KMT-initiated referendum)

「您是否同意我國申請重返聯合國及加入其他組織,名稱採務實、有彈性的策略,亦即贊成以中華民國名義、或以台灣名義、 或以其他有助於成功並兼顧尊嚴的名稱,申請重返聯合國及加入其他國家組織?」

Total votes cast 6,187,118 votes
Voter turnout (%) 35.735 percent
Valid votes 5,686,369 votes (91.906 percent of total votes)
Invalid votes 500,749 votes (8.093 percent of total votes)
Agree 👍 4,962,309 votes (87.266 percent of valid votes)
Disagree 👎 724,060 votes (12.733 percent of valid votes)

Result: REJECTED (turnout below 50 percent)

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Nationwide referendums 7–16

Held on Nov. 24, 2018; concurrently with the ROC 9-in-1 local elections

Eligible voters: 19,760,982

Nationwide refendum 7—Topic and results

Term for the referendum in Chinese: di qi an quanguoxing gongmin toupiaoan 第 7 案全國性公民投票案

"Do you agree the electricity output of thermal power plants should be lowered by "at least 1 percent per year on average"?" (Initiated by Lu Shiow-yen 盧秀燕)

「你是否同意以「平均每年至少降低 1 %」之方式逐年降低火力發電廠發電量?」

Total votes cast 10,780,050 votes
Voter turnout (%) 54.563 percent
Valid votes 10,064,910 votes (93.366 percent of total votes)
Invalid votes 715,140 votes (6.633 percent of total votes)
Agree 👍 7,955,753 votes (79.044 percent of valid votes)
Disagree 👎 2,109,157 votes (20.955 percent of valid votes)

Result: APPROVED (majority of voters agreed)

Nationwide refendum 8—Topic and results

Term for the referendum in Chinese: di ba an quanguoxing gongmin toupiaoan 第 8 案全國性公民投票案

"Do you agree that Taiwan should establish an energy policy that undertakes not to construct any new coal-fired power plants or generators or expand existing facilities (including the expansion of the Shen'ao Power Plant)?" (Initiated by Lin Te-fu 林德福)

「你是否同意確立「停止新建、擴建任何燃煤發電廠或發電機組(包括深澳電廠擴建)」之能源政策?」

Total votes cast 10,769,528 votes
Voter turnout (%) 54.509 percent
Valid votes 9,945,583 votes (92.349 percent of total votes)
Invalid votes 823,945 votes (7.650 percent of total votes)
Agree 👍 7,599,267 votes (76.408 percent of valid votes)
Disagree 👎 2,346,316 votes (23.591 percent of valid votes)

Result: APPROVED (majority of voters agreed)

Nationwide refendum 9—Topic and results

Term for the referendum in Chinese: di jiu an quanguoxing gongmin toupiaoan 第 9 案全國性公民投票案

"Do you agree the government should maintain the ban on imports of agricultural products and food from areas in Japan affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant disaster on March 11, 2011, including Fukushima, Ibaraki, Gunma, Tochigi and Chiba prefectures?" (Initiated by Hau Lung-bin 郝龍斌)

「你是否同意政府維持禁止開放日本福島 311 核災相關地區,包括福島與周遭4縣市(茨城櫪木群馬千葉)等地區農產品及食品進口?」

Total votes cast 10,779,322 votes
Voter turnout (%) 54.559 percent
Valid votes 10,023,281 votes (92.986 percent of total votes)
Invalid votes 756,041 votes (7.013 percent of total votes)
Agree 👍 7,791,856 votes (77.737 percent of valid votes)
Disagree 👎 2,231,425 votes (22.262 percent of valid votes)

Result: APPROVED (majority of voters agreed)

Nationwide refendum 10—Topic and results

Term for the referendum in Chinese: di shi an quanguoxing gongmin toupiaoan 第 10 案全國性公民投票案

"Do you agree that Civil Code regulations should restrict marriage to being between a man and a woman?" (Initiated by Yu Hsin-yi 游信義)

「你是否同意民法婚姻規定應限定在一男一女的結合?」

Total votes cast 11,024,945 votes
Voter turnout (%) 55.802 percent
Valid votes 10,565,437 votes (95.832 percent of total votes)
Invalid votes 459,508 votes (4.167 percent of total votes)
Agree 👍 7,658,008 votes (72.481 percent of valid votes)
Disagree 👎 2,907,429 votes (27.518 percent of valid votes)

Result: APPROVED (majority of voters agreed)

Nationwide refendum 11—Topic and results

Term for the referendum in Chinese: di shiyi an quanguoxing gongmin toupiaoan 第 11 案全國性公民投票案

"Do you agree that the Ministry of Education and individual schools should not teach homosexual-related education, as detailed under the Enforcement Rules for the Gender Equity Education Act, in elementary and middle level schools?" (Initiated by Tseng Hsien-ying 曾獻瑩)

「你是否同意在國民教育階段內(國中及國小),教育部及各級學校不應對學生實施性別平等教育法施行細則所定之同志教育?」

Total votes cast 11,010,104 votes
Voter turnout (%) 55.727 percent
Valid votes 10,503,003 votes (95.394 percent of total votes)
Invalid votes 507,101 votes (4.605 percent of total votes)
Agree 👍 7,083,379 votes (67.441 percent of valid votes)
Disagree 👎 3,419,624 votes (32.558 percent of valid votes)

Result: APPROVED (majority of voters agreed)

Nationwide refendum 12—Topic and results

Term for the referendum in Chinese: di shier an quanguoxing gongmin toupiaoan 第 12 案全國性公民投票案

"Do you agree to types of unions, other than those stated in the marriage regulations in the Civil Code, to protect the rights of same-sex couples who live together permanently?" (Initiated by Tseng Hsien-ying 曾獻瑩)

「你是否同意以民法婚姻規定以外之其他形式來保障同性別二人經營永久共同生活的權益?」

Total votes cast 11,014,976 votes
Voter turnout (%) 55.752 percent
Valid votes 10,474,219 votes (95.090 percent of total votes)
Invalid votes 540,757 votes (4.909 percent of total votes)
Agree 👍 6,401,748 votes (61.119 percent of valid votes)
Disagree 👎 4,072,471 votes (38.880 percent of valid votes)

Result: APPROVED (majority of voters agreed)

Nationwide refendum 13—Topic and results

Term for the referendum in Chinese: di shisan an quanguoxing gongmin toupiaoan 第 13 案全國性公民投票案

"Do you agree that Taiwan should apply to participate in all international sporting events, including the 2020 Olympic Games in Tokyo, using the name 'Taiwan'?" (Initiated by Chi Cheng 紀政)

「你是否同意,以「台灣」(Taiwan)為全名申請參加所有國際運動賽事及 2020 年東京奧運?」

Total votes cast 11,042,795 votes
Voter turnout (%) 55.893 percent
Valid votes 10,537,642 votes (95.425 percent of total votes)
Invalid votes 505,153 votes (4.574 percent of total votes)
Agree 👍 4,763,086 votes (45.200 percent of valid votes)
Disagree 👎 5,774,556 votes (54.799 percent of valid votes)

Result: REJECTED (majority of voters disagreed)

Nationwide refendum 14—Topic and results

Term for the referendum in Chinese: di shisi an quanguoxing gongmin toupiaoan 第 14 案全國性公民投票案

"Do you agree that the Civil Code marriage regulations should be used to guarantee the rights of same sex couples to get married?"(Initiated by Miao Po-ya 苗博雅)

「你是否同意,以民法婚姻章保障同性別二人建立婚姻關係?」

Total votes cast 10,940,467 votes
Voter turnout (%) 55.375 percent
Valid votes 10,331,983 votes (94.438 percent of total votes)
Invalid votes 608,484 votes (5.561 percent of total votes)
Agree 👍 3,382,286 votes (32.736 percent of valid votes)
Disagree 👎 6,949,697 votes (67.263 percent of valid votes)

Result: REJECTED (majority of voters disagreed)

Nationwide refendum 15—Topic and results

Term for the referendum in Chinese: di shiwu an quanguoxing gongmin toupiaoan 第 15 案全國性公民投票案

"Do you agree that gender equity education as defined in 'the Gender Equity Education Act' should be taught at all stages of the national curriculum and that such education should cover courses on emotional education, sex education and gay and lesbian education?" (Initiated by Wang Ting-yu 王鼎棫)

「你是否同意,以「性別平等教育法」明定在國民教育各階段內實施性別平等教育,且內容應涵蓋情感教育、性教育、同志教育等課程?」

Total votes cast 10,931,837 votes
Voter turnout (%) 55.331 percent
Valid votes 10,312,836 votes (94.337 percent of total votes)
Invalid votes 619,001 votes (5.662 percent of total votes)
Agree 👍 3,507,665 votes (34.012 percent of valid votes)
Disagree 👎 6,805,171 votes (65.987 percent of valid votes)

Result: REJECTED (majority of voters disagreed)

Nationwide refendum 16—Topic and results

Term for the referendum in Chinese: di shiliu an quanguoxing gongmin toupiaoan 第 16 案全國性公民投票案

"Do you agree that abolishing the first section of Article 95 of the Electricity Act means abolishing the provision that 'all nuclear-energy-based power-generating facilities shall cease to operate by 2025'?" (Initiated by Huang Shih-hsiu 黃士修)

「你是否同意:廢除電業法第 95 條第 1 項,即廢除「核能發電設備應於中華民國 114 年以前,全部停止運轉」之條文?」

Total votes cast 10,832,735 votes
Voter turnout (%) 54.829 percent
Valid votes 9,909,775 votes (91.479 percent of total votes)
Invalid votes 922,960 votes (8.520 percent of total votes)
Agree 👍 5,895,560 votes (59.492 percent of valid votes)
Disagree 👎 4,014,215 votes (40.507 percent of valid votes)

Result: APPROVED (majority of voters agreed)

Please note that concerning the nationwide referendums voted on in 2018, some Taiwanese media used abbreviated forms in Chinese for referring to the ten different referendums of that day in order to reduce confusion.

No. Concise question content (English) Referendum abbreviation (Chinese)
7 Reducing output from thermal power plants fan kongwu 反空汙
8 Ceasing expansion of coal power plants fan Shen'ao dianchang 反深澳電廠
9 Prohibition of food imports from Fukushima fan heshi 反核食
10 Restricting marriage under Civil Code to one man and woman hunyin dingyi 婚姻定義
11 Not implementing homosexual aspect of Gender Equality Education Act shiling xingping jiaoyu 適齡性平教育
12 Protecting rights of same-sex couples outside of the Civil Code tongxing banlü zhuanfa 同性伴侶專法
13 Competing in international sports as "Taiwan" dongao zhengming 東奧正名
14 Protection of same-sex marital rights hunyin pingquan 婚姻平權
15 Implementing the Gender Equality Education Act xingping jiaoyu 性平教育
16 Repealing the planned end of nuclear power stations yi he yang lü 以核養綠

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Nationwide referendums 17–20

Held on Dec. 18, 2021

Eligible voters: 19,825,468

On May 27, 2021 the Central Election Commission (CEC) announced that in accordance with Article 23 of the Referendum Act four nationwide referendums were to be held in the ROC on Aug. 28 that year. Following an outbreak of COVID-19 on Taiwan the CEC on July 2, 2021 postponed the referendum date to Dec. 18 that year. The threshold for the nationwide referendums 17–20 to be passed would have been a minimum of 4,956,367 ‘Agree’ votes with the number of ‘Agree’ votes being higher than the ‘Disagree’ votes, but in none of the four referendums the Agree votes succeeded in surpassing the threshold, while the number of Disagree votes was higher for all of them, resulting in the nationwide referendums 17–20 to be rejected.

Nationwide refendum 17—Topic and results

Term for the referendum in Chinese: di shiqi an quanguoxing gongmin toupiaoan 第 17 案全國性公民投票案

"Do you agree that the 4th Nuclear Power Plant be activated for commercial operations?"

「您是否同意核四啟封商轉發電?」

Total votes cast 8,145,700 votes
Voter turnout (%) 41.0870 percent
Valid votes 8,067,206 votes (99.036 percent of total votes)
Invalid votes 78,494 votes (0.963 percent of total votes)
Agree 👍 3,804,755 votes (47.163 percent of valid votes)
Disagree 👎 4,262,451 votes (52.836 percent of valid votes)

Result: REJECTED (majority of voters disagreed)

Nationwide refendum 18—Topic and results

Term for the referendum in Chinese: di shiba an quanguoxing gongmin toupiaoan 第 18 案全國性公民投票案

"Do you agree that the government should prohibit imports of pork, offal or other related products that contain the β-agonist, ractopamine?"

「你是否同意政府應全面禁止進口含有瘦肉精(萊克多巴胺等乙型受體素)豬隻之肉品、內臟及其相關產製品?」

Total votes cast 8,145,865 votes
Voter turnout (%) 41.0878 percent
Valid votes 8,067,757 votes (99.041 percent of total votes)
Invalid votes 78,108 votes (0.958 percent of total votes)
Agree 👍 3,936,554 votes (48.793 percent of valid votes)
Disagree 👎 4,131,203 votes (51.206 percent of valid votes)

Result: REJECTED (majority of voters disagreed)

Nationwide refendum 19—Topic and results

Term for the referendum in Chinese: di shijiu an quanguoxing gongmin toupiaoan 第 19 案全國性公民投票案

"Do you agree that a referendum should be held concurrently with a national election if it complies with the Referendum Act and if the election is scheduled to take place within six months of the referendum being approved?"

「你是否同意公民投票案公告成立後半年內,若該期間內遇有全國性選舉時,在符合公民投票法規定之情形下,公民投票應與該選舉同日舉行?」

Total votes cast 8,145,193 votes
Voter turnout (%) 41.0844 percent
Valid votes 8,071,920 votes (99,100 percent of total votes)
Invalid votes 73,273 votes (0.899 percent of total votes)
Agree 👍 3,951,882 votes (48.958 percent of valid votes)
Disagree 👎 4,120,038 votes (51.041 percent of valid votes)

Result: REJECTED (majority of voters disagreed)

Nationwide refendum 20—Topic and results

Term for the referendum in Chinese: di ershi an quanguoxing gongmin toupiaoan 第 20 案全國性公民投票案

"Do you agree that CPC's LNG terminal should be relocated from its planned site on the algal reef coast of Datan and its adjacent waters?"

「您是否同意中油第三天然氣接收站遷離桃園大潭藻礁海岸及海域?」

Total votes cast 8,145,454 votes
Voter turnout (%) 41.0858 percent
Valid votes 8,064,635 votes (99.007 percent of total votes)
Invalid votes 80,819 votes (0.992 percent of total votes)
Agree 👍 3,901,171 votes (48.373 percent of valid votes)
Disagree 👎 4,163,464 votes (51.626 percent of valid votes)

Result: REJECTED (majority of voters disagreed)

Please note that concerning the nationwide referendums voted on in 2021, some Taiwanese media used abbreviated forms in Chinese for referring to the four different referendums of that day in order to reduce confusion.

No. Concise question content (English) Referendum abbreviation (Chinese)
17Nuclear power plant 4chong qi he si 重啟核四
18Ractopamine porkfan lai zhu 反萊豬
19Referendum Actgongtou bang daxuan 公投綁大選
20LNG terminalzhen'ai zaojiao 珍愛藻礁

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Local referendums since 2008

Local referendum 1 (Kaohsiung City)—Topic and Results

Term for the referendum in Chinese: Gaoxiongshi difangxing gongmin toupiaoan di yi an 高雄市地方性公民投票案第 1 案

Held on Nov. 15, 2008; eligible voters: 1,159,368

"A considerable decrease in the size of classrooms will have a positive effect on students' learning. The maximum number of students in a first, third and fifth grade class in the city's elementary schools and the maximum number of new students in a junior high school class should be 31 pupils in the last school year. The number should decrease by two students every school year until the maximum class size reaches 25 students in the 2010 school year."

「學生班級人數適當的減少,可以增進學生的學習效果。本市公立國民小學一、三、五年級以及國民中學新生的編班,自 96 學年度起, 每班不得超過 31 人,以後每學年減少 2 人,至 99 學年度起,每班不得超過 25 人。」

Total votes cast 62,068 votes
Voter turnout (%) 5.353 percent
Valid votes 61,807 votes (99.579 percent of total votes)
Invalid votes 261 votes (0.420 percent of total votes)
Agree 👍 56,375 votes (91.211 percent of valid votes)
Disagree 👎 5,432 votes (8.788 percent of valid votes)

Result: REJECTED (turnout below 50 percent)

Local referendum 2 (Penghu County)—Topic and Results

Term for the referendum in Chinese: Penghuxian difangxing gongmin toupiaoan di yi an 澎湖縣地方性公民投票案第 1 案

Held on Sept. 26, 2009; eligible voters: 73,651

"Should Penghu establish international resorts, along with casinos?"

「澎湖要不要設置國際觀光度假區附設觀光賭場?」

Total votes cast 31,054 votes
Voter turnout (%) 42.163 percent
Valid votes 30,756 votes (99.040 percent of total votes)
Invalid votes 298 votes (0.959 percent of total votes)
Agree 👍 13,397 votes (43.558 percent of valid votes)
Disagree 👎 17,359 votes (56.441 percent of valid votes)

Result: REJECTED (majority of voters disagreed)

Local referendum 3 (Lienchiang County)—Topic and Results

Term for the referendum in Chinese: Lianjiangxian difangxing gongmin toupiaoan di yi an 連江縣地方性公民投票案第 1 案

Held on July 7, 2012; eligible voters: 7,762

"Should Matsu establish international resorts, along with casinos?"

「馬祖是否要設置國際觀光度假區附設觀光賭場?」

Total votes cast 3,164 votes
Voter turnout (%) 40.762 percent
Valid votes 3,136 votes (99.115 percent of total votes)
Invalid votes 28 votes (0.884 percent of total votes)
Agree 👍 1,795 votes (57.238 percent of valid votes)
Disagree 👎 1,341 votes (42.761 percent of valid votes)

Result: APPROVED (majority of voters agreed)

Local referendum 4 (Penghu County)—Topic and Results

Term for the referendum in Chinese: Penghuxian difangxing gongmin toupiaoan di er an 澎湖縣地方性公民投票案第 2 案

Held on Oct. 15, 2016; eligible voters: 83,469

"Do you agree that Penghu should establish international resorts, along with casinos?"

「您是否同意澎湖設置國際觀光度假區附設觀光賭場?」

Total votes cast 33,024 votes
Voter turnout (%) 39.564 percent
Valid votes 32,808 votes (99.345 percent of total votes)
Invalid votes 216 votes (0.654 percent of total votes)
Agree 👍 6,210 votes (18.928 percent of valid votes)
Disagree 👎 26,598 votes (81.071 percent of valid votes)

Result: REJECTED (majority of voters disagreed)

Local referendum 5 (Kinmen County)—Topic and Results

Term for the referendum in Chinese: Jinmenxian difangxing gongmin toupiaoan di yi an 金門縣地方性公民投票案第 1 案

Held on Oct. 28, 2017; eligible voters: 114,426

"To revive Kinmen's economy and create development, do you approve of establishing an international resort, with 5 percent of the resort area open to tourism gambling?"

「為振興金門經濟,開創金門的前途,您是否贊成設立國際渡假區並於其中開放5%觀光博弈?」

Total votes cast 27,662 votes
Voter turnout (%) 24.174 percent
Valid votes 27,073 votes (97.870 percent of total votes)
Invalid votes 589 votes (2.129 percent of total votes)
Agree 👍 2,705 votes (9.991 percent of valid votes)
Disagree 👎 24,368 votes (90.008 percent of valid votes)

Result: REJECTED (majority of voters disagreed)

Local referendum 6 (Hsinchu City)—Topic and Results

Term for the referendum in Chinese: Xinzhushi difangxing gongmin toupiaoan di yi an 新竹市地方性公民投票案第 1 案

Held on Dec. 18, 2021; eligible voters: 357,083

"Do you agree that Hsinchu City should make Self-Government Ordinance for Wastewater Management, which stipulates that both wastewater and polluted water produced by industries, hospitals, and businesses must be treated to remove contaminants via specially designed pipelines, instead of allowing the disposal of such water into waterways upstream to contaminate drinking water intake and irrigation water intake areas?"

「您是否同意,新竹市應訂定廢污水管理自治條例,明定工業廢水、醫療廢水及其他事業廢水和污水,應以專管回收, 不可排入飲用水取水口或灌溉水取水口上游?」

Total votes cast 154,923 votes
Voter turnout (%) 43.385 percent
Valid votes 151,397 votes (97.724 percent of total votes)
Invalid votes 3,526 votes (2.275 percent of total votes)
Agree 👍 131,816 votes (87.066 percent of valid votes)
Disagree 👎 19,581 votes (12.933 percent of valid votes)

Result: APPROVED (majority of voters agreed)

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Non-binding local referendums 1990–2003

Note: Local referendums were held in Taiwan since 1990, but before the ROC Referendum Act was promulgated in November 2003 they were generally not considered legally binding. Most of these referendums were organized by local governments and administration offices, and they often concerned local development projects.

Year, date Referendum area Topic / question
1990, May 6 6 boroughs in Nanzi District (Kaohsiung City) Construction of the Fifth Naphtha Cracker Plant
1994, May 22 Kungliao Township (Taipei County) Fourth Nuclear Power Plant
1994, Nov. 27 Taipei County Fourth Nuclear Power Plant
1995, March 29 Xizhi Town (Taipei County) Construction of a tunnel in the Yuandong Community 遠東區
1995, June 18 Daliao Township (Kaohsiung County) Development project in a water resources protection area
1995, Aug. 12 2 boroughs in Daan District (Taipei City) Road configuration at Yongkang Park 永康公園
1996, March 23 Taipei City Fourth Nuclear Power Plant
1997, Aug. 3 Minxiong Township (Chiayi County) Reconstruction of Liaoting Community 療頂村社區
1997, Aug. 12 Sanxia Town (Taipei County) Preserve or dismantle Sanxia's Old Street 三峽老街?
1998, June 13 Longjing, Qingshui, Shalu, Wuqi (Taichung County) Construction of a TDI plant by Bayer Co. near Taichung harbour
1998, Dec. 5 Dahu Borough 大湖里 in Neihu District (Taipei City) Construction of a hospital complex by the Buddhist Tzu Chi Foundation
1998, Dec. 5 Tainan City Should Taiwan be ruled by the PRC?
1998, Dec. 5 Tainan City Construction of an airport at Qigu
1998, Dec. 5 Yilan County Fourth Nuclear Power Plant
2001, June 8 Penghu County Permit legal gambling franchises?
2001, June 8 Penghu County Put Dongji Village 東吉村 under trusteeship of Tainan County?
2003, June 7 Wujie Township (Yilan County) Location for planned community activity center
2003, Aug. 23 Yilan County Highway name issue
2003, Sept. 13 Pinglin Township (Taipei County) Opening of an exclusive freeway service ramp to the public
2003, Oct. 4 Jiji Township (Nantou County) Construction of a waste incinerator
2003, Nov. 9 Xihu Township (Miaoli County) Connect community to highway by new interchange

Nuclear power plant—Yes or No?

No less than four local referendums focused on the issue of the then-planned Fourth Nuclear Power Plant and asked the voters whether they agreed with the project or not. In all four cases the (KMT-led) ROC central government dismissed the results as 'having no legal basis' (wu fayuan yiju 無法源依據).

① Referendum organized by the Kungliao Township Office (Taibei xian gongliao xiang gongsuo 台北縣貢寮鄉公所) in Taipei County on May 22, 1994.
② Referendum organized by the (then-DPP led) Taipei County Government (Taibei xianzhengfu 台北縣政府) on Nov. 27, 1994. Please note that the plebiscite was held in conjunction with a referendum about a proposed recall of ROC legislators Chan Yu-jen 詹裕仁, Daniel Han Kuo-yu 韓國瑜, Hung Hsiu-chu 洪秀柱, and Lin Jih-jia 林志嘉 (all KMT).
③ Referendum organized by the (then-DPP led) Taipei City Government (Taibei shizhengfu 台北市政府) on March 23, 1996.
④ Referendum organized by the (then-DPP led) Yilan County Government (Yilan xianzhengfu 宜蘭縣政府) on Dec. 5, 1998.

Result details
Eligible voters 10,107 2,085,940 1,836,039 ~ 320,720 (± 60)
Total votes cast 5,898 384,776 1,078,009 142,375
Voter turnout 58.355 % 18.446 % 58.713 % 44.39 %
Valid votes
(% of total votes)
5,845
(99.101 %)
378,523
(98.374 %)
1,035,295
(96.037 %)
134,062
(94.161 %)
Invalid votes
(% of total votes)
53
(0.898 %)
6,253
(1.625 %)
42,714
(3.962 %)
8,313
(5.838 %)
Agreed
(% of valid votes)
176
(3.011 %)
43,333
(11.447 %)
479,752
(46.339 %)
48,365
(36.076 %)
Disagreed
(% of valid votes)
5,669
(96.988 %)
335,190
(88.552 %)
555,543
(53.660 %)
85,697
(63.923 %)

Note: Regarding the figures for the 1998 Yilan referendum, available sources online and contemporary newspapers accessible in the National Central Library (NCL) in Taipei did not offer any information about the number of eligible voters for that referendum. The Yilan County Election Commission replied to an inquiry of the chief researcher, revealing that the commission had not kept relevant records of that referendum. The number of eligible voters shown in above table is an estimate which was generated by calculating figures provided in available sources—the number of total votes cast and the voter turnout percentage.

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Glossary: Election terms English–Chinese

EnglishHanyu Pinyin, traditional characters
Agree tongyi 同意
By-election buxuan 補選
Candidate houxuanren 候選人
City mayor shizhang 市長
County magistrate xianzhang 縣長
Denied (referendum/recall vote) foujue 否決
Disagree bu tongyi 不同意
Election xuanju 選舉
Election date toupiao riqi 投票日期
Eligible voters (number of ~) xuanjuren (shu) 選舉人(數)
Independent wu dangji 無黨籍
Invalid votes (number of ~) wuxiaopiao (shu) 無效票(數)
Invalid votes (percentage of ~) wuxiaopiao (lü) 無效票(率)
Legislative Yuan election lifayuan xuanju 立法院選舉
Local difangxing 地方性
Member of the Legislative Yuan lifa weiyuan 立法委員 / liwei 立委
Member of the Provincial Assembly sheng yiyuan 省議員
Nationwide quanguoxing 全國性
Number of elected candidates dangxuan xici 當選席次
Passed (referendum/recall vote) tongguo 通過
Political party zhengdang 政黨
Presidential election zongtong daxuan 總統大選
Provincial assembly sheng yihui 省議會
Recall vote bamianan 罷免案
Referendum gongmin toupiao 公民投票 / gongtou 公投
Total votes cast toupiaoshu 投票數 / zong toupiaoshu 總投票數
Threshold menkan 門檻 / menkan piaoshu 門檻票數
Valid votes (number of ~) youxiaopiao (shu) 有效票(數)
Valid votes (percentage of ~) youxiaopiao (lü) 有效票(率)
Voter turnout toupiaolü 投票率
Votes received (number of ~) depiao (shu) 得票(數)
Votes received (percentage of ~) depiao (lü) 得票(率)

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