Taiwan Politics Database
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Foreign relations of the ROC

  1. The diplomatic isolation of the ROC
  2. ROC vs. PRC since the 1970s
  3. The ROC in major international organizations
  4. The ROC and the US
  5. The ROC and Japan
  6. The ROC and Europe
  7. The ROC and selected other countries
Note: Users of this website can also refer to the Site Map for more details about which agencies are introduced on this page.

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The diplomatic isolation of the ROC

Since the establishment of the PRC in October 1949, the ROC and the PRC have been competing for diplomatic recognition by other nations. Most historians and political scientists agree that October 25, 1971 can be regarded as major watershed in the struggle between the two sides for winning diplomatic allies—on that day the United Nations (UN) decided to hand over China's UN seat from the ROC to the PRC. Since then the remaining of the more significant countries still maintaining ties with the ROC at that time—including the US and Japan—have switched diplomatic recognition to the PRC. (See chronology below.)

Unlike Germany where both of the two German states tolerated the other's maintaining of official relations with the same states it did (at least in the period between West Germany's abandonment of the Hallstein Doctrine in the 1960s and German unification in 1990), the PRC immediately severs diplomatic ties with states recognizing the ROC, with the ROC doing likewise for those recognizing the PRC. Furthermore, the PRC insists that its diplomatic allies do not allow Taiwan/the ROC maintain representative offices on their territory which have the word "Taiwan" instead of "Taipei" in their name. Protests issued by the PRC against violations of that condition are usually particularly fierce, e. g. when the Taiwanese Representative Office in Lithuania (zhu Litaowan Taiwan daibiaochu 駐立陶宛台灣代表處) was opened in Vilnius on Nov. 18, 2021—the PRC retaliated by imposing sanctions and downgrading its relations to Lithuania, recalling Beijing's ambassador. Meanwhile, the EU commented that Taiwan's office in Vilnius should not be considered a breach of the EU's One-China policy.

The two most important allies in the history of the ROC are the US and—in the post-war period—Japan. Although both chose to establish diplomatic relations with the PRC in the 1970s, the importance of their relations to Taiwan remains undiminished. For this reason, the diplomats exchanged between them and the ROC are listed here.

In addition to professional, trained diplomats, the ROC has since 1998 been using ambassadors-at-large (wurensuo dashi 無任所大使), usually well-known public figures, to represent the country internationally.

For information about the ROC's diplomatic relations, caution is advised when using Wikipedia because their pages are not always error-free. Two examples—the ROC's relations with Iceland and Germany. On the English-language Wikipedia page "Foreign relations of Taiwan", the chapter "Relations switched from the ROC to the PRC" mentions Iceland ('to 1971'). Iceland established diplomatic relations with the PRC on Dec. 8, 1971, but according to official sources from Taiwan (ROC yearbooks from the 1960s and 1970s) Iceland had no diplomatic relations with the ROC. Furthermore, the same chapter of said Wikipedia page claims for Germany (Federal Rep.) a period of recognition from 1955 to 1972. In fact, diplomatic relations between the ROC and Germany ended when the Third Reich recognized a pro-Japanese counter-government led by Wang Ching-wei 汪精衛 in Nanjing on July 1, 1941, and on Dec. 9 that year the ROC declared war on Germany (state of war was terminated effective on Oct. 20, 1955). Formal diplomatic relations were never resumed after the Federal Republic of Germany (abbrev. FRG, i. e. West Germany) was founded on May 23, 1949. The ROC set up an office in West Germany's capital Bonn in 1958, staffed with GIO officials, and started stationing MOFA officials there in 1980. A German Cultural Center, established in 1963 in Taipei by the Munich-based Goethe Institute, was authorized to issue visas, the consular functions were transferred to the German Trade Office (GTO) in 1981 and from there to the German Institute in Taipei in 2000. Neither Taiwan's representative offices in Germany nor Germany's offices in Taipei ever received the formal title of embassy. The German Democratic Republic (abbrev. GDR, i. e. East Germany)—established on Oct. 7, 1949—recognized the PRC on Oct. 27, 1949, the FRG followed suit on Oct. 11, 1972, and diplomatic relations between Beijing and Berlin continued after Germany's reunification on Oct. 3, 1990.

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Terms for various diplomatic approaches

Over time, the foreign policy of the ROC has seen different approaches, focuses and methods. Often a short term was coined and used to refer to a certain concept. After Lee Teng-hui became ROC president, he began describing his visits to countries with which Taipei had no diplomatic relations as "pragmatic diplomacy" (wushi waijiao 務實外交). Another term which circulated later was "beacon-fire diplomacy" (fenghuo waijiao 烽火外交), attributed to Lee's successor Chen Shui-bian.

Furthermore, Taiwan's media came up with the term "funeral diplomacy" (zangli waijiao 葬禮外交) and applied it when ROC presidents engaged in exchange with foreign leaders on solemn occasions, e. g. when ROC President Chen Shui-bian attended the funeral of Pope John Paul II in 2005 and his successor Ma Ying-jeou travelled to Singapore to pay his respects after the demise of the city state's former prime minister Lee Kuan Yew 李光耀 in 2015.

The ROC's Ma Ying-jeou administration which was in office between May 2008 and May 2016 strived to improve relations with the PRC and adopted an approach of "viable diplomacy" (huolu waijiao 活路外交). As a result of this policy which was also dubbed "diplomatic truce" (waijiao xiubing 外交休兵), the competition for diplomatic recognition between the two sides was almost completely suspended during Ma's presidency.

The Tsai Ing-wen administration has been following an approach called "steadfast diplomacy" (tashi waijiao 踏實外交), defined as 'unwavering and fixed in direction' (jiaota shidi, yibu yijiaoyin 腳踏實地、一步一腳印) and characterized as 'firm in purpose' (huhui huli, shuangxiang miqie hezuo 互惠互利、雙向密切合作). Another increasingly important method applied by the Tsai administration is the "parliamentary diplomacy" (guohui waijiao 國會外交) between Taiwanese legislators and counterparts in like-minded countries, and several friendship groups (guohui yiyuan youhao xiehui 國會議員友好協會 or lianyihui 聯誼會) have been set up. During the 2020 COVID-19 outbreak the government used "mask diplomacy" (kouzhao waijiao 口罩外交) by donating millions of surgical mask to numerous countries and territories.

Compared with the PRC, Taiwan/the ROC seeks to expand its soft power (ruan shili 軟實力), while the PRC's method is sometimes characterized as wolf-warrior diplomacy (zhanlang waijiao 戰狼外交). But despite its diplomatic isolation, Taiwan still maintains close and fruitful relations with many countries, especially those in the democratic camp which are wary of the PRC’s authoritarianism and seek cooperation with Taiwan in many areas. Friendly countries are often referred to by Taipei as “like-minded partners” (linian xiangjin huoban 理念相近夥伴).

The practice of offering and providing generous financial aid in exchange for diplomatic recognition would be called dollar diplomacy (jinyuan waijiao 金元外交 / jinqian waijiao 金錢外交) or checkbook diplomacy (zhipiaobu waijiao 支票簿外交), but it is not an official approach of the ROC government.

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The current diplomatic allies of the ROC

As of April 30, 2022, the ROC maintained diplomatic relations with 14 states. Among those, eight had an area of less than 1,000 km² each, six had a population of under 100,000 persons each. Sources for the estimated population figures (years 2009–2012) in the following table were Wikipedia and Fischer Weltalmanach 2010. (See also the "Diplomatic timeline" below.)

State / country Area (km²) Population (estim.) Ally since
Belize 22,696 ~ 322,400 10/1989
Eswatini (former Swaziland) 17,364 ~ 1,148,000 9/1968
Guatemala 108,889 ~ 13,348,000 6/1933
Haiti 27,750 ~ 9,612,000 4/1956
Honduras 112,088 ~ 8,249,500 4/1941
Marshall Islands 181 ~ 68,000 11/1998
Nauru 21 ~ 9,370 5/2005
Palau 487 ~ 17,500 12/1999
Paraguay 406,752 ~ 6,120,000 7/1957
Saint Kitts and Nevis 261 ~ 49,000 10/1983
Saint Lucia 617 ~ 173,700 4/2007
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  388 ~ 109,900 8/1981
Tuvalu 26 ~ 10,800 9/1979
Vatican / Holy See 0.44 ~ 800 7/1942

It should be noted that special importance is commonly attached to the relations between the ROC and its diplomatic allies in the Carribean and Latin America for a certain reason. When a sitting ROC president visits one or more of these allies, he or she usually makes stopovers in the US on the way there and back. These stopovers can have a great political significance, especially when meetings with high-ranking US officials are involved, and they also allow conclusions about the state of ROC–US relations—for example, if the ROC president is granted a stopover in Alaska only, that might indicate strains in the bilateral relations.

The following table shows the country names of the current ROC diplomatic allies and their respective capital in Chinese. (Source: ROC MOFA)

Country name ~ in Chinese Capital ~ in Chinese National flag
Belize Beilisi 貝里斯 Belmopan Beiermobang 貝爾墨邦
Eswatini Shiwadini 史瓦帝尼 Mbabane Mobaben 墨巴本
Guatemala Guadimala 瓜地馬拉 Ciudad de Guatemala Guadimala shi 瓜地馬拉市
Haiti Haidi 海地 Port-au-Prince Taizigang 太子港
Holy See Jiaoting 教廷 Vatican City Fandigang cheng 梵蒂岡城
Honduras Hongdulasi 宏都拉斯 Tegucigalpa Deguxijiaba 德古西加巴
Marshall Islands Mashaoer qundao 馬紹爾群島 Majuro Majiuluo 馬久羅
Nauru Nuolu 諾魯 Yaren Yalian 雅連
Palau Boliu 帛琉 Ngerulmud Enjilumude 恩吉魯穆德
Paraguay Balagui 巴拉圭 Asunción Yasongsen 亞松森
Saint Kitts and Nevis Sheng Kelisiduofu ji Niweisi 聖克里斯多福及尼維斯 Basseterre Bashidi 巴士底
Saint Lucia Sheng Luxiya 聖露西亞 Castries Kasicui 卡斯翠
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Sheng Wensen 聖文森 Kingstown Jinshicheng 金石城
Tuvalu Tuwalu 吐瓦魯 Funafuti Funafuti 富納富提

Notes: The former Kingdom of Swaziland (Shiwajilan 史瓦濟蘭) was renamed Eswatini (original spelling: eSwatini) on April 19, 2018. The capital of Palau before Oct. 7, 2006 was Koror (Keluo 科羅) which was then replaced with Ngerulmud, a town belonging to Palau's state of Melekeok (Meiliqiu 美麗坵).

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ROC vs. PRC since the 1970s

Lost and found—the ROC's diplomatic relations since the 1970s

After the PRC was founded on Oct. 1, 1949, the Soviet Union recognized the Communist regime in Beijing almost immediately on Oct. 3, 1949, and all the USSR's allies in the eastern bloc followed suit within a year. Although the majority of countries that had maintained official relations with the ROC in 1949 continued their ties with Taipei, a number of states established diplomatic relations with the PRC within five years of its existence, including the following: Mongolia (Oct. 16, 1949), UK (Jan. 6, 1950—the first non-socialist country to switch diplomatic recognition), India (April 1, 1950), Indonesia (April 13, 1950), Sweden (May 9, 1950), Denmark (May 11, 1950), Switzerland (Sept. 14, 1950), Finland (Oct. 28, 1950), Pakistan (May 21, 1951), Norway (Oct. 5, 1954), and others.

In January 1970 the ROC had formal diplomatic relations with 67 states (an "®" indicates that the marked country has since been renamed):

Argentina
Australia
Barbados
Belgium
Bolivia
Botswana
Brazil
Cameroon
Canada
Central African Republic 
Chad
Chile
Colombia
Congo (Kinshasa) ®
Costa Rica
Cyprus
Dahomey ®
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
El Salvador
Gabon
Gambia
Greece
Guatemala
Haiti
Holy See
Honduras
Iran
Italy
Ivory Coast
Jamaica
Japan
Jordan
Korea (South)
Kuwait
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Luxembourg
Malagasy Republic ®
Malawi
Maldives
Malta
Mexico
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Portugal
Rwanda
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Spain
Swaziland
Thailand
Togo
Turkey
USA
Upper Volta ®
Uruguay
Venezuela
Vietnam (South) 

Four of these states have since been renamed. Congo (Kinshasa), formerly "Belgian Congo", gained independence from Belgium on June 30, 1960 under the name "République du Congo" and was commonly known as "Congo-Leopoldville", it was then renamed "Democratic Republic of Congo" on Aug. 1, 1964 and "Zaire" on Oct. 27, 1971, today's name "Democratic Republic of Congo" was restored on May 17, 1997. Dahomey gained independence from France on Aug. 1, 1960 and was renamed "People's Republic of Benin" on Nov. 30, 1975, it has been known as Benin ever since. The Malagasy Republic, proclaimed on Oct. 14, 1958, gained full independence from France on June 26, 1960 and has been using "Madagascar" in its official state name since the "Democratic Republic of Madagascar" was formally proclaimed on Dec. 30, 1975. Upper Volta attained full independence from France on Aug. 5, 1960 and was renamed "Burkina Faso" on Aug. 4, 1984.

Please note that Western Samoa, a country which maintained formal ties with the ROC between 1972 and 1975 and therefore is mentioned in the chronology below, gained independence from New Zealand on Jan. 1, 1962 and was renamed "Samoa" on July 4, 1997. Macedonia, diplomatic ally of the ROC between 1999 and 2001, was officially renamed "North Macedonia" on Feb. 12, 2019.

Diplomatic timeline

In the following chronology, the symbol "" means that diplomatic relations with the ROC were established (jianjiao 建交), and the symbol "" means that diplomatic relations with the ROC were severed (duanjiao 斷交). The figure in the square brackets refers to the number of diplomatic allies the ROC had after winning/losing official ties with that particular country.

Major sources for the data shown below include the ROC/Taiwan yearbooks, media reports and a detailed almanac published by the ROC MOFA in early 1999.

1970  Oct. 13: Canada [66]
Nov. 6: Italy [65]
1971 Jan. 5: Chile [64]
March 29: Kuwait [63]
April 3: Cameroon [62]
Aug. 5: Turkey [61]
Aug. 17: Iran [60]
Aug. 20: Sierra Leone [59]
Oct. 25:United Nations
Oct. 26: Belgium [58]
Nov. 2: Peru [57]
Nov. 9: Lebanon [56]
Nov. 16: Mexico [55]
Nov. 17: Ecuador [54]
1972 Jan. 12: Cyprus [53]
Jan. 31: Malta [52]
Feb. 19: Argentina [51]
April 10: Tonga [52]
April 12: Senegal [51]
April 15: Maldives [50]
May 13: Rwanda [49]
May 29: Western Samoa® [50]
June 5: Greece [49]
Sept. 29: Japan [48]
Oct. 4: Togo [47]
Nov. 2: Jamaica [46]
Nov. 14: Luxembourg [45]
Dec. 15: Malagasy Republic® [44]
Dec. 22: Australia [43],  New Zealand [42]
Dec. 27: Chad [41]
1973 Jan. 1: Dahomey® [40]
Jan. 30: Zaire® [39]
March 10: Spain [38]
Oct. 23: Upper Volta® [37]
1974 March 30: Gabon [36]
April 5: Botswana [35]
June 29: Venezuela [34]
July 29: Niger [33]
Aug. 16: Brazil [32]
Dec. 28: Gambia [31]
1975 Jan. 6: Portugal [30]
April 30: South Vietnam [29]
June 9: Philippines [28]
July 1: Thailand [27]
Nov. 6: Western Samoa® [26]
1976 April 26: South Africa [27]
Aug. 23: Central African Republic [26]
1977 Jan. 10: Barbados [25]
Feb. 23: Liberia [24]
April 14: Jordan [23]
1978 Sept. 14: Libya [22]
1979 Jan. 1: USA [21]
Sept. 19: Tuvalu [22]
1980 Feb. 9: Colombia [21]
May 4: Nauru [22]
1981 Aug. 15: St. Vincent & the Grenadines [23]
1983 March 3: Ivory Coast [22]
March 24: Solomon Islands [23]
May 10: Dominica [24]
May 14: Lesotho [23]
Oct. 9: St. Kitts & Nevis [24]
1984 May 8: St. Lucia [25]
1985 July 11: Bolivia [24]
Dec. 7: Nicaragua [23]
1988 Feb. 4: Uruguay [22]
1989 Jan. 9: Bahamas [23]
July 20: Grenada [24]
Oct. 2: Liberia [25]
Oct. 31: Belize [26]
1990 April 5: Lesotho [27]
May 26: Guinea Bissau [28]
July 22: Saudi Arabia [27]
Nov. 5: Nicaragua [28]
1991 July 8: Central African Republic [29]
1992 June 19: Niger [30]
Aug. 24: South Korea [29]
1994 Jan. 12: Lesotho [28]
Feb. 2: Burkina Faso [29]
1995 July 13: Gambia [30]
1996 Jan. 3: Senegal [31]
Aug. 19: Niger [30]
1997 May 6: São Tomé & Príncipe [31]
May 18: Bahamas [30]
Aug. 12: Chad [31]
Aug. 29: St. Lucia [30]
Dec. 31: South Africa [29]
1998 Jan. 29: Central African Republic [28]
April 24: Guinea Bissau [27]
Nov. 2: Tonga [26]
Nov. 20: Marshall Islands [27]
1999 Jan. 27: Macedonia® [28]
Dec. 30: Palau [29]
2001 June 18: Macedonia® [28]
2002 July 23: Nauru [27]
2003 Oct. 12: Liberia [26]
Nov. 7: Kiribati [27]
2004 March 30: Dominica [26]
Nov. 3: Vanuatu [27]
Dec. 15: Vanuatu [26]
2005 Jan. 27: Grenada [25]
May 14: Nauru [26]
Oct. 25: Senegal [25]
2006 Aug. 5: Chad [24]
2007 April 30: St. Lucia [25]
June 7: Costa Rica [24]
2008 Jan. 14: Malawi [23]
2013 Nov. 14: Gambia [22]
2016 Dec. 21: São Tomé & Príncipe [21]
2017 June 13: Panama [20]
2018 May 1: Dominican Republic [19]
May 24: Burkina Faso [18]
Aug. 21: El Salvador [17]
2019 Sept. 16: Solomon Islands [16]
Sept. 20: Kiribati [15]
2021 Dec. 9: Nicaragua [14]

The phenomenon of unstable diplomatic relations dates back longer than the 1971 watershed year, it also occurred in the 1960s and affected the relations of the ROC with some African states. The two countries with the highest frequency of switching diplomatic relations between the ROC and the PRC were the Central African Republic ( 1962, April 13;  1964, Nov. 5;  1968, May 6;  1976, Aug. 23;  1991, July 8;  1998, Jan. 29) and Senegal ( 1960, Sept. 23;  1964, Nov. 8;  1969, July 16;  1972, April 12;  1996, Jan. 3;  2005, Oct. 25).

A remark about the ROC's relations with South Africa

Although a ROC consulate in Johannesburg (established by Qing China on May 14, 1905) was already mentioned in the ROC Yearbook 1956-57, and ROC yearbooks published in the 1960s listed South Africa among the countries having diplomatic relations with the ROC, official ties were not formally elevated to ambassadorial level until 1976. Willem Pretorius, South Africa's first ambassador to the ROC, presented his credentials to President Yen Chia-kan on May 25 that year. Diplomatic relations between the ROC and South Africa finally ended on Dec. 31, 1997.

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Comparison: The PRC gaining diplomatic ground since the 1970s

In January 1970 the PRC had formal ties with 48 states—members of the Warsaw Pact are marked here with a red hammer and sickle symbol [], other socialist/communist regimes not under Soviet influence with a black hammer and sickle symbol []:

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
Bulgaria
Burma (= Myanmar)
Cambodia
Ceylon (= Sri Lanka)
Congo (Brazzaville)
Cuba
Czechoslovakia
Denmark
Egypt
Finland
France
Germany (East)
Ghana
Guinea
Hungary
India
Iraq
Kenya
Korea (North)
Laos
Liechtenstein
Mali
Mauritania
Mongolia
Morocco
Nepal
Norway
Pakistan
Poland
Romania
Somalia
Sudan
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria
Tanzania
Tunisia
Uganda
UK
USSR
Vietnam (North)
Yemen (North)
Yemen (South)
Yugoslavia
Zambia

Congo (Brazzaville) today is called "Republic of the Congo" and should not be confused with the Democratic Republic of Congo which was called "Congo-Leopoldville" in the past; the city of Leopoldville was renamed Kinshasa on July 1, 1966.

The table below shows a short chronology concerning the diplomatic gains of the PRC in the years 1970 and 1971. When the ROC cut relations with Iran on Aug. 17, 1971, the PRC surpassed the ROC in the number of diplomatic allies.

1970  Oct. 13: Canada [49]
Oct. 15: Equatorial Guinea [50]
Nov. 6: Italy [51]
Nov. 24: Ethiopia [52]
Dec. 15: Chile [53]
1971 Feb. 10: Nigeria [54]
March 22: Kuwait [55]
March 26: Cameroon [56]
May 6: San Marino [57]
May 28: Austria [58]
July 29: Sierra Leone [59]
Aug. 4: Turkey [60]
Aug. 16: Iran [61]
Oct. 25: Belgium [62]
Nov. 2: Peru [63]
Nov. 9: Lebanon [64]
Nov. 12: Rwanda [65]
Dec. 7: Senegal [66]
Dec. 8: Iceland [67]
Dec. 14: Cyprus [68]

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The ROC in major international organizations

Taiwan/the ROC is currently not represented in many important international organizations as a result of pressure exerted by the PRC. Efforts by the ROC government to gain meaningful participation (e. g. observer status) in global bodies like the United Nations (UN) and its affiliated specialized agencies—including the World Health Organization (WHO) and its World Health Assembly (WHA), the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)—as well as others like the International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) have consistently been obstructed by the authoritarian regime in Beijing.

United Nations (UN)

United Nations (UN) [headquarters]
760 United Nations Plaza, New York City, NY 10017, USA
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🌏 United Nations – Web link

The UN was established on Oct. 24, 1945 with the ROC as a founding member. On Oct. 25, 1971 the UN General Assembly approved UN Resolution 2758 which restored the 'lawful rights of the People's Republic of China' and expelled 'the representatives of Chiang Kai-shek'. Before the ROC lost China's seat in the UN, it had also been a permanent member of the UN Security Council from the start.

ROC representatives to the UN

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
1946–1947Kuo T'ai-ch'i 郭泰祺1889-1952Hubei
1947—7/1962Tsiang Ting-fu 蔣廷黻1895-1965Hunan
7/1962—10/1971Liu Chieh 劉鍇1906-1991Tianjin

The UN was created as a replacement for the League of Nations (LN) following the signing of the Covenant of the League of Nations on June 28, 1919 in Paris, effective on Jan. 10, 1920. China—a founding member of the LN as well—was not a permanent member of the LN Council but a non-permanent member of the LN Council at the following times: 1920–1923, 1926–1928, 1931–1934, and 1936. The LN was dissolved on April 20, 1946.

While the ROC appointed permanent representatives for the UN in New York, Chinese delegates took part regularly in meetings of the LN Council (i. e. during times when China was a Council member) and the LN Assembly, but apparently there were no Chinese representatives stationed permanently at the LN HQ in Geneva. Chinese diplomats taking part in said meetings included Chiang Tso-pin 蔣作賓 (1884-1941, Hubei), Chu Shao-hsin 朱兆莘 (1879-1932, Guangdong), Victor Hoo Chi-tsai 胡世澤 (1894-1972, Zhejiang), Wellington Koo 顧維鈞 (1888-1985, Shanghai), Kuo T'ai-ch'i 郭泰祺 (1889-1952, Hubei), Lone Liang 梁龍 (1893-1968, Guangdong), Liu Chieh 劉鍇 (1906-1991, Tianjin), Lou Tseng-tsiang 陸徵祥 (1871-1949, Shanghai), Low Kwang-lai 樓光來 (1895-1960, Zhejiang), Alfred Sao-ke Sze 施肇基 (1877-1958, Jiangsu), Tang Tsai-fu 唐在復 (1978-1962, Shanghai), Tung Dekien 童德乾 (1887-1944?, Hubei), Wang Chung-hui 王寵惠 (1881-1958, Guangdong), Wu Kai-shen 吳凱聲 (1900-1997, Jiangsu), Wu Nan-ju 吳南如 (1898-1975, Jiangsu), Yen Hui-ch'ing 顏惠慶 (1877-1950, Shanghai), and several others.

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ROC representative office to the World Trade Organization (WTO)

Permanent Mission of the Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu to the World Trade Organization 中華民國常駐 WTO 代表團
No. 7 Avenue de Tournay, CH-1292 Chambésy, Geneva, Switzerland Description: Nologo07
WTO headquarters: Centre William Rappard, 154 Rue de Lausanne, CH-1211 Geneva 21, Switzerland
(The WTO logo is shown on the right)
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🌏 WTO – Web link

The WTO officially commenced on Jan. 1, 1995 in succession to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) which had been signed on Oct. 30, 1947 by 23 countries in Geneva (Switzerland) and came into force on Jan. 1, 1948. The ROC was admitted to the WTO as a full member under the name "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu" (Tai Peng Jin Ma gebie guanshui lingyu 臺澎金馬個別關稅領域) on Jan. 1, 2002.

Taiwan representatives to the WTO

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
2002–2005Yen Ching-chang 顏慶章b. 1948Taiwan
5/2005—10/2012Lin Yi-fu 林義夫b. 1942Taiwan
10/2012—7/2016Lai Shin-yuan 賴幸媛b. 1956Taiwan/Fujian
8/2016—8/2019Cyrus C. Y. Chu 朱敬一b. 1955Taiwan
9/2019—7/2020 @Lien Yu-ping 連玉蘋N/AN/A
7/2020—Lo Chang-fa 羅昌發b. 1956Taiwan

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Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) [Secretariat]
35 Heng Mui Keng Terrace, Queenstown, Singapore 119616
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🌏 APEC – Web link

APEC (= Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, in Chinese: Yazhou taipingyang jingji hezuo zuzhi 亞洲太平洋經濟合作組織) was established in Canberra (Australia) on Nov. 6–7, 1989. The 12 founding members were Australia, Brunei, Canada, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand, and the US; Taiwan became an APEC member on Nov. 13, 1991 under the name "Chinese Taipei". Other members that joined APEC since 1991—Hong Kong, PRC (November 1991); Mexico, Papua New Guinea (November 1993); Chile (November 1994); Peru, Russia, Vietnam (November 1998). Usually member economies are represented at APEC summits of economic leaders by their respective head of state. Due to pressure from the PRC, most countries in the world refuse to recognize the ROC as a sovereign state, therefore Taiwan sends high-ranking (and in most cases retired) politicians or well-known business tycoons instead.

Taiwan's representatives at summits of APEC Economic Leaders

No. Date Location Taiwan's representative
1st 1993, Nov. 20 Blake Island (USA) Vincent Siew 蕭萬長
2nd 1994, Nov. 15 Bogor (Indonesia)  "
3rd 1995, Nov. 19 Osaka 大阪 (Japan) Koo Chen-fu 辜振甫
4th 1996, Nov. 25 Manila (Philippines)  "
5th 1997, Nov. 24–25 Vancouver (Canada)  "
6th 1998, Nov. 17–18 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) Chiang Pin-kung 江丙坤
7th 1999, Sept. 12–13 Auckland (New Zealand)  "
8th 2000, Nov. 16 Bandar Seri Begawan (Brunei Darussalam) Perng Fai-nan 彭淮南
9th 2001, Oct. 20–21 Shanghai 上海 (PRC) — — —
10th 2002, Oct. 26–27 Los Cabos (Mexico) Lee Yuan-tseh 李遠哲
11th 2003, Oct. 20–21 Bangkok (Thailand)  "
12th 2004, Nov. 20–21 Santiago (Chile)  "
13th 2005, Nov. 18–19 Busan 釜山 (South Korea) Lin Hsin-i 林信義
14th 2006, Nov. 18–19 Hanoi 河內 (Vietnam) Morris Chang 張忠謀
15th 2007, Sept. 8–9 Sydney (Australia) Stan Shih 施振榮
16th 2008, Nov. 22–23 Lima (Peru) Lien Chan 連戰
17th 2009, Nov. 14–15 Singapore 新加坡  "
18th 2010, Nov. 13–14 Yokohama 橫濱 (Japan)  "
19th 2011, Nov. 12–13 Honolulu (Hawaii, USA)  "
20th 2012, Sept. 8–9 Vladivostok (Russia)  "
21st 2013, Oct. 5–7 Bali (Indonesia) Vincent Siew
22nd 2014, Nov. 10–11 Beijing 北京 (PRC)  "
23rd 2015, Nov. 18–19 Manila  "
24th 2016, Nov. 19–20 Lima James Soong 宋楚瑜
25th 2017, Nov. 10–11 Da Nang 峴港 (Vietnam)  "
26th 2018, Nov. 18 Port Moresby (PNG) Morris Chang
27th 2019, Nov. 16–17 Santiago (Chile) [cancelled]  "
28th 2020, Nov. 20 Malaysia [virtual]  "
29th 2021, Nov. 12 New Zealand [virtual]  "

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Boao Forum for Asia (BFA)

Boao Forum for Asia (BFA) [Secretariat]
42 F., China World Tower A, No. 1 Jianguomenwai Avenue,
Beijing 100004, PRC
[100004 北京市朝陽區建國門外大街 1 號(國貿大廈 A 座 42 層)]
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🌏 BFA – Web link

BFA (Boao Yazhou luntan 博鰲亞洲論壇) was initiated in 1998 and formally inaugurated Feb. 26–27, 2001. It was named after Boao Town 博鰲鎮 (Qionghai City 瓊海市, Hainan Province, PRC) where the conference has been taking place annually since April 2002. The 26 participating economies are Australia, Bangladesh, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, the PRC, South Korea, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Vietnam.

Taiwan's representatives at the BFA

Year, dateLeader of Taiwan's delegation
2002, April 12–13—[Taiwan not represented]—
2003, April 26–27—[Taiwan not represented]—
2004, April 24–26Vincent Siew 蕭萬長
2005, April 22–24—[Taiwan not represented]—
2006, April 21–23—[Taiwan not represented]—
2007, April 19–22—[Taiwan not represented]—
2008, April 11–13Vincent Siew
2009, April 17–19Fredrick F. Chien 錢復
2010, April 9–11 "
2011, April 14–16 "
2012, April 1–3Wu Den-yih 吳敦義
2013, April 6–8Vincent Siew
2014, April 8–11 "
2015, March 26–29 "
2016, March 22–25 "
2017, March 23–26 "
2018, April 8–11 "
2019, March 26–29 "
2020, March 24–27[Annual conference was cancelled due to outbreak of COVID-19]
2021, April 18–21—[Taiwan not represented]—

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The ROC and the US

Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United States (TECRO)

ROC Representative Office in the US /
Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United States (TECRO)
駐美國台北經濟文化代表處
No. 4201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington DC 20016, USA
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🌏 TECRO – Web link
Description: Nologo07

Before January 1979, the ROC and the US had formal diplomatic relations which ended when the Carter administration switched diplomatic recognition to the PRC. Since then, Taiwan's envoy in Washington DC no longer uses the title of ambassador (dashi 大使) and is called representative (daibiao 代表) instead. The former embassy of the ROC in the US was transformed into the "Coordination Council for North American Affairs, Office in the United States of America" (bei Mei shiwu xietiao weiyuanhui zhu Meiguo banshichu 北美事務協調委員會駐美國辦事處) and renamed "Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United States" (zhu Meiguo Taibei jingji wenhua daibiaochu 駐美國台北經濟文化代表處, abbrev. TECRO) on Oct. 10, 1994.

ROC representatives to the US

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
9/1920—3/1929Alfred Sao-ke Sze 施肇基1877-1958Jiangsu/Zhejiang
1/1929—9/1931Wu Chao-shu 伍朝樞1887-1934Tianjin/Guangdong
6/1931—10/1931Yung Kwai 容揆1861-1943Guangdong
9/1931—1/1933Yen Hui-ch'ing 顏惠慶1877-1950Shanghai
10/1931—12/1932 @Yan He-ling 嚴鶴齡1879-1937Jiangsu
1/1933—8/1936Alfred Sao-ke Sze (second time)
8/1936—9/1938Thomas Wang 王正廷1882-1961Zhejiang
9/1938—9/1942Hu Shih 胡適1891-1962Anhui
9/1942—6/1946Wei Tao-ming 魏道明1900-1978Jiangxi
6/1946—1956Wellington Koo 顧維鈞1888-1985Shanghai
4/1956—8/1958Hollington K. Tong 董顯光1887-1971Zhejiang
8/1958—11/1961Yeh Kung-chao 葉公超1904-1981Guangdong
11/1961—4/1965Tsiang Ting-fu 蔣廷黻1895-1965Hunan
4/1965—3/1971Chow Shu-kai 周書楷1913-1992Hubei
4/1971—1/1979James Shen 沈劍虹1909-2007Shanghai

5/1979—3/1981Hsia Kung-chuan 夏功權1919-2008Zhejiang
3/1981—11/1982Tsai Wei-ping 蔡維屏1911-1997Jiangsu
11/1982—8/1988Fredrick F. Chien 錢復b. 1935Beijing
8/1988—9/1994Ding Mou-shih 丁懋時b. 1925Yunnan
9/1994—6/1996Benjamin C. Lu 魯肇忠b. 1934Anhui
6/1996—10/1997Jason Hu 胡志強b. 1948Jilin
10/1997—5/2000Stephen S. F. Chen 陳錫蕃b. 1934Jiangsu
5/2000—7/2004Chen Chien-jen 程建人b. 1939Jiangsu
7/2004—4/2007David Lee Ta-wei 李大維b. 1949Taiwan
4/2007—8/2008Joseph Wu 吳釗燮b. 1956Taiwan
8/2008—9/2012Jason Yuan 袁健生b. 1942Guizhou
9/2012—2/2014King Pu-tsung 金溥聰b. 1956Taiwan
3/2014—6/2016Shen Lyu-shun 沈呂巡b. 1949Taiwan
6/2016—7/2020Stanley Kao 高碩泰b. 1953Taiwan
7/2020—Hsiao Bi-khim 蕭美琴b. 1971<Japan>

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US representatives to the ROC before 1979

In addition to relations in the area of diplomacy and trade, the ROC and the US also maintained close ties in military cooperation and coordination between the 1940s and the late 1970s, especially during WWII as well as the Korean War and the Vietnam War when the two countries had common adversaries. In this context, two organizations are worth mentioning—the Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) and the United States Taiwan Defense Command (USTDC). Their work in Taiwan ended when the diplomatic relations between the ROC and the US were terminated. More details about the MAAG and USTDC can be found further below.

US ambassadors to the ROC

Tenure Name Born/Died Name in Chinese
12/1909—2/1913William James Calhoun1847-1916Jialeheng 嘉樂恒
8/1913—9/1919Paul Reinsch1869-1923Rui'enshi 芮恩施
3/1920—7/1921Charles R. Crane1858-1939Kelai'en 克萊恩
6/1921—4/1925Jacob Gould Schurman1854-1942Shu'erman 舒爾曼
4/1925—11/1929John Van Antwerp MacMurray1881-1960Mamurui 馬慕瑞
12/1929—5/1941Nelson T. Johnson1887-1954Zhansen 詹森
2/1941—11/1944Clarence E. Gauss1887-1960Gaosi 高思
11/1944—9/1945Patrick J. Hurley1883-1963He'erli 赫爾利
7/1946—8/1949John Leighton Stuart1876-1962Situ Leideng 司徒雷登
2/1953—12/1957Karl L. Rankin1898-1991Lanqin 藍欽
2/1958—3/1962Everett Drumright1906-1993Zhuanglaide 莊萊德
6/1962—1/1963Alan G. Kirk1888-1963Ke'erke 柯爾克
5/1963—7/1965Jerauld Wright1898-1995Laite 賴特
6/1966—4/1974Walter McConaughy1908-2000Makangwei 馬康衛
3/1974—1/1979Leonard S. Unger1917-2010An Kezhi 安克志

After the end of formal diplomatic relations between the ROC and the US, the former US embassy in Taipei was renamed American Institute in Taiwan (Meiguo zai Tai xiehui 美國在台協會, abbrev. AIT) according to the 1979 Taiwan Relations Act of the Carter administration. A special feature of the AIT is its dual leadership—it is headed by a chairman (lishi zhuxi 理事主席) based in Washington DC and a director (Taibei banshichu chuzhang 台北辦事處處長, abbrev. chuzhang 處長) stationed in Taipei. The AIT also operates a smaller branch office in Kaohsiung.

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American Institute in Taiwan (AIT)

American Institute in Taiwan (AIT) 美國在台協會
Washington HQ—Suite 1700, No. 1700 North Moore Street, Arlington, Virginia 22209, USA;
Taipei Office 台北辦事處: No. 100 Jinhu Road, Neihu District, Taipei City 11461, Taiwan ROC [11461 台北市內湖區金湖路 100 號];
Kaohsiung Branch Office 高雄分處: 5 F., No. 88 Chenggong 2nd Road, Qianzhen District, Kaohsiung City 80661, Taiwan ROC (China Steel Building) [80661 高雄市前鎮區成功二路 88 號 5 樓(中鋼集團總部大樓)].
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🌏 AIT – Web link

Please note that on June 12, 2018 a dedication ceremony for the new AIT office complex in Taipei's Neihu was held there. Services in the old offices—No. 7, Lane 134, Xinyi Road Sec. 3, Daan District, Taipei City 10659, Taiwan ROC [10659 台北市大安區信義路 3 段 134 巷 7 號]—ceased on May 1, 2019 and were resumed in the new compound on May 6, 2019. The Xinyi compound was the former site of the Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) which was shut down in March 1979.

AIT Taipei directors

Tenure Name Born/Died Name in Chinese
1979–1981Charles T. Cross1922-2008Geleshi 葛樂士
1981–1984James R. Lilley1928-2009Li Jieming 李潔明
1984–1986Harry E. T. Thayer1927-2017Song Hede 宋賀德
1987–1989David Dean1925-2013Ding Dawei 丁大衛
1990–1993Thomas S. Brooksb. 1932Lu Leshan 魯樂山
1993–1996B. Lynn Pascoeb. 1943Bei Lin 貝霖
1996–1999Darryl Norman Johnson1938-2018Zhang Daiyou 張戴佑
1999–2001Raymond F. Burghardtb. 1945Bo Ruiguang 薄瑞光
2002–2006Douglas Haines Paalb. 1948Bao Daoge 包道格
2006–2009Stephen M. Youngb. 1951Yang Sudi 楊甦棣
2009–2012William A. Stantonb. 1947Situ Wen 司徒文
2012–2015Christopher J. Marutb. 1952Ma Qisi 馬啟思
2015–2018Kin W. Moyb. 1966Mei Jianhua 梅建華
2018–2021William Brent ChristensenN/ALi Yingjie 酈英傑
2021—Sandra Oudkirkb. N/ASun Xiaoya 孫曉雅

AIT Washington chairs

Tenure Name Born/Died Name in Chinese
1979–1986David Dean1925-2013Ding Dawei 丁大衛
1986–1990David N. LauxN/ALuo Dawei 羅大為
1990–1995Natale H. Bellocchi1926-2014Baileqi 白樂崎
1996–1997James C. Wood, Jr.N/AWu Jieshi 鄔傑士
1997–2002Richard C. Bushb. 1947Bu Ruizhe 卜睿哲
2002–2004Therese M. ShaheenN/AXiaxin 夏馨
2004–2006 @David G. BrownN/ABu Daowei 卜道維
2006–2016Raymond F. Burghardtb. 1945Bo Ruiguang 薄瑞光
2016—James F. Moriartyb. 1953Mo Jian 莫健

AIT Kaohsiung Branch Office chiefs

Tenure Name Born/Died Name in Chinese
1979–1980Patrick J. CorcoranN/AN/A
1980 @John J. NorrisN/ANiuruizhi 牛瑞智
1980–1982Donald E. SoergelN/ASu Tangna 蘇唐納
1982–1983John E. LundinN/ALong Qiang 龍強
1983–1985John A. Froebe Jr.N/AFuren Jie 傅仁杰
1985–1989Syd GoldsmithN/AGao Siwen 高思文
1989–1992Joseph R. Donovan Jr.N/ATang Ruowen 唐若文
1992–1995Jeffrey BuczackiN/ABozuoqi 薄佐齊
1995–1996Thomas V. BiddickN/ABi Tianwei 畢天偉
1996–1999Darrell Allen JenksN/AJin Dayou 金大友
1999–2002Stephen D. Dunnb. 1958Deng Shiwen 鄧史文
2002Thomas V. Biddick (second time)
2002—8/2005Robert W. Fordenb. 1959Fu De’en 傅德恩
8/2005—3/2008Tracy ThieleN/AJin Dili 金迪麗
3/2008—7/2011Chris CastroN/AKang Chengru 康晟如
7/2011—7/2014Gary G. ObaN/AOu Jielin 歐介林
7/2014—7/2017Robert C. DeWittN/ADu Weihao 杜維浩
8/2017—7/2020Matthew O’ConnorN/AOu Yuxiu 歐雨修
8/2020—8/2022Mason YuN/AYu Daorui 禹道瑞
8/2022—Thomas Wongb. N/AHuang Dongwei 黃東偉

Please note that the Chinese name of John A. Froebe Jr. is sometimes written like this: 傅仁傑 (with a different third character).
The AIT Kaohsiung Branch Office moved into its current premises on Aug. 8, 2014. Between 1986 and 2014 it used office space at 5 F., No. 2 Zhongzheng 3rd Road, Xinxing District, Kaohsiung City 80052, Taiwan ROC [80052 高雄市新興區中正三路 2 號 5 樓].

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Milestones in the ROC-US bilateral relations

Year Date, event
1913  May 2: The US recognize the government of the ROC
1937 June 8: ROC Ambassador to the US Thomas Wang rents the Twin Oaks (shuangxiangyuan 雙橡園) in Washington DC as residence for the ROC embassy (the ROC government purchases the property from the Hubbard family in 1947, still owns it to this day)
Oct. 6: The US State Department condemns Japan's invasion of China
1940 Dec. 29: US President Roosevelt indicates in a fireside chat that the US would provide military aid to China
1941 April 17: US President Roosevelt approves the first military aid program of US$ 45 million for China
Aug. 1: The American Volunteer Group in China (Zhonghua minguo kongjun Mei ji zhiyuan dadui 中華民國空軍美籍志願大隊, abbrev. AVG)—nicknamed the "Flying Tigers" (feihudui 飛虎隊)—is established with US General Claire L. Chennault as its commander
April 25: The US and the ROC sign a Stabilization Fund Agreement (pingzhun jijin xieding 平准基金協定) in Washington DC
October: US military advisors arrive in China; a month later a shipment of P-40 fighter planes for the Flying Tigers is delivered
Dec. 9: The US and the UK announce that they would give up all extraterritorial privileges in China after the war
1942 Jan. 23: General Joseph Stilwell is appointed Allied Chief of Staff to Chiang Kai-shek (arrives in Chongqing on March 4)
June 2: ROC FM T. V. Soong and his US counterpart Cordell Hull sign the Sino-American Lend-Lease Agreement (Zhong Mei zujie xieding 中美租借協定) in Washington DC
July 4: The AVG is superseded by the China Task Force of the US Army Air Forces (Meiguo zhu Hua kongjun teqiandui 美國駐華空軍特遣隊)
Oct. 2: US President Roosevelt's special envoy Wendel Willkie arrives in Chongqing
1943 Jan. 11: The New Sino-American Treaty (Zhong Mei xin yue 中美新約) is signed in Washington DC
Feb. 18: The second woman and first Chinese to do so, ROC First Lady Soong May-ling delivers a speech to the US Congress urging the US to help fight Japan, her address is broadcast to the nation by radio
1944 June 18: US VP Henry A. Wallace visits the ROC
Aug. 18: General Patrick J. Hurley is appointed as personal representative of US President Roosevelt to the ROC
Oct. 24: General Stilwell is recalled from the ROC
Oct. 29: US General Albert C. Wedemeyer is appointed chief of staff to Chiang Kai-shek
1945 Aug. 16: ROC premier T. V. Soong arrives in Washington DC to confer with US President Truman; series of talks concluded on Sept. 14, 1945
Aug. 28: US Ambassador to the ROC Patrick J. Hurley accompanies CCP boss Mao Zedong from Yanan to Chongqing
Nov. 27: The appointment of US General George C. Marshall Jr. as US President Truman's representative to the ROC is announced (Marshall arrives in Chongqing on Dec. 22)
Dec. 15: US President Truman expresses his desire to see China peacefully unified as a democratic state
1946 Jan. 7: US General Marshall acts as mediator in the first truce meeting between Nationalist and Communist representatives
Nov. 4: The ROC and the US sign a 5-year Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation (Zhong Mei youhao tongshang hanghai tiaoyue 中美友好通商航海條約) in Nanjing
Dec. 18: US President Truman states that the US would continue the policy of non-involvement in the Chinese civil strife
1947 Jan. 8: US General Marshall leaves Nanjing and returns to the US
Jan. 29: The US State Department abandons efforts to mediate between the ROC government and Communist rebels
July 22: US General Wedemeyer arrives in Nanjing as special representative of US President Truman for a fact-finding mission
Aug. 24: US General Wedemeyer leaves China and states that corruption and incompetence had gravely weakened the ROC government
Dec. 8: The ROC and the US reach an agreement regarding the transfer of US vessels to China and training of Chinese naval personnel
1948 Feb. 18: US President Truman sends a message to Congress requesting US$ 570 million for aid (food, relief, reconstruction) in China
July 3: The Sino-American Aid Agreement (Zhong Mei jingji xiezhu xieding 中美經濟協助協定) is signed in Nanjing
Aug. 5: The ROC and the US sign an agreement concerning the establishment of the Sino-American Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction (Zhongguo nongcun fuxing lianhe weiyuanhui 中國農村復興聯合委員會, abbrev. nongfuhui 農復會 in Chinese and JCRR in English)
1949 Aug. 5: US Secretary of State Dean Acheson comments on the development of the Chinese civil war, criticizing the military ineptidude of the KMT leaders and saying they proved incapable of meeting the crisis confronting them; the same month the US government releases a China White Paper
Oct. 3: The US State Department reaffirms the US recognition of the ROC government as the only legal government of China
1950 Jan. 5: US President Truman announces that the US government would not provide military aid or advice to Chinese forces on Formosa
Jan. 9: The gunboat "Wuling" (武陵) fires on the US freighter "Flying Arrow" on the Yangtze estuary 'to keep her from entering a mine field'; the US State Department protests on Feb. 28
June 27: Two days after the start of the Korean War US President Truman orders the US Seventh Fleet to prevent a PRC attack on Taiwan but states that 'the determination of the future status of Formosa must await the restoration of security in the Pacific, a peace settlement with Japan, or consideration by the United Nations'
June 28: ROC FM Yeh Kung-chao declares that the ROC has in principle accepted the US government's proposal to cease operations against the mainland
July 8: US Vice Admiral Arthur D. Struble, commander of the US Seventh Fleet, arrives in Taipei
July 31: US General Douglas MacArthur arrives in Taiwan and meets Chiang Kai-shek (wraps up visit on Aug. 7)
Nov. 16: William C. Foster, director of the Economic Cooperation Agency (ECA), arrives in Taipei
1951 April 13: Vice Admiral Harold M. Martin, commander of the US Seventh Fleet, arrives in Taipei
May 1: A US Military Assistance and Advisory Group (Meijun guwentuan 美軍顧問團, abbrev. MAAG) is formally established in Taiwan
June 22: In addition to US$ 56 million, the US government allocates another US$ 41.7 million for the ECA China mission
Sept. 14: The Taipei Municipal Government approves the application for registration of the American Chamber of Commerce in Taipei (Taibeishi Meiguo shanghui 臺北市美國商會)
Oct. 26: US Army Chief of Staff J. Lawton Collins visits Taiwan
1952 Jan. 25: Vice Admiral Harold M. Martin, commander of the US Seventh Fleet, arrives in Taipei
March 24: US Secretary of the Navy Dan A. Kimball arrives in Taipei with six navy officers (departure on March 26)
June 4: Vice Admiral Joseph J. Clark, the new commander of the US Seventh Fleet, and his flagship "USS Bremerton" arrive in Taiwan
June 25: ROC FM Yeh Kung-chao and US Chargé d'Affairs Howard Jones sign the US-Chinese Guarantee Agreement (touzi baozheng xieding 投資保證協定) in Taipei
1953 Feb. 3: US President Eisenhower announces the deneutralization of the Taiwan Strait
July 30: Vice Admiral Felix B. Stump, C-in-C of the US Pacific Fleet, arrives in Taipei for a 3-day visit with Rear Admiral Truman J. Hedding
Aug. 28: Vice Admiral Joseph J. Clark, commander of the US Seventh Fleet, and his flagship "USS New Jersey" arrive at Kaohsiung
Sept. 5: US Senate majority leader William F. Knowland arrives for a week's visit
Sept. 21: Vice Admiral Joseph J. Clark, commander of the US Seventh Fleet, and his flagship "USS Bremerton" arrive at Keelung
Nov. 8: US VP Richard M. Nixon arrives in Taipei for a 5-day goodwill visit in the ROC
Nov. 24: The ROC protests to the US government against the proposed transfer of Amami Oshima Islands 奄美大島 from the US to Japan
Dec. 4: US Secretary of the Navy Robert B. Anderson arrives in Taipei
Dec. 26: Admiral Arthur W. Radford (Chairman of JCS) arrives in Taipei for a 2-day visit
1954 Jan. 9: ROC President Chiang Kai-shek and other dignitaries are airlifted by helicopters to the "USS Helena", flagship of the US Seventh Fleet, to watch maneuvers of offensive and defensive operations in the Taiwan Strait
Feb. 8: Admiral Alfred M. Pride, commander of the US Seventh Fleet, arrives in Taipei and leaves on Feb. 12
May 12: General James A. Van Fleet, special envoy of US President Eisenhower, arrives in Taipei from Seoul for a 5-day ROC visit (calls again on May 20 and on June 27)
May 19: ROC Defense Secretary Charles E. Wilson arrives in Taiwan for an orientation trip
Sept. 9: US Secretary of State John Foster Dulles arrives in Taipei for a 5-hour visit
Dec. 2: The Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty (Zhong Mei gongtong fangyu tiaoyue 中美共同防禦條約) between the ROC and the US is signed in Washington DC by ROC FM Yeh Kung-chao and his US counterpart John Foster Dulles (in force until the end of 1979)
1955 Jan. 25: The US House of Representatives approves the Formosa Resolution with 409-3 votes (approved by the US Senate 85-3 on Jan. 28, signed into law by US President Eisenhower on Jan. 29)
March 3: US Secretary of State John Foster Dulles arrives in the ROC to confer with ROC President Chiang Kai-shek on the implementation of the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty
March 15: US Secretary of State John Foster Dulles says that if an attack of the PRC against the islands of Kinmen and Matsu was considered to be part of an attack against Taiwan, the US would use atomic artillery and small atomic air bombs as conventional weapons against the PRC
July 19: An agreement between the ROC and the US for cooperation in research on the peaceful use of atomic energy (minyong hezineng hezuo xieding 民用核子能合作協定) is signed by ROC ambassador to the US Wellington Koo and US Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian Affairs Walter S. Robertson in Washington DC
July 26: The ROC government announces it had received assurances from the US government that negotiations between the US and the PRC in Geneva 'do not imply any degree of diplomatic recognition of the Chinese Communists'
Dec. 11: US Secretary of the Army Wilbur Brucker arrives in Taiwan for a 2-day visit
Dec. 27: US Secretary of the Navy Charles S. Thomas arrives in Taiwan for a 2-day visit
1956 Jan. 4: Chairman of the US JCS Admiral Arthur W. Radford arrives in Taiwan for a 2-day visit
Jan. 5: US Secretary of the Air Force Donald A. Quarles arrives in Taiwan for a 2-day visit
Mar. 16: US Secretary of State John Foster Dulles visits Taipei, leaves on March 17
July 7: US VP Richard M. Nixon arrives in Taipei to confer with ROC President Chiang Kai-shek
1957 March 20: Liu Tze-jan 劉自然, an ROC national and ROC army major, is shot and killed near the grounds of the Yangmingshan American Military Housing (yangmingshan Mei jun sushequn 陽明山美軍宿舍群) in Taipei by Master Sergeant Robert G. Reynolds from the US
May 8: USTDC commander Vice Admiral Stuart H. Ingersoll announces that a US guided missile Matador unit has been assigned to Taiwan (Matador MGM-1 cruise missiles armed with nuclear warheads are deployed to Taiwan in January 1958)
May 24: After a US general court-martial which took place in the Sugar Building (Tai tang gongsi dalou 台糖公司大樓)—the MAAG HQ in Taipei—had acquitted Master Sergeant Reynolds of unlawfully killing Liu Tze-jan, about 6,000 demonstrators in sympathy for Liu's widow and child gather in front of the US embassy in Taipei; the embassy compound is breached by protesters who are inflicting substantial damage in the building of the embassy's Information Office (xinwenchu 新聞處) and injuring several Americans; 3 persons die in clashes as riot police moved in; the US government complains to the ROC MOFA about the incident, the ROC government subsequently apologizes
1958 March 14: US Secretary of State John Foster Dulles arrives for talks with ROC President Chiang Kai-shek
Oct. 23: ROC President Chiang Kai-shek and US Secretary of State Dulles issue a joint communique reaffirming solidarity and stating that Kinmen and Matsu islands are closely related to the defense of Taiwan under present conditions
1959 Aug. 15: The ROC army receives Nike-Hercules ground-to-air guided missiles from the US under the military aid program
1960 June 18: US President Eisenhower arrives in Taipei for a state visit (until June 19), the first and only sitting US president to do so
June 19: ROC President Chiang Kai-shek and US President Eisenhower issue a joint statement, pledging that their governments 'will continue to stand solidly behind the Sino-US Mutual Defense Treaty in meeting the challenge posed by the Chinese Communists in this area'
1961 May 14: US VP Lyndon B. Johnson arrives in Taipei for a state visit
July 29: ROC VP and premier Chen Cheng leaves for Washington DC for an official visit; a joint communiqué with US President Kennedy is issued there on Aug. 2
Dec. 1: The first nuclear reactor under US assistance is installed at the National Tsing Hua University (guoli qinghua daxue 國立清華大學, abbrev. NTHU) in Hsinchu
1963 Aug. 23: ROC ambassador to the US Tsiang Ting-fu signs the Partial Test Ban Treaty for the ROC
Sept. 6: Minister without portfolio Chiang Ching-kuo leaves for a 2-week visit to the US
1964 April 16: US Secretary of State Dean Rusk arrives to confer with ROC government leaders
June 3: The ROC and the US sign a US$ 16 million farm surplus agreement
June 29: The ROC and the US sign a power expansion loan agreement in Taipei
Dec. 31: The ROC and the US sign two agreements in Taipei for the purchase of US farm products worth US$ 66.364 million
1965 April 9: The ROC and the US conclude an accord in Taipei to establish a Sino-American fund for economic and social development in Taiwan
May 25: The ROC and the US sign an inventory of atomic equipment and materials to be reported to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
July 1: The US phase out economic aid to Taiwan
Aug. 22: Soong May-ling leaves for a private US visit (returns on Oct. 26, 1966)
Aug. 31: The ROC and the US sign an agreement on the status of US forces in China (Mei jun zai Hua diwei xieding 美軍在華地位協定) which comes into effect on April 13, 1966
Sept. 19: MND Minister Chiang Ching-kuo leaves for the US for a 10-day visit
1966 Jan. 1: US VP Hubert H. Humphrey visits Taipei
May 10: C-in-C of the US Pacific Command (USPACOM) Admiral U. S. Grant Sharp Jr. arrives for a 2-day visit
July 1: US Secretary of State Dean Rusk arrives in Taipei to confer with ROC leaders (visits again on Dec. 7 that year)
1967 May 3: GIO Director James Wei leaves for the US and Canada
May 6: ROC VP and premier Yen Chia-kan leaves on an 18-day official visit to the US
Dec. 12: USPACOM C-in-C Admiral U. S. Grant Sharp Jr. arrives for a 3-day visit
1968 March 15: Vice Admiral William F. Bringle, commander of the US Seventh Fleet, arrives for a 3-day visit
May 17: General Dwight E. Beach, C-in-C of the US Army Pacific, arrives for a 2-day visit
June 6: General John D. Ryan, C-in-C of the US Pacific Air Forces, arrives for a brief visit
July 26: US Ambassador to the UN George Ball arrives for a brief visit
Aug. 21: USPACOM C-in-C Admiral John S. McCain Jr. arrives for a 2-day visit
Oct. 29: MOEA Minister Li Kwoh-ting returns from a 2-week trip to the US
Nov. 6: General Ralph E. Haines Jr., C-in-C of the US Army Pacific, arrives for a 3-day visit
Nov. 19: General Joseph J. Nazzaro, C-in-C of the US Pacific Air Forces, arrives for a 4-day visit
1969 Jan. 23: The Sino-American Scientific and Technological Agreement (Zhong Mei kexue jishu hezuo xieding 中美科學技術合作協定) is signed in Taipei
March 18: General Joseph J. Nazzaro, C-in-C of the US Pacific Air Forces, arrives for a 2-day visit
March 25: USPACOM C-in-C Admiral John S. McCain Jr. arrives for a visit
March 30: MND Minister Chiang Ching-kuo leaves for Washington DC as ROC President Chiang Kai-shek's special representative to attend funeral services for late US President Eisenhower
April 26: Chen Li-fu, advisor of ROC President Chiang Kai-shek, returns from the US
May 15: US Secretary of Commerce Maurice H. Stans arrives for a visit
June 28: General Joseph J. Nazzaro, C-in-C of the US Pacific Air Forces, arrives for a visit
Aug. 1–2: US Secretary of State William P. Rogers visits Taipei
Sept. 14: NSC Chairman Wu Ta-you leaves for the US
Sept. 24: General Lai Ming-tang 賴名湯, C-in-C of the ROC Air Force, leaves for a 2-week visit to the US
Oct. 14: Central Bank of China governor Yu Kuo-hwa returns from the US
Nov. 21: Vice Admiral William F. Bringle, commander of the US Seventh Fleet, arrives for a 3-day visit
Dec. 9: Admiral Feng Chi-tsung 馮啟聰, C-in-C of the ROC Navy, returned from the US after a month's visit
1970 Jan. 2: US VP Spiro T. Agnew visits Taipei (again on Aug. 26)
Jan. 13: US Secretary of the Air Force Robert C. Seamans Jr. arrives for a 2-day visit
March 23: General Joseph J. Nazzaro, C-in-C of the US Pacific Air Forces, arrives for a 2-day visit
March 31: ROC Examination Yuan President Sun Fo leaves for San Francisco for a one-month stay
April 18: ROC Vice Premier Chiang Ching-kuo departs for a 10-day official visit to the US
May 20: USPACOM C-in-C Admiral John S. McCain Jr. arrives for a brief visit (again on Nov. 5 that year for a 2-day visit)
July 8: US Secretary of the Army Stanley R. Resor arrives for a brief visit
July 16: US Army Chief of Staff General William C. Westmoreland arrives for a 4-day visit
Aug. 12: ROC Army C-in-C General Yu Hao-chang 于豪章 leaves for the US for a 2-week visit
Sept. 10: Vice Admiral Maurice F. Weisner, commander of the US Seventh Fleet, arrives for a 3-day visit
Oct. 12: A bomb explodes at the entrance of the U.S. Information Service (USIS) library at Tainan, four persons are injured
Nov. 1: US Secretary of the Air Force Robert C. Seamans Jr. arrives for a brief visit
Nov. 14: US Secretary of Transportation John A. Volpe arrives for a 2-day visit
Nov. 17: Admiral John Hyland, C-in-C of the US Pacific Fleet, arrives for a 2-day visit
Dec. 15–19: The first Sino-American Conference on Mainland China (Zhong Mei Zhongguo dalu wenti yantaohui 中美中國大陸問題研討會) takes place in Taipei
1971 Feb. 5: The Taipei branch of the Bank of America is bombed, 16 persons are injured
Oct. 25: The General Assembly of the United Nations votes on Resolution 2758, the US votes "No" (voting summary—76 Yes, 35 No, 17 Abstentions, 3 Non-voting, with a total voting membership of 131)
1972 Feb. 28: The US and the PRC sign the "Shanghai Communiqué" (Shanghai gongbao 上海公報)
March 2: US Assistant Secretary of State Marshall Green arrives to brief the ROC on US President Nixon's trip to the PRC
April 9: General Bruce K. Holloway, C-in-C of the US Strategic Air Command, arrives for a 2-day visit
April 27: General William B. Rosson, C-in-C of the US Army Pacific, arrives for a 4-day visit
May 3: General Lucius D. Clay, C-in-C of the US Pacific Air Forces, arrives for a 3-day visit (calls again on May 12, 1973 for a 3-day visit)
May 12: The ROC and the US sign an agreement on technological cooperation in water resources, land utilization and irrigation
May 28: US Secretary of the Army Robert F. Froehike arrives for a 3-day visit
July 6: General John D. Ryan, Chief of Staff of the US Air Force, arrives for a brief visit
Oct. 21: USPACOM C-in-C Admiral Noel Gayler arrives for a 3-day visit
Nov. 1: GIO director-general Fredrick F. Chien leaves for the US for a 2-week visit
Nov. 18: Lieutenant-general L. H. Wilson, commander of the US Marine Forces in the Pacific, arrives for a 4-day visit
1973 Jan. 3: ROC VP Yen Chia-kan leaves for a week-long trip to the US to attend memorial services for late US President Truman who had died on Dec. 26, 1972 (returns on Jan. 11)
Jan. 24: ROC VP Yen Chia-kan leaves for the US to attend memorial services for late US President Johnson who had died on Jan. 22, 1973 (returns on Feb. 1)
Feb. 15: Vice Admiral James L. Holloway III, commander of the US Seventh Fleet, arrives in Kaohsiung for a 4-day visit
May 21: NSC Chairman Wu Ta-you returns from the US
June 13: General Frederick C. Weyand, C-in-C of the US Army Pacific, arrives in Taipei for a 2-day visit
July 9: General John D. Ryan, Chief of Staff of the US Air Force, arrives for a 2-day visit
July 20: US Secretary of Commerce Frederick B. Dent arrives for a 4-day visit
July 24: Admiral Bernard A. Clarey, C-in-C of the US Pacific Fleet, arrives for a 4-day visit
July 30: MOI Minister Lin Chin-sheng returns from a 24-day tour of the US
Aug. 14: General Lai Ming-tang, chief of General Staff, returns from a 2-week visit to Manila and Washington DC
Sept. 29: Vice Admiral George P. Steele, commander of the US Seventh Fleet, arrives aboard his command ship, the guided missile light cruiser "USS Oklahoma City", for a 4-day visit
Sept. 30: General Donald V. Bennett, C-in-C of the US Army Pacific, arrives for a 3-day visit
Oct. 3: General Robert E. Cushman Jr., commandant of the US Marine Corps, arrives for a 3-day visit
Oct. 7: NSC Chairman Shu Shien-siu returns from a month's tour of South Korea, the US and Europe
Oct. 17: Central Bank of China governor Yu Kuo-hwa returns from a tour of the US
1974 Jan. 26: Vice Admiral George P. Steele, commander of the US Seventh Fleet, and his command ship "USS Oklahoma City" visit Kaohsiung
April 11: US Secretary of Agriculture Earl L. Butz arrives for a 3-day visit
April 17: 22 US congressmen led by Thomas P. O'Neill Jr., majority leader in the House of Representatives, arrive for a 2-day visit
April 30: Admiral Maurice F. Weisner, C-in-C of the US Pacific Fleet, arrives for a 4-day visit
May 1: GIO director-general Fredrick F. Chien returns from a month-long speaking tour of the US
May 5: MOF Minister Li Kwoh-ting returns from a 3-week visit to the US
June 16: General John W. Vogt Jr., C-in-C of the US Pacific Air Forces, arrives for a 2-day visit
July 22: General Louis L. Wilson Jr., new C-in-C of the US Pacific Air Forces, arrives for a visit
Oct. 6: Economic Planning Council chairman Chang Chi-cheng leaves for the US on a 2-week visit
Oct. 8: MOEA Minister Sun Yun-suan leaves for the US to attend the China Week Celebration at Expo 74 in Spokane
Oct. 26: The US Congress repeals the 1955 Formosa Resolution
1975 Jan. 21: FM Shen Chang-huang and US ambassador Leonard S. Unger exchange notes extending the Sino-American Scientific and Technological Agreement until Jan. 23, 1980
Feb. 17: GIO director-general Fredrick F. Chien leaves for a speaking tour of the US (returns on March 24)
March 24: Vice Admiral George P. Steele, commander of the US Seventh Fleet, and his command ship "USS Oklahoma City" arrive at Keelung for a 3-day visit
April 15: US VP Nelson A. Rockefeller arrives to attend the national memorial services for late ROC President Chiang Kai-shek on the following day
May 21: The ROC and the US exchange notes on a new 3-year agreement covering cotton, man-made fiber and wool textile exports to the US
May 28: General Louis L. Wilson Jr., new C-in-C of the US Pacific Air Forces, arrives for a 4-day visit
Oct. 30: MOF Minister Li Kwoh-ting leaves for Houston to attend a Sino-American conference on investment, trade and tourism
Nov. 14: The ROC MOFA reiterates the ROC's firm stand against any agreements between the US government and the PRC regime
Dec. 9: US Assistant Secretary of State Philip Habib arrives to brief the ROC government on US President Ford's visit to the PRC; Habib restated the US policy of maintaining friendly relations with the ROC
1976 Jan. 7: Vice Admiral Thomas B. Hayward, commander of the US Seventh Fleet, arrives for a 4-day visit
Jan. 26: CNA President James Wei leaves for the US to attend US President Ford's breakfast meeting
July 8: ROC premier Chiang Ching-kuo receives outgoing Vice Admiral Thomas B. Hayward, commander of the US Seventh Fleet
Sept. 15: ROC ambassador James Shen and US Deputy Assistant Secretary of State Rozanne L. Ridgway sign the Sino-American Fishery Agreement (Zhong Mei yuye xieding 中美漁業協定) in Washington DC (ratified by the ROC cabinet on May 5, 1977 with Feb. 28, 1977 as the effective date)
Nov. 24: MOEA Minister Sun Yun-suan leaves for a 3-week visit in the US
1977 Jan. 8: ROC President Yen Chia-kan receives US Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare Edward L. Meador
Jan. 17: A 7-member nuclear team from the US arrives to review ROC programs and to discuss cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy
May 22: ROC premier Chiang Ching-kuo receives Vice Admiral Robert B. Baldwin, commander of the US Seventh Fleet, at Kaohsiung
July 22: ROC Legislative Yuan President Nieh Wen-ya leaves for a 2-week visit to the US
Aug. 26: ROC premier Chiang Ching-kuo receives US Assistant Secretary of State for Asian and Pacific Affairs Richard Holbrooke for a briefing on US Secretary of State Cyrus Vance's trip to Beijing
Dec. 9: MOE Minister Li Yuan-tzu leaves for the US on a 2-week visit
1978 Dec. 15: The US and the PRC sign the "Normalization Communiqué" (guanxi zhengchanghua gongbao 關係正常化公報)
Dec. 16: ROC President Chiang Ching-kuo strongly condemns the decision by the US to sever diplomatic ties with the ROC in favour of the PRC
Dec. 17: More than 5,000 demonstrators stage an angry protest in front of the US embassy in Taipei; all national elections scheduled for Dec. 23, 1978 (including by-elections for the National Assembly and the Legislative Yuan) are temporarily postponed
Dec. 27: A 6-member US delegation headed by Deputy Secretary of State Warren Christopher arrives in Taipei for meetings with the ROC government on the readjustment of relations between the two countries
1979 Jan. 1: Diplomatic ties between the ROC and the US are formally severed
Jan. 8: ROC Vice FM H. K. Yang 楊西崑 meets with officials from the US State Department in Washington DC to discuss future relations between the ROC and the US
Jan. 16: The American Institute in Taiwan (AIT) is incorporated as a non-profit corporation in the District of Columbia
March 1: The US embassy in Taipei closes
April 10: US President Carter signs the Taiwan Relations Act (Taiwan guanxifa 台灣關係法, abbrev. TRA)
April 15: The AIT in Taipei opens
April 20: US diplomat Charles T. Cross is named the first AIT Director
April 26: AIT Chairman David Dean arrives for a week's visit
May 18: Taipei mayor Lee Teng-hui leaves for the US on a 16-day visit
Dec. 6: US senator Barry M. Goldwater (R-AZ) arrives for a 6-day visit
1982 July 14: AIT Director James R. Lilley calls on ROC President Chiang Ching-kuo and delivers orally—not in writing—six assurances regarding US policy toward Taiwan in US President Reagan's name
Aug. 17: The US and the PRC sign the "Joint Communiqué on Arms Sales to Taiwan" (ba yi qi gongbao 八一七公報)
1984 Oct. 15: China-born journalist and writer Henry Liu 劉宜良 (pen name Chiang Nan 江南), author of an unauthorized biography of Chiang Ching-kuo published the previous month, is assassinated in Daly City (Ca., USA) on orders of MIB boss Admiral Wong Hsi-ling 汪希苓
1988 May 3: The ROC-USA Inter-Parliamentary Amity Association (Zhong Mei guohui lianyihui 中美國會聯誼會) is formally launched with support from 20 members of the US Congress in order to promote legislative diplomacy (the group's name was changed to "Taiwan-USA Inter-Parliamentary Amity Association" [Tai Mei guohui lianyihui 台美國會聯誼會] after the DPP became the biggest party in the Legislative Yuan in 2002)
1991 May 8–12: Former US President Ford visits Taiwan
1992 Sept. 2: US President Bush announces that he would authorize the sale of 150 F-16A/B fighter jets to Taiwan
Sept. 21: The US DOD decides to sell twelve SH-2F light airborne multipurpose system helicopters to Taiwan
Nov. 30: US Trade Representative Carla A. Hill visits Taipei
1993 Jan. 14: The ROC Legislative Yuan approves a US$ 12.47 billion budget for the purchase of 150 F-16 fighter jets from the US and 60 Mirage 2000-5s from France
June 21: A ROC-US agreement for technical cooperation in the field of environmental protection is signed in Washington DC
Nov. 16–18: Former US President Bush visits Taiwan
1994 Aug. 9: Trade sanctions are imposed against Taiwan under the Pelly Amendment
Sept. 19: ROC representative to the US Ding Mou-shih and AIT chairman Natale H. Bellocchi sign a Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (maoyi ji touzi jiagou xieding 貿易暨投資架構協定, abbrev. TIFA) in Washington DC
Dec. 4: US Secretary of Transportation Federico Pena visits Taiwan
1995 May 22: The US government decides to grant ROC President Lee Teng-hui a visa for a private visit
June 7: ROC President Lee Teng-hui travels to the US for a reunion at his alma mater, Cornell University (wraps up visit on June 10)
June 30: The US government officially announces the cancellation of sanctions against Taiwan issued under the Pelly Amendment
Sept. 21: MOEA Minister Chiang Pin-kung leads a delegation to the 19th joint conference of the ROC-US and US-ROC Business Councils (Zhong Mei gongshang lianhehui 中美工商聯合會) in Anchorage (Alaska)
1996 March 8: The US government announces to dispatch its Carrier Strike Group Five (centered on the aircraft carrier "USS Independence") to international waters near Taiwan
March 11: The US dispatches Carrier Strike Group Seven (centered on the aircraft carrier "USS Nimitz")
Dec. 9: US Small Business Administration head Philip Lader delivers a keynote address at the 20th joint business conference of the ROC-US and US-ROC Business Councils in Taipei
1997 April 2: US House of Representatives Speaker Newt Gingrich spends four hours in Taiwan and meets with ROC President Lee Teng-hui
1998 June 30: During his PRC visit US President Clinton delivers his "Three No's" statement, saying 'we don't support independence for Taiwan, or two Chinas, or one Taiwan—one China. And we don't believe that Taiwan should be a member of any organization for which statehood is a requirement.'
Nov. 9: US Secretary of Energy Bill Richardson arrives in Taiwan to attend the 22nd annual USA-ROC Economic Council
1999 March 29–31: Former US President Carter visits Taiwan
Dec. 20: US Congresswoman Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) is received by ROC President Lee Teng-hui in Taipei
2000 June 14: US Secretary of Transportation Rodney Slater arrives in Taipei to attend the 24th joint conference of the ROC-US and US-ROC Business Councils
2001 April 24: US President Bush offers Taiwan a major package of modern arms including submarines and vows to protect the island in case of an unprovoked PRC attack 'whatever it took'
Aug. 29: ROC President Chen Shui-bian receives US House majority whip Tom DeLay in Taipei
2002 March 10–12: The first annual US–Taiwan Defense Industry Conference is held in St. Petersburg (Florida), featuring a keynote address by MND Minister Tang Yiau-ming
April 9: A bipartisan group of 85 members of the US House of Representatives inaugurates the Congressional Taiwan Caucus (CTC, name in Chinese: Meiguo guohui Taiwan lianxian 美國國會台灣連線 aka zhongyiyuan Taiwan lianxian 眾議院台灣連線)
2003 Sept. 17: The bipartisan US Senate Taiwan Caucus (STC, name in Chinese: canyiyuan Taiwan lianxian 參議院台灣連線) is established by 11 senators during a festive reception in the US Capitol
2004 June 2: The ROC Executive Yuan approves a special budget of NT$ 610.8 billion for procuring arms from the US
Oct. 25: In an interview with Hong Kong-based Phoenix TV (fenghuang dianshi 鳳凰衛視), US Secretary of State Colin Powell states 'there is only one China. Taiwan is not independent. It does not enjoy sovereignty as a nation, and that remains our policy, our firm policy.'
Dec. 20: US Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage states in an interview with PBS television that under the TRA the US is 'not required to defend' Taiwan against an attack from the PRC
2005 Feb. 27–28: Former US President Clinton visits Taiwan
March 14: The US House of Representatives condemns PRC's "Anti-Secession Law" (fan fenlie guojia fa 反分裂國家法) in a resolution (H. Con. Res. 98) in a vote of 424 to 4
March 16: The ROC Executive Yuan adopts a new special budget appropriation bill for the purchase of NT$480 billion worth of arms and equipment from the US, submits the bill to the ROC Legislative Yuan
2006 March 9: Meeting between ROC President Chen Shui-bian and US Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage in Taipei
May 4–11: ROC President Chen Shui-bian visits Paraguay and Costa Rica; makes a stopover in Abu Dhabi (UAE) to refuel on May 5 after US authorities denied him a stopover in New York and Chen had rejected an offer for a stopover in Anchorage
2007 March 1: The US offer Taiwan a package of advanced missiles worth US$ 421 million
March 4: ROC President Chen Shui-bian says Taiwan should pursue independence, write a new Constitution and change its official name from "Republic of China" to Taiwan, the US State Department later calls these comments 'unhelpful'
June 15: The ROC Legislative Yuan passes the budget for the partial funding of a US arms procurement deal, reduced to NT$ 25.7 billion
Aug. 30: Dennis Wilder, senior director for East Asian affairs in the US National Security Council, tells reporters that Taiwan's statehood is an 'undecided issue'
Dec. 21: US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice states that the US considers Taiwan's planned UN referendum as 'provocative' and opposes it
2008 July 24–Aug. 3: ROC Legislative Yuan President Wang Jin-pyng visits the US, meets US House Speaker Nancy Pelosi in the Capitol on July 30
Oct. 3: The US State Department announces that the US intend to sell US$ 6.4 billion in arms to Taiwan, including Patriot missiles, Apache helicopters and others
2009 Jan. 16: The US government removes Taiwan from its Special 301 Watch List in recognition of its success in protecting intellectual property rights
March 24: The US Congress passes Resolution 55—named "Recognizing the 30th anniversary of the Taiwan Relations Act"—by voice vote
June 2: Encounter between ROC President Ma Ying-jeou and US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton at a state dinner in San Salvador, Ma refers to himself as 'president of Taiwan'
2010 Jan. 6: The Pentagon approves the sale of advanced Patriot air defense missiles to Taiwan
Jan. 28: ROC First Lady Chow Mei-ching arrives in the US for a visit in her capacity as honorary head of the Cloud Gate Dance Theatre (yunmen wuji 雲門舞集)
Jan. 29: The US government announces plans to sell a package of arms worth US$ 6.4 billion to Taiwan, including 60 Sikorsky UH-60M Black Hawk helicopters and 114 Patriot PAC-3 missiles
Nov. 14–15: Former US President Clinton visits Taiwan
2011 Jan. 22–31: ROC Legislative Yuan President Wang Jin-pyng visits the US
May 27: 45 US senators sign a letter urging US President Obama to sell F-16C/D fighter jets to Taiwan
Sept. 21: The US government announces a US$ 5.852 billion package to upgrade Taiwan's ageing fleet of F-16 A/B fighter jets, no decision on sales of more advanced F-16 C/D requested by Taiwan
Sept. 26: US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton defends her country's recent arms sales package to Taiwan as 'helpful to preserving cross-strait peace and stability'
Nov. 10: In the East-West-Center in Honolulu (Hawaii, USA) US Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton remarks that 'we have a strong relationship with Taiwan, an important security and economic partner, and we applaud the progress that we have seen in cross-Strait relations between China and Taiwan during the past three years'
2012 Aug. 22: ROC Legislative Yuan President Wang Jin-pyng departs for a visit to the US (Anchorage, New York), Nicaragua, and El Salvador
Aug. 22–Sept. 4: MOC Minister Lung Ying-tai visits the US and Canada
2013 Jan. 7: A congressional delegation led by US Senator James Inhofe (R-OK) arrives in Taiwan for a 2-day visit
Jan. 19: ROC Legislative Yuan President Wang Jin-pyng arrives in Los Angeles for a 4-day US visit
Feb. 4: ROC Representative in the US King Pu-tsung and AIT Managing Director Barbara Schrage sign an Agreement in Washington DC on privileges, exemptions and immunities for diplomats
March 11: ROC FM David Y. L. Lin 林永樂 addresses a dinner hosted by the Los Angeles World Affairs Council (LAWAC) in Los Angeles
Aug. 1:The US House of Representatives Foreign Affairs Committee unanimously approves the "Taiwan Policy Act" to 'strengthen and clarify' US-Taiwan relations
2014 Feb. 18–20: US House Committee on Foreign Affairs Chairman Edward Royce visits Taiwan, meets ROC President Ma Ying-jeou on Feb. 20 in Taipei
April 14–15: US Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Gina McCarthy visits Taiwan,the first US Cabinet-level official to visit the ROC since June 2000; on April 14 both sides jointly establish the International Environmental Partnership (guoji huanjing huoban jihua 國際環境夥伴計畫, abbrev. IEP)
Dec. 18: US President Obama signs into law a piece of legislation that authorizes the sale of up to four Perry-class frigates to Taiwan
2015 Jan. 1: The ROC flag is raised in a ceremony at Twin Oaks Estate in Washington DC, which is owned by the ROC government and housed its embassy in the US between 1937 and 1979
Jan. 5: US State Department Spokeswoman Jen Psaki says the ROC flag raising at Twin Oaks was 'not consistent' with US policy and happened without knowledge or approval of the US government
June 1: Taiwan and the US sign an MOU on the Global Cooperation and Training Framework (Tai Mei quanqiu hezuo ji xunlian jiagou 台美全球合作暨訓練架溝, abbrev. GCTF) in the Taipei Guest House
Sept. 21: US National Security Advisor Susan Rice says that Washington is against either side of the Taiwan Strait changing the Status Quo unilaterally
Nov. 2: The US House of Representatives approves bill HR 1853 directing US President Obama to develop a strategy to assist Taiwan in obtaining observer status in Interpol
Dec. 16: The US government announces it would sell weaponry worth US$ 1.83 billion to Taiwan, the first such sale in four years
2016 March 8: The US Senate passes bill S 2426 aimed at promoting Taiwan's meaningful participation in Interpol, signed into law by US President Obama on March 18
June 5: ROC President Tsai Ing-wen receives a delegation of US senators led by John McCain (R-AZ), chairman of the US Senate Committee on Armed Services, in the presidential office in Taipei, McCain praises Taiwan as 'the only democracy on Chinese soil'
Dec. 2: ROC President Tsai Ing-wen and US President-elect Donald J. Trump have a phone conversation lasting more than 10 minutes, discussed issues included the economy and defense; the White House subsequently reaffirms its "One China" policy
Dec. 11: In an interview broadcast on Fox News US President-elect Trump says 'I fully understand the "One China" policy, but I don't know why we have to be bound by a "One China" policy unless we make a deal with China having to do with other things, including trade'
2017 Jan. 13: In an interview with the Wall Street Journal US President-elect Trump states that 'everything is under negotiation, including "One China"'
Feb. 9: In a phone conversation with PRC President Xi Jinping, US President Trump agrees to honour the "One China" policy
Feb. 13–28: A delegation of the Taiwan-USA Inter-Parliamentary Amity Association (Tai Mei guohui yiyuan lianyihui 台美國會議員聯誼會) led by lawmaker Hsiao Bi-khim visits the US
June 29: The US State Department announces a major arms sales package to Taiwan, worth US$ 1.42 billion
Sept. 14: EPA Minister Lee Ying-yuan departs for a US visit
2018 Jan. 9: The US House of Representatives passes the Taiwan Travel Act (H.R. 535) which promotes meetings and visits between high-ranking US and ROC government officials at all levels; unanimously passed by the US Senate on Feb. 28, presented to the POTUS on March 5 and signed by Trump into law on March 16
July 16–23: MAC Minister Chen Ming-tong visits the US
Aug. 19: ROC President Tsai Ing-wen tours the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in Houston, the first visit of a sitting ROC president to a US federal agency
Aug. 29: ROC MOHW Minister Chen Shih-chung meets with his US counterpart Alex Azar in Washington DC
Aug. 30: Legislative speaker Su Jia-chyuan departs for a trip to the US to attend the funeral of late US senator John McCain in Washington DC (return to Taiwan on Sept. 3), has a one-on-one meeting with US House of Representatives Speaker Paul Ryan on Aug. 31
Sept. 11: The US summon its top diplomats to the Dominican Republic, El Salvador and Panama to discuss those nations' decision to cut diplomatic relations with the ROC
Dec. 5: Legislative speaker Su Jia-chyuan attends the memorial service for late US president George H. W. Bush in the Washington National Cathedral
2019 March 11: ROC FM Joseph Wu speaks at a LAWAC luncheon in Los Angeles
March 19: The "Indo-Pacific Democratic Governance Consultations" (yin Tai minzhu zhili zishang jizhi 印太民主治理諮商機制) between Taiwan and the US are launched in Taipei
March 28: During her stopover in Hawaii ROC President Tsai Ing-wen has a phone conversation with Nancy Pelosi, speaker of the US House of Representatives
May 13–21: National Security Council Secretary-General David Lee Ta-wei visits the US, meets White House National Security Advisor John Bolton
May 20–24: MOC Minister Cheng Li-chiun visits the US
Aug. 18: US President Trump announces that he approved the sale of 66 advanced F-16V fighter jets worth US$ 8 billion to Taiwan
Sept. 12: The first session of the annual U.S.-Taiwan Consultations on Democratic Governance in the Indo-Pacific Region takes place at the AIT in Taipei
Sept. 13: The MOU Regarding Certain Consular Functions is signed in Washington by TECRO Deputy Representative Louis Huang 黃敏境 and AIT Managing Director John Norris
Oct. 10: US Senator Ted Cruz (R-TX) attends the celebrations for the Double Tenth National Day of the ROC in Taipei, the first sitting US senator in 35 years to do so
2020 March 11: The US Senate passes the Taiwan Allies International Protection and Enhancement Initiative (TAIPEI) Act of 2019 (H. R. 4754 / S. 1678) with unanimous consent, presented to the POTUS on March 16 and signed by Trump into law on March 26
May 20: The US State Department's Bureau of Political-Military Affairs announces that the sale of 18 MK-48 Mod 6AT heavyweight torpedoes and related equipment worth US$ 180 million to Taiwan has been approved
July 9: According to a press release of the Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA) under the US Department of Defense (DoD) the US State Department approved the sale of an upgrade package to recertify Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) missiles worth US$ 620 million to Taiwan
Aug. 9: Secretary of the US Department of Health and Human Service (HHS) Alex Azar arrives at Taipei Songshan Airport for a 4-day visit, marking the highest-level Taiwan visit of an US official since 1979 (received by ROC President Tsai Ing-wen on Aug. 10, leaves on Aug. 12)
Aug. 31: US Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs David Stilwell announces a new initiative, the Taiwan-US Economic and Commercial Dialogue
Sept. 17: US Under-Secretary of State for Economic Growth, Energy and the Environment Keith J. Krach arrives at Songshan Airport in Taipei on a commercial charter flight to attend the memorial service for late ROC President Lee Teng-hui on Sept. 19 at Aletheia University in Tamsui District (New Taipei City), meets ROC Premier Su Tseng-chang and ROC President Tsai Ing-wen on Sept. 18 and leaves Taiwan less than 48 hours after arrival; highest-ranking State Department official to visit Taiwan since 1979
Oct. 26: The DSCA reports that the US State Department approved the sale of up to 100 Harpoon Coastal Defense Systems (HCDS) and related equipment for approximately US$ 2.37 billion to Taiwan
Nov. 3: The DSCA notifies the US Congress after the State Department approved the sale of four MQ-9B remotely piloted aircraft and related equipment to Taiwan at an estimated cost of US$ 600 million
Nov. 12: US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo states in an interview with Hugh Hewitt that ‘Taiwan has not been a part of China’; following protests from the PRC the US State Department comments on Nov. 14 that the US ‘takes no position on sovereignty over Taiwan’
Nov. 20: The US and Taiwan conduct their first Economic Prosperity Partnership Dialogue in Washington DC and sign a 5-year MOU to establish annual economic talks
Dec. 7: The US State Department approves the possible sale of a Field Information Communications System (FICS) and related equipment to Taiwan at an estimated cost of US$ 280 million
2021 Jan. 9: US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announces that the US are lifting all self-imposed restrictions to regulate their diplomats, servicemembers, and other officials’ interactions with Taiwanese counterparts
Jan. 20: ROC Representative to the US Hsiao Bi-khim attends the 59th Presidential Inauguration Ceremonies in Washington DC, the first time since 1979 that an ROC representative was officially invited to the event by the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies (JCCIC)
March 25: Taiwan and the US sign an MOU in Washington to establish a Coast Guard Working Group (haixun gongzuo xiaozu 海巡工作小組, abbrev. CGWG), with the aim of strengthening their maritime cooperation
April 9: The US State Department announces new guidelines for government contacts with Taiwan, enabling US officials to meet more freely with their Taiwanese counterparts
June 23: JCS Chairman Mark Milley says that maintaining peace in the Taiwan Strait is of critical importance to the US
Aug. 4: The DSCA notifies the US Congress after the State Department approved the sale of 40 M109A6 "Paladin" self-propelled howitzers and related equipment to Taiwan at an estimated cost of US$ 750 million, first weapons sale since the Biden administration took office
Oct. 21: US President Biden states during a CNN town hall meeting in Baltimore that the US would come to Taiwan’s defense in the event of an attack by the PRC (replying to a relevant question ‘yes, we have a commitment to do that’)
Oct. 28: In an interview released by CNN ROC President Tsai Ing-wen confirms for the first time the presence of US military personnel in Taiwan
Nov. 9–11: A delegation comprising six members of the US Congress—including senators John Cornyn (R-TX), Tommy Tuberville (R-AL), Mike Crapo (R-ID), Mike Lee (R-UT) as well as representatives Tony Gonzales and Jake Ellzey (both R-TX)—makes a low-key surprise visit to Taiwan
Nov. 10: US Secretary of State Antony Blinken tells reporters that the US would take action if the PRC were to use force against Taiwan
Nov. 26: A US congressional delegation comprising representatives Nancy Mace (R-SC), Colin Allred (D-TX), Elissa Slotkin (D-MI), and Sara Jacobs (D-CA) arrives in Taipei for a 2-day visit
Dec. 9–10: Hsiao Bi-khim 蕭美琴 and Audrey Tang 唐鳳 from Taiwan participate in the Summit for Democracy hosted by the US, 110 other countries and territories from around the world were invited but not the PRC
2022 Feb. 7: The DSCA notifies the US Congress after the State Department approved the sale of a package including equipment and services to support participation in the Patriot International Engineering Services Program (IESP) and Field Surveillance Program (FSP) for five years, as well as missile field surveillance support for legacy (Guidance Enhanced Missile/GEM) and Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) missiles, a deal worth an estimated US$ 100 million
March 1–2: A delegation comprising former top US defense officials—including Michael G. Mullen (former JCS chairman), Meghan L. O'Sullivan (ex-deputy national security advisor under US President George W. Bush), Michèle A. Flournoy (former undersecretary of defense under US President Obama) and others—sent by POTUS Joe Biden visits Taiwan
March 2–5: Former US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo visits Taiwan
April 5: The DSCA announces the approval by the US State Department of an arms package worth US$ 95 million which includes equipment and services aimed at maintaining Taiwan's existing Patriot missile defense system
April 15: A delegation led by US senator Lindsay Graham (R-SC) and comprising senators Robert Menendez (D-NJ), Ben Sasse (R-NE), Robert Portman (R-OH), Richard Burr (R-NC) as well as US House of Representatives member Ronny Jackson (R-TX) visits Taiwan, meets ROC President Tsai Ing-wen, MND Chiu Kuo-cheng and FM Joseph Wu
May 23: US President Joe Biden confirms that the US would intervene militarily to defend Taiwan if it was attacked by the PRC
May 30: US Senator Tammy Duckworth (D-IL) arrives in Taiwan for a 3-day visit
June 27: The U.S. and Taiwan hold their first Taiwan-U.S. 21st Century Trade Initiative meeting
July 7: US Senator Rick Scott (R-FL) arrives for a 2-day visit
July 16: The DSCA announces the approval by the US State Department of an arms package worth US$ 108 million which includes replacement and spare parts for military combat vehicles like tanks and providing logistical support
Aug. 2–3: US House of Representatives Speaker Nancy Pelosi and a delegation comprising House of Representatives members Suzan DelBene (D-WA), Andy Kim (D-NJ), Raja Krishnamoorthi (D-IL), Gregory Meeks (D-NY), and Mark Takano (D-CA) visit Taiwan

Note: Mentions of US senators in above timeline include information about the state they represent and their respective political party affiliation. D stands for Democratic Party, R for Republican Party; the USPS abbreviations for the US states are listed below.

Abbrev.US state Abbrev.US state Abbrev.US state
AKAlaskaKYKentuckyNYNew York
ALAlabamaLALouisianaOHOhio
ARArkansasMAMassachusettsOKOklahoma
AZArizonaMDMarylandOROregon
CACaliforniaMEMainePAPennsylvania
COColoradoMIMichiganRIRhode Island
CTConnecticutMNMinnesotaSCSouth Carolina 
DCDistrict of Columbia MOMissouriSDSouth Dakota
DEDelawareMSMississippiTNTennessee
FLFloridaMTMontanaTXTexas
GAGeorgiaNCNorth CarolinaUTUtah
HIHawaiiNDNorth DakotaVAVirginia
IAIowaNENebraskaVTVermont
IDIdahoNHNew Hampshire WAWashington
ILIllinoisNJNew JerseyWIWisconsin
INIndianaNMNew MexicoWVWest Virginia
KSKansasNVNevadaWYWyoming

Two easily confused terms

The US adheres to a concept called “One China policy” (yige Zhongguo zhengce 一個中國政策), according to which Taiwan’s status is undetermined. The US merely acknowledges (yet doesn’t accept) the PRC’s claim expressed in its “One China principle” (yige Zhongguo yuanze 一個中國原則) but opposes unilateral changes of the Status Quo by either side of the Taiwan Strait. On the other hand, the PRC’s “One China principle” states that Taiwan is an ‘inalienable part of China’, with the PRC serving as the ‘sole legitimate government of that China’.

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Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG)

The MAAG (Mei jun guwentuan 美軍顧問團, 🏁—tuanzhang 團長) was formally established on May 1, 1951. US military advisers were tasked with providing arms and military advice, assisting with ROC military training, implementation of the 1954 Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty, maintaining military contacts, and monitoring the ROC forces. The last MAAG chief left Taiwan on April 28, 1979, the same day when the last USTDC commander departed. One noteworthy institution operated by MAAG was the Foreign Affairs Services Department Hostel (Taizhong Mei jun zhaodaisuo 台中美軍招待所) which was built in 1962 and located in Taichung's West District.

MAAG chiefs

Tenure Name Born/Died Name in Chinese
4/1951—6/1955William C. Chase1895-1986Caisi 蔡斯
6/1955—9/1956George W. Smythe1899-1969Shimaisi 史邁斯
9/1956—7/1958Frank S. Bowen, Jr.1926-1976Baoen 鮑恩
7/1958—8/1960Leander L. Doan1905-1964Du'an 杜安
8/1960—8/1962Chester A. Dahlen1910-2006Dailun 戴倫
8/1962—8/1965Kenneth O. Sanborn1913-1990Sangpeng 桑鵬
8/1965—6/1967Dwight B. Johnson1907-2005Jiangsen 江森
6/1967—3/1970Richard G. Ciccolella1918-2004Qiliela 戚烈拉
3/1970—12/1971Livingston N. Taylor, Jr.1914-1999Taile 泰勒
12/1971—12/1973John W. Barnes1921-2007Baensi 巴恩斯
12/1973—6/1976Slade Nash1921-2005Nashuide 那水德
6/1976—9/1977Leslie R. Forney, Jr.1929-2020Fengna 馮納
9/1977—7/1978Ace F. Traskb. 1933Cuishike 崔仕克
7/1978—2/1979Hadley N. Thompson1929-2012Tangpuxun 湯普遜

Most MAAG chiefs had the military rank of Major General except Leslie R. Forney Jr. (Brigadier General) as well as Ace F. Trask and Hadley N. Thompson who both had the rank of Colonel or an equivalent rank.

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United States Taiwan Defense Command (USTDC)

The USTDC (Mei jun xiefang Taiwan silingbu 美軍協防臺灣司令部, 🏁—siling 司令) was set up on April 25, 1955 as Formosa Liaison Center (zhu fuermosha lianluo zhongxin 駐福爾摩沙聯絡中心) and reorganized on Nov. 1, 1955 as USTDC with headquarters in Taipei. The USTDC reported directly to the Commander-in-Chief Pacific (CINCPAC) and was composed of personnel from all branches of the US armed forces. The USTDC held its final flag retreat ceremony on April 26, 1979.

USTDC commanders

Tenure Name Born/Died Name in Chinese
4/1955—11/1955Alfred M. Pride1897-1988Pulaide 蒲賴德
11/1955—7/1957Stuart H. Ingersoll1898-1983Yin'gesuo 殷格索
7/1957—7/1958Austin K. Doyle1898-1970Douyile 竇亦樂
7/1958—5/1962Roland N. Smoot1901-1984Shimude 史慕德
5/1962—7/1964Charles L. Melson1904-1981Meierxun 梅爾遜
7/1964—7/1967William E. Gentner, Jr.1907-1989Gengtena 耿特納
7/1967—8/1970John L. Chew1909-1999Qiu Yuehan 邱約翰
8/1970—9/1972Walter H. Baumberger1912-1995Baoboge 包柏格
9/1972—8/1974Philip A. Beshany1914-2011Beishanyi 貝善誼
8/1974—8/1977Edwin K. Snyder1922-2015Shinaide 史奈德
8/1977—4/1979James B. Linder1925-2009Linde 林德

All USTDC commanders had the military rank of Vice Admiral except James B. Linder who was Rear Admiral.

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ROC-USA Business Council

ROC-USA Business Council 中美經濟合作策進會
2 F., No. 85 Bade Road Sec. 4,
Songshan District, Taipei City 10561, Taiwan ROC
[10561 台北市松山區八德路 4 段 85 號 2 樓]
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🌏 ROC-USA Business Council – Web link

The ROC-USA Business Council (Zhong Mei jingji hezuo cejinhui 中美經濟合作策進會, 🏁—lishizhang 理事長) was set up on Feb. 26, 1977 as ROC-USA Economic Council with the support of the ROC MOEA. The current English name was adopted on April 20, 1998. Its counterpart is the U.S.–Taiwan Business Council based in the US.

ROC-USA Business Council chairpersons

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
2/1977—5/1981T. K. Chang 張茲闓1900-1983Guangdong
5/1981—5/1993Koo Chen-fu 辜振甫1917-2005Taiwan
5/1993—5/1999Jeffrey Koo Sr. 辜濂松1933-2012Taiwan
5/1999—9/2005Wang Chung-yu 王鍾渝b. 1945N/A
9/2005—9/2008Chen Mu-tsai 陳木在b. 1945Taiwan
9/2008—2/2012Jeffrey Koo Sr. (second time)
2/2012—12/2014C. Y. Wang (second time)
12/2014—11/2020Francisco Ou 歐鴻鍊1940-2021Taiwan
11/2020—Chien Han-sun 簡漢生b. 1946Yunnan

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U.S.–Taiwan Business Council

U.S.–Taiwan Business Council 美台商業協會
No. 1700 North Moore Street, Suite 1703, Arlington, Virginia 22209, USA
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🌏 U.S.–Taiwan Business Council – Web link

The U.S.–Taiwan Business Council (Mei Tai shangye xiehui 美台商業協會, 🏁—zhuxi 主席) was founded in December 1976 in Chicago as USA-ROC Economic Council (Meiguo Zhonghua minguo jingji lishihui 美國中華民國經濟理事會, according to some sources Mei Zhong jingji xiehui 美中經濟協會) when a group of prominent business leaders and other elite in society advocated the establishment of a regular civil channel to promote Taiwan's bilateral business relations with the USA in case of any drastic change in the diplomatic relations between the two sides. The organization was renamed US-ROC (Taiwan) Business Council (Mei Zhonghua minguo [Taiwan] shangye lishihui 美中華民國[台灣]商業理事會) in 1996, the current name was adopted in 2001. It moved from Chicago to Washington DC in 1991 and from there to Arlington in 1999. The council is a membership-based, non-profit organization. Another senior post in the organization is president (huizhang 會長).

U. S.–Taiwan Business Council chairpersons

Tenure Name Born/Died Name in Chinese
1976–1990David M. Kennedy1905-1996Dawei Gannaidi 大衛 • 甘迺迪
1990–1995Caspar Weinberger1917-2006Kasipa Wenboge 卡斯帕 • 溫伯格
1995—1/1997Dan TellepN/ADailepu 戴樂普
1/1997—1999William P. Clark1931-2013Weilian Kelake 威廉 • 克拉克
1999–2003Frank C. Carlucci1930-2018Kaluqi 卡路奇
2003–2005William S. Cohenb. 1940Weilain Keen 威廉 • 科恩/Keen柯恩
2005–2008William Brockb. 1930Weilian Buluke 威廉 • 布魯克
2008—9/2018Paul D. Wolfowitzb. 1943Baoluo Woerfuweici 保羅 • 沃爾福威茨
9/2018—Michael R. Splinterb. 1950Shibinlinte 史賓林特

Please note that David M. Kennedy's name is sometimes written Dawei Kennidi 大衛 • 肯尼迪 in Chinese.

U.S.–Taiwan Business Council presidents

Tenure Name Born/Died Name in Chinese
1976–1990William MorellN/AWeilian Moleier 威廉 • 莫雷爾
1990–2000David LauxN/ADawei Laokesi 大衛 • 勞克斯
2000—Rupert Hammond-Chambersb. N/AHan Rubo 韓儒伯

Please note that David Laux is sometimes referred to in Chinese as Luo Dawei 羅大為.

Since 2002 the council has been organizing the annual US–Taiwan Defense Industry Conference (Mei Tai guofang gongye huiyi 美台國防工業會議), listed below.

Year, date Venue Year, date Venue
2002, March 10–12 St. Petersburg, FL 2013, Sept. 29—Oct. 1  Annapolis, MD
2003, Feb. 12–14 San Antonio, TX 2014, Oct. 5–7 Williamsburg, VA 
2004, Oct. 3–5 Scottsdale, AZ 2015, Oct. 4–6  "
2005, Sept. 18–20 San Diego, CA 2016, Oct. 2–4  "
2006, Sept. 10–12 Denver, CO 2017, Oct. 15–17 Princeton, NJ
2007, Sept. 9–11 Annapolis, MD 2018, Oct. 28–30 Annapolis, MD
2008, Sept. 28–30 Amelia Island, FL 2019, Oct. 6–8 Ellicott City, MD
2009, Sept. 27–29 Charlottesville, VA  2020, Oct. 4–6 Leesburg, VA
2010, Oct. 3–5 Cambridge, MD 2021, Oct. 10–12  "
2011, Sept. 19–20 Richmond, VA 2022, Oct. 2–4 Richmond, VA
2012, Sept. 30—Oct. 2  Hershey, PA

AZ = Arizona; CA = California; CO = Colorado; FL = Florida; MD = Maryland; NJ = New Jersey; PA = Pennsylvania; TX = Texas; VA = Virginia. A complete list of USPS abbreviations for the states in the US can be found here.

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American Chamber of Commerce in Taiwan (AmCham)

American Chamber of Commerce in Taiwan (AmCham) 台灣美國商會
7 F., Suite 706, No. 129 Minsheng East Road Sec. 3,
Songshan District, Taipei City 10596, Taiwan ROC
[10596 台北市松山區民生東路 3 段 129 號 7 樓 706 室]
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🌏 AmCham Taiwan – Web link
AmCham logo before the end of 2020

The AmCham Taiwan (Taiwan Meiguo shanghui 台灣美國商會, abbrev. AmCham) was established in 1951 as American Chamber of Commerce in Taipei (Taibeishi Meiguo shanghui 台北市美國商會), the current name was adopted on Jan. 1, 2021. It is a non-profit, non-partisan business organization dedicated to promoting the interests of international business in Taiwan, and it has around 1000 members representing more than 500 companies. AmCham fosters the development of investment and trade between the US and Taiwan, and it seeks to enhance Taiwan's economic environment by promoting the adoption of international business standards in the areas of legislation, regulations, and enforcement. It is governed by an elected Board of Governors and Board of Supervisors, but much of AmCham's work is also conducted through its office staff and industry committees. Please note that after AmCham was established, its top position was President (huizhang 會長), and another senior post called Executive Director (zhixingzhang 執行長) was created in 1971. In 2008, the title of President was changed to Chairman, the Executive Director has been referred to as President since.

AmCham Taiwan chairpersons since 1964

Tenure Name Company
1964Robert O. SmithNorthwest Airlines
1965–1966Robert H. MorehouseFirst National City Bank
1967Hank WeinerGetz Bros. & Co.
1968–1969Dave JonesGeneral Instrument
1970–1971Temple O. LooneyGulf Oil
1971–1972Earl W. GlazierFirst National City Bank
1973Howard R. GiddensEli Lilly
1974Alson A. M. Lee 李藹申Singer Sewing Machines
1975Raymond C. F. Chen 陳其蕃Ford Lio Ho
1976–1977Marinus "Dutch" van GesselPacific Glass (Corning)
1978James E. SmithGulf Oil
1979–1980Robert P. ParkerRussin & Vecchi
1981Howard R. Giddens (second time)
1982Carter BoothChase Manhattan Bank
1983–1984James R. KleinGeneral Instrument
1985Robert B. HoffmanGeneral Electric
1985Jerry LoupeeTaiwan Polypropylene
1986Marinus "Dutch" van Gessel (second time)
1987James K. M. Wang 王建民Foremost Dairies
1988Loren R. WolterRCA
1989Joseph E. CoffmanGTE
1990James R. Klein (second time)
1991–1992James O'HearnPremier Chemical (Uniroyal)
1993–1994William S. BotwickGeneral Motors
1995–1996Christian MurckChemical Bank
1997–1998Jeffrey WilliamsAmerican Express Bank
1999–2000Paul CassinghamPerkins Coie
2001Peter BankoBank of America
2001–2002Richard HensonTexas Instruments
2002Thomas McGowanRussin & Vecchi
2003Gus SorensonLockheed Martin
2004Andrea Wu 吳王小珍United Airlines
2005–2006Tom JohnsonAir Products
2007Jane Hwang 黃素貞State Street Bank
2008Tai-chin Tung 童台琴Fidelity
2008Christopher FaySaatchi
2009–2010Alan EusdenCorning
2011–2012Bill WisemanMcKinsey
2013Alan Eusden (second time)
2014–2015Thomas Fann 范炘Ford Lio Ho Motor Co.
2016Dan SilverAbbott Laboratories
2017–2018Albert Chang 章錦華McKinsey
2019Leo SeewaldBlackRock
2020–2021C. W. Chin 金奇偉Applied Materials Taiwan
2022—Vincent Shih 施立成Microsoft Taiwan Corp.

AmCham Taiwan presidents since 1971

Tenure Name Tenure Name
1971–1972Guy Guh 1999–2008Richard R. Vuylsteke
1972–1988Herbert Gale Peabody 2008–2017Andrea Wu
1988–1989Loren R. Wolter 2017–2020William Foreman
1990–1993Winchell (Jock) Craig 2020–2021Leo Seewald
1993–1999Lynn Murray Sien 2021—Andrew Wylegala

Humble beginnings

In the early 1950s, Taiwan-based US businessman Robert Scanland intended to import US machinery into Taiwan, but this was restricted under the US government's Marshall Plan. In order to overcome this obstacle for private companies, Scanland and two other US importers (Loris Craig and Frank Smolkin) decided to set up an American Chamber of Commerce on the island. They applied for registration with the Taipei Municipal Government, and approval was granted on Sept. 14, 1951.

On its 60th anniversary AmCham pointed out that its first office was very small—merely a desk in the Friends of China Club (Zhongguo zhi youshe 中國之友社)—with only the most basic equipment. It has been described as being largely a social club then, and no records remain from that period. In the mid-1960s it became a more active and professional organization. After Robert H. Morehouse was elected AmCham chairman in 1965, he began improving and expanding operations based on his experiences with the AmCham in Tokyo.

Local branches

In addition to its Taipei headquarters, AmCham Taiwan operates two local branches, one in Kaohsiung (founded on June 1, 1991) and another one in Taichung (launched on Jan. 25, 1994). AmCham Kaohsiung is currently going through national registration for the American Chamber of Commerce Southern Taiwan.

American Chamber of Commerce Kaohsiung
(AmCham Kaohsiung) 高雄美國商會
Address: No. 8-6 Lane 70, Meishan Road, Niaosong District, Kaohsiung City 83346, Taiwan ROC  [83346 高雄市鳥松區美山路 70 巷 8-6 號]
American Chamber of Commerce in Taichung
(AmCham Taichung) 台中市美國商會
Address: 4 F-1, No. 186 Wenxin Road Sec. 1, Nantun District, Taichung City 40878, Taiwan ROC  [40878 台中市南屯區文心路一段 186 號 4 樓之 1]

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Stopovers of sitting ROC presidents in the US

One detail that usually attracts a certain degree of attention when evaluating the relations between Taiwan and the US are stopovers/transit stops on US soil by sitting ROC presidents who are on official visits to foreign countries. The following list shows US stopovers by four ROC presidents (Lee Teng-hui, Chen Shui-bian, Ma Ying-jeou, and Tsai Ing-wen) since 1994. For the USPS abbreviations of the US states mentioned in the list (and in above chronology) click here.

President Trip US stopovers (outgoing flight) US stopovers (return flight)
Lee 5/1994 Hawaii (2 hours, refueling) N/A
" 9/1997 Honolulu, HI Hawaii
Chen 8/2000 Los Angeles, CA ———
" 5–6/2001 New York, NY (May 21–23) Houston, TX (June 2–3)
" 6–7/2002 ——— ———
" 10–11/2003 New York (Oct. 31—Nov. 2) Anchorage, AK
" 8–9/2004 Honolulu (6 hours, refueling) Seattle, WA
" 1/2005 N/A Guam (5 hours, refueling)
" 5/2005 N/A ———
" 9/2005 Anchorage; Miami, FL ———
" 5/2006 ——— ———
" 9/2006 ——— Guam (4 hours, refueling)
" 8/2007 Anchorage (1 hour, refueling) Anchorage (1 hour, refueling)
" 1/2008 Anchorage (2 hours, refueling) N/A
Ma 8/2008 Los Angeles Austin, TX; San Francisco, CA
" 5–6/2009 Los Angeles Seattle
" 6–7/2009 San Francisco Honolulu
" 1/2010 San Francisco Los Angeles
" 3/2010 Guam Guam
" 4/2012 ——— N/A
" 3/2013 ——— ———
" 8/2013 New York Los Angeles
" 1/2014 ——— Los Angeles
" 6–7/2014 Honolulu San Francisco
" 7/2015 Boston, MA Los Angeles
" 3/2016 Houston Los Angeles
Tsai 6–7/2016 Miami Los Angeles
" 1/2017 Houston San Francisco
" 10–11/2017 Honolulu Guam
" 4/2018 ——— ———
" 8/2018 Los Angeles Houston
" 3/2019 ——— Honolulu
" 7/2019 New York (July 11–13) Denver, CO (July 19–21)

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The ROC and Japan

Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in Japan (TECROJ)

Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in Japan (TECROJ) 台北駐日經濟文化代表處
No. 20-2, Shirokanedai, 5-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0071, Japan
[東京都港區白金台 5-20-2]
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🌏 TECROJ – Web link
Description: Nologo07

The ROC embassy in Japan was renamed "Tokyo Office, Association of East Asian Relations" (Yadong guanxi xiehui zhu Ri daibiaochu 亞東關係協會駐日代表處) in September 1972. Since May 20, 1992 its name is "Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in Japan" (Taibei zhu Ri jingji wenhua daibiaochu 台北駐日經濟文化代表處, abbrev. TECROJ).

ROC representatives in Japan after WWII

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
1952–1956Hollington K. Tong 董顯光1887-1971Zhejiang
1956–1959Yorkson C. T. Shen 沈覲鼎1894-2000Fujian
1959–1963Chang Li-sheng 張厲生1901-1971Hebei
1964–1966Wei Tao-ming 魏道明1899-1978Jiangxi
1966–1969Chen Chih-mai 陳之邁1908-1978Guangdong
1969–1972Peng Meng-chi 彭孟緝1908-1997Hubei

1973—2/1985Mah Soo-lay 馬樹禮1909-2006Jiangsu
3/1985—1986Mo Sung-nien 毛松年1911-2005Guangdong
1/1986—1/1990Ma Chi-chuang 馬紀壯1912-1998Hebei
2/1990—6/1991Chiang Hsiao-wu 蔣孝武1945-1991Chongqing
6/1991—3/1993Hsu Shui-teh 許水德1931-2021Taiwan
4/1993—5/1996Lin Chin-ching 林金莖1923-2003Taiwan
5/1996—12/1999Chuang Ming-yao 莊銘耀1929-2002Taiwan
5/2000—7/2004Lo Fu-chen 羅福全b. 1935N/A
7/2004—7/2008Koh Se-kai 許世楷b. 1934Taiwan
8/2008—2/2012John Feng 馮寄台b. 1946Taiwan
3/2012—5/2016Shen Ssu-tsun 沈斯淳b. 1954N/A
6/2016—Frank Hsieh 謝長廷b. 1946Taiwan

Despite the absence of formal diplomatic relations, ties between the two sides have been friendly and cordial since decades. In the aftermath of severe natural disasters like earthquakes, tsunamis, typhoons and floodings, the affected country usually receives massive humanitarian assistance and substantial private donations from the other country. One noteworthy form of bilateral interaction is the Summit on Taiwan–Japan Exchange (Tai Ri jiaoliu gaofenghui 台日交流高峰會) for local council members from both sides.

Summit Year, date Host city (country)
First Summit 第一屆 2015, Aug. 8 Kanazawa 金澤 (Japan)
Second Summit 第二屆 2016, Sept. 4 Wakayama 和歌山 (Japan)
Third Summit 第三屆 2017, Aug. 24 Kumamoto 熊本 (Japan)
Fourth Summit 第四屆 2018, July 7 Kaohsiung (Taiwan)
Fifth Summit 第五屆 2019, Sept. 28 Toyama 富山 (Japan)
Sixth Summit 第六屆 2020, Oct. 26 Kaga 加賀 (Japan)
Seventh Summit 第七屆 2021, Nov. 12 Kobe 神戶 (Japan)

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Japan-Taiwan Exchange Association (JTEA)

Japan–Taiwan Exchange Association (JTEA) 公益財團法人日本台灣交流協會
Tokyo headquarters—7 F., Aoba Roppongi Building, 3-16-33 Roppongi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106-0032, Japan [東京都港區六本木 3-16-33 青葉六本木大廈 7 樓];
Taipei Office 台北事務所 —No. 28 Qingcheng Street, Songshan District, Taipei City 10547, Taiwan ROC [10547 台北市松山區慶城街 28 號];
Kaohsiung Office 高雄事務所 —9-10 F., No. 87 Heping 1st Road, Lingya District, Kaohsiung City 80272, Taiwan ROC [80272 高雄市苓雅區和平一路 87 號 9 、 10 樓(南和和平大樓)]
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🌏 JTEA – Web link

After Japan switched diplomatic recognition from the ROC to the PRC on Sept. 29, 1972, Japan established an organization called the "Interchange Association" (caituan faren jiaoliu xiehui 財團法人交流協會) with offices in Tokyo, Taipei and Kaohsiung, the Taipei office serving as Japan's de facto embassy in the ROC. The organization's name was changed to "Japan–Taiwan Exchange Association" (gongyi caituan faren Riben Taiwan jiaoliu xiehui 公益財團法人日本台灣交流協會, abbrev. JTEA) on Jan. 1, 2017, and a Japanese Cultural Center (Riben wenhua zhongxin 日本文化中心) was opened there on Nov. 27, 2017. The two leading positions in the JTEA are chairperson (huizhang 會長 / kaichō 会長) and president (lishizhang 理事長 / rijichō).

Japanese representatives in the ROC after WWII

Tenure Name [Hanyu pinyin of Chinese pronunciation] Born/Died
8/1952—12/1954Yoshizawa Kenkichi 芳沢 謙吉 [Fangze Qianji]1874-1965
11/1955—1959Horinouchi Kensuke 堀內 謙介 [Kunei Qianjie]1886-1979
4/1959—11/1962Iguchi Sadao 井口 貞夫 [Jingkou Zhenfu]1899-1980
1/1963—2/1966Kimura Shiroshichi 木村 四郎七 [Mucun Silangqi]1902-1996
9/1966—6/1969Shimadzu Hisanaga 島津 久大 [Daojin Jiuda]1906-1990
6/1969—1/1972Itagaki Osamu 板垣 修 [Banyuan Xiu]1907-1987
3/1972—7/1972Uyama Atsushi 宇山 厚 [Yushan Hou]1912-2003

12/1972—11/1974Ito Hironori 伊藤 博教 [Yiteng Bojiao]N/A
11/1974—10/1977Urabe Toshio 卜部 敏男 [Bubu Minnan]1912-2003
11/1977—3/1980Nishiyama Akira 西山 昭 [Xishan Zhao]N/A
4/1980—3/1983Hitomi Hiroshi 人見 宏 [Renjian Hong]N/A
4/1983—7/1990Hara Fujio 原 富士男 [Yuan Fushinan]N/A
7/1990—2/1995Yanai Shinichi 梁井 新一 [Liangjing Xinyi]N/A
3/1995—3/1998Goto Toshio 後藤 利雄 [Houteng Lixiong]N/A
3/1998—2002Yamashita Shintaro 山下 新太郎 [Shanxia Xintailang]b. 1932
2/2002—5/2005Uchida Katsuhisa 内田 勝久 [Neitian Shengjiu]N/A
5/2005—7/2008Tadashi Ikeda 池田 維 [Chitian Wei]b. 1939
7/2008—12/2009Masaki Saito 齋藤 正樹 [Zhaiteng Zhengshu]b. 1943
1/2010—4/2012Imai Tadashi 今井 正 [Jinjing Zheng]N/A
4/2012—7/2014Tarui Sumio 樽井 澄夫 [Zunjing Chengfu]b. 1947
7/2014—10/2019Numata Mikio 沼田 幹男 [Zhaotian Gannan]b. 1950
11/2019—Izumi Hiroyasu 泉 裕泰 [Quan Yutai]b. 1957

Note: Some Chinese sources use different characters for Numata Mikio: 沼田 幹夫 [Zhaotian Ganfu] which have the same pronunciation in Japanese.

JTEA chairpersons

Tenure Name [Hanyu pinyin of Chinese pronunciation] Born/Died
12/1972—9/1984Horikoshi Teizo 堀越 禎三 [Kuyue Zhensan]1898-1987
9/1984—9/1993Hasegawa Norishige 長谷川 周重 [Changguchuan Zhouzhong]1907-1998
9/1993—6/2011Hattori Reijiro 服部 禮次郎 [Fubu Licilang]1921-2013
6/2011—Ohashi Mitsuo 大橋 光夫 [Daqiao Guangfu]b. 1936

JTEA presidents

Tenure (started) Name [Hanyu Pinyin of Chinese pronunciation] Born/Died
12/1972—5/1974 Itagaki Osamu 板垣 修 [Banyuan Xiu] 1907-1987
5/1974—2/1978 Kimura Shiroshichi 木村 四郎七 [Mucai Silangqi] 1902-1996
2/1978—10/1981 Nishiyama Akira 西山 昭 [Xishan Zhao] N/A
11/1981 Uomoto Tokichiro 魚本 藤吉郎 [Yuben Tengjilang] 1917-1988
5/1988—7/1990 Maeda Toshikazu 前田 利一 [Qiantian Liyi] b. N/A, d. 2002
7/1990—11/1991 Hara Fujio 原 富士男 [Yuan Fushinan] N/A
11/1991—3/1998 Kaya Harunori 賀陽 治憲 [Heyang Zhixian] 1926-2011
3/1998 Goto Toshio 後藤 利雄 [Houteng Lixiong] N/A
7/2003 Takahashi Masaji 高橋 雅二 [Gaoqiao Yaer] N/A
8/2008 Hatakenaka Atsushi 畠中 篤 [Tianzhong Du] b. 1942
4/2012—6/2017 Imai Tadashi 今井 正 [Jinjing Zheng] N/A
6/2017— Tanizaki Yasuaki 谷崎 泰明 [Guqi Taiming] b. 1952

On Dec. 17, 2021 media reports revealed that due to the rising tensions across the Taiwan Strait Japan’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs (waiwusheng 外務省 / gaimushō) would appoint a “Taiwan planning official” (Taiwan qihuaguan 台灣企畫官 / Taiwan kikaku kan 台湾企画官) in a restructuring scheduled for 2022. The new Taiwan specialist would be functioning inside Section 1 for China and Mongolia (Zhongguo Menggu yike 中國・蒙古一課 / chūgoku mongoru dai ichi ka 中国・モンゴル第一課) at the ministry’s Asian and Oceanian Affairs Bureau (Yazhou dayangzhouju 亞洲大洋洲局 / ajia taiyōshū kyoku).

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Japan and China/Taiwan/the ROC since the 19th century—a retrospective

The history of the relations between China and Japan is multifaceted and worth studying. Until the 19th century both countries were underdeveloped, feudal societies. Western intervention forced them to open up—Qing China with the First Opium War (1840-1842), Japan following the arrival of Commodore Perry’s “black ships” at Uraga Bay near Tokyo in 1853. The encounters with the foreigners and their superior firepower were traumatic experiences for the Chinese and Japanese leaderships, leading them to transform themselves into modern regional powers. In comparison, Japan’s isolation had been more radical during their self-imposed period of “Sakoku” (suoguo 鎖國, meaning “locked country” in English) which had been in place since 1639, but thanks to much greater flexibility and pragmatism Japan managed to adapt considerably quicker. By the end of the 19th century Japan proved itself strong enough to extort significant, humiliating concessions from China after defeating the crumbling Qing in their first major military confrontation 1894/1895. Breaking Japan’s decades-long domination over China could be acccomplished only after the attack on Pearl Harbor compelled the US to join the war on the Pacific theater and provide massive military aid to the ROC.

Currently the relations between Taiwan and Japan are remarkably friendly, despite the absence of formal diplomatic ties. Mutual generosity after natural disasters and humanitarian emergencies highlight the cordial ties, and both sides work together to contain the threat of military expansion posed by the PRC and its spread of authoritarianism. Remaining disagreements concern the question of sovereignty over the Diaoyutai/Senkaku Islands in the East China Sea, the issue of Taiwanese comfort women in WWII and the visits of top Japanese politicians to the Yasukuni Shrine (jingguo shenshe 靖國神社 / Yasukuni Jinja 靖国神社)—which since 1978 honours late Japanese PM Tojo Hideki 東條 英機 and 13 other convicted Class-A war criminals—in Tokyo.

The chronology directly below includes events covering Japan’s relations with Qing China (1871-1911), the ROC (1912-1945/1949), and Taiwan (since 1945). For details concerning Japan’s colonial rule over Taiwan (1895-1945) please click here. Original characters and pronunciation of Japanese organizations and terms can be found here.

Year Date, event
1871  December: Mudan Incident (mudanshe shijian 牡丹社事件)—two Ryukyuan vessels are shipwrecked at Taiwan’s southern shores, 54 sailors are killed by indigenous Paiwan people, 12 sailors survive and are eventually repatriated to Naha 那覇
1872September: Japan’s Emperor Meiji unilaterally declares the Ryukyu Kingdom (liuqiuguo 琉球國 / Ryūkyū Koku 琉球国) being Japan’s Ryukyu Domain (liuqiufan 琉球藩 Ryūkyū Han)
1873May: Qing representatives dismiss Japan’s complaints by stating that the ‘untamed savages’ on Taiwan (Taiwan shengfan 台灣生番) were outside of the Qing’s jurisdiction
1874May—December: Punitive expedition by Japan to Taiwan, Qing China agrees to pay an indemnity
1879April 4: Japan abolishes the Ryukyu Domain and annexes the islands, making them part of Okinawa Prefecture (Chongsheng xian 沖繩縣 / Okinawa Ken 沖縄県)
1894August: A conflict between Qing China and Japan over influence in Korea leads to the start of the First Sino-Japanese War (jiawu zhanzheng 甲午戰爭)
1895April 17: Japan and Qing China sign the Treaty of Shimonoseki (maguan tiaoyue 馬關條約), Taiwan and Penghu are ceded to Japan
Nov. 8: Liaotung Convention (Liaonan tiaoyue 遼南條約) between Qing China and Japan, retrocession of the Liaodong peninsula (Liaodong bandao 遼東半島) as a result of the triple intervention (sanguo ganshe huan Liao 三國干涉還遼) by Russia, France and Germany
1898April: Exchange of a diplomatic note between Qing China and Japan in which China agrees not to cede Fujian province to another foreign power
1913Oct. 6: The government of Japan recognizes the ROC
1914Aug. 23: Japan declares war against Germany and occupies the German possession Jiaozhou 膠州 (Shandong Province)
Sept. 2: Japanese troops land in Longkou 龍口 (Shandong Province)
1915Jan. 18: Japan sends the “21 Demands” (ershiyi tiao yaoqiu 二十一條要求) to China, aiming to make Northern China a sphere of Japanese influence
May 15: Yuan Shikai signs the “Sino-Japanese Agreement” (Zhongri xinyue 中日新約), recognizing most of the 21 Demands
1917January: The ROC receives its first Japanese loan, arranged by banker Nishihara Kamezo 西原 龜三 on orders of PM Terauchi Seiki 寺內 正毅
1919April 30: The Paris Peace Conference allows Japan to retain control of Germany’s colonies in Shandong Province (Jiaozhou, Qingdao 青島 etc.) although China had also participated on the side of the victors of WWI
May 4: After news spread that Germany’s colonies in China would not to be returned but be handed over to Japan, more than 30,000 students protest in Peking, marking the beginning of the May Fourth Movement (wusi yundong 五四運動)
June 28: The Treaty of Versailles is signed, Japan receives Germany’s colonies in China, China’s delegate Wellington Koo 顧維鈞 (i. e. representative of the Beiyang government) refuses to sign the treaty
1922Feb. 4: Following negotiations in Washington, Japan returns Qingdao and Jiaozhou to China
1928May 3: Japanese troops attack Northern Expedition forces in Ji’nan in what becomes known as the May 3 Incident/Ji’nan Incident (wusan shijian 五三事件 / Ji’nan shijian 濟南事件)
June 4: Huanggutun Incident (huanggutun shijian 皇姑屯事件)—a bomb attack on a train planned by Japanese colonel Komoto Daisaku 河本 大作 of the Kwantung Army (guandong jun 關東軍) kills warlord Chang Tso-lin 張作霖, who is succeeded as ruler of Manchuria by his son Chang Hsueh-liang 張學良 (nicknamed the “Young Marshal” [shaoshuai 少帥])
1929May 30: Japanese troops withdraw from Ji’nan
1931Sept. 18: Mukden Incident (jiu yi ba shibian 九一八事變), Japan occupies Manchuria (i. e. Northeast China)
Oct. 24: The Council of the League of Nations adopts a resolution urging Japan to withdraw its troops from Northeast China by Nov. 16, twelve days later the Japanese reject the demand
1932Feb. 18: Manchukuo (Manzhouguo 滿洲國, Jap. Manshukoku) declares its ‘independence’
March 1: Formal establishment of the state of Manchukuo by Japan with Changchun 長春 (today’s Jilin Province) as its capital
March 9: The Japanese install Henry Pu Yi, the last emperor of the collapsed Qing Dynasty, as ruler of Manchukuo, reign title “Datong” 大同
May 5: China and Japan sign an armistice in Shanghai
Sept. 16: Japanese soldiers massacre civilians in Pingdingshan 平頂山 (Fushun City 撫順市, Liaoning Province), ca. 3,000 dead
1933March: Japan leaves the League of Nations and annexes Jehol 熱河 (incorporated into Manchukuo)
May 31: The Chinese-Japanese Tanggu Truce (Tanggu xieyi 塘沽協議) is signed, ending hostilities in northern China, the eastern part of Hebei Province is annexed by Manchukuo
1936August: The Japanese “Unit 731” (qisanyi budui 七三一部隊) that tests biological weapons on Chinese POWs is established
1937July 7: Start of the Japanese invasion in China’s heartland after an incident on the Marco Polo bridge (Lugouqiao 蘆溝橋); Wanping 宛平, a town southwest of Peiping, falls to the Japanese
July 28: Japanese troops occupy Peiping, two days later ROC troops evacuate Tianjin
Aug. 13: Japanese troops attack Shanghai
Nov. 11: Japanese troops occupy Shanghai
Nov. 12: German businessman John Rabe establishes the Nanjing Safety Zone International Committee (Nanjing anquanqu guoji weiyuanhui 南京安全區國際委員會), the ROC capital is moved to Chongqing
Nov. 22: The Nanjing Safety Zone (Nanjing anquanqu 南京安全區) is set up, saving hundreds of Chinese refugees from later being slaughtered by Japanese soldiers
Dec. 5: The Japanese install the “Dadao Municipal Government of Shanghai” (Shanghaishi dadao zhengfu 上海市大道政府) led by mayor Su Hsi-wen 蘇錫文 (disbanded on May 3, 1938)
Dec. 13: Japanese troops occupy Nanjing; in the months after December 1937 the Japanese commit atrocities against the civil population in Nanjing, hundreds of thousands of people are massacred
Dec. 14: The Japanese install the “Provisional Government of the Republic of China” (Zhonghua minguo linshi zhengfu 中華民國臨時政府) in Peiping, led by Wang K’o-min 王克敏
1938March 28: The Japanese install the “Reformed Government of the Republic of China” (Zhonghua minguo weixin zhengfu 中華民國維新政府) in Nanjing, led by Liang Hung-chih 梁鴻志
June: On Chiang Kai-shek’s orders the Nationalist army destroys dykes of the Yellow River to stop advancing Japanese troops, some one million people drown; the same month the Japanese Unit 731 moves its headquarters from Beiyinhe 背蔭河 (Wuchang City 五常市, Heilongjiang Province) to Pingfang 平房 (Harbin City 哈爾濱市, Heilongjiang Province)
July 7: KMT troops under General Li Tsung-jen 李宗仁 win a victory against the Japanese at Tai’erzhuang 台兒莊 (Shandong Province)
October: Japanese troops capture Guangzhou
1939Feb. 10: Japan occupies Hainan Island 海南
March 15: Chongqing is heavily bombed by Japanese planes
Dec. 30: Wang Ching-wei 汪精衛 signs a secret agreement with Japan
1940March 29: The “Provisional Government of the Republic of China” in Peiping and the “Reformed Government of the Republic of China” in Nanjing are merged to form a pro-Japanese counter-government led by Wang Ching-wei in Nanjing
July 26: Japan’s PM Konoe Fumimaro 近衛 文磨 proclaims the goal of establishing a “Greater East Asian Co-prosperity Sphere” (da dongya gongrongquan 大東亞共榮圈, Jap. Daitōa Kyōeiken 大東亜共栄圏)
Oct. 27: The Japanese Unit 731 spreads plague-infested fleas over Ningbo 寧波 (Zhejiang Province), using low-flying airplanes; at least 99 local residents die
1941April 14: Condemning the Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact (signed the previous day in Moscow), ROC Foreign Minister (FM) Wang Chung-hui 王寵惠 declares that Outer Mongolia and the northeastern provinces are Chinese territory and the Soviet-Japanese statement is not binding on China
July: Japan occupies French Indochina
Dec. 7: Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, the US enter the Pacific war
Dec. 9: Two days after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour, the ROC formally declares war on Japan and on Germany
Dec. 25: The Japanese occupy Hong Kong (1842-1997 British crown colony)
1944April–December: The Japanese military offensive “Ichigo” (yihao 一號) hits central China
1945Aug. 6: The US drop an atomic bomb on Hiroshima 廣島, three days later a second one on Nagasaki 長崎
Aug. 15: Japan’s Emperor Hirohito 裕仁 accepts the terms of the Potsdam Declaration, Japan surrenders
Sept. 2: Japan’s First Instrument of Surrender is signed on the “USS Missouri” in the Tokyo Bay, with General Hsu Yung-chang 徐永昌 signing for the ROC, end of WWII
Sept. 9: General Ho Ying-chin 何應欽 receives the formal surrender of the Japanese forces in China from General Okamura Yasuji 岡村 寧次 in Nanjing
Oct. 25: Taiwan’s retrocession to China is marked with an official transfer ceremony in Taipei
1946April 1: The repatriation of Japanese soldiers from Taiwan back home is completed
1951Sept. 8: Representatives of Japan and 47 nations sign the San Francisco Peace Treaty (SFPT), in which Japan officially gives up all claim to Taiwan without naming a recipient of sovereignty (representatives of neither the PRC or the ROC were participants in the peace conference or signatories of the peace treaty)
1952April 28: The Peace Treaty between the ROC and Japan is signed (ratified by Japanese Diet on July 5, by ROC Legislative Yuan on July 31)
Aug. 5: ROC FM George Yeh 葉公超 and Shiroshichi Kimura 木村 四郎七, chief of the Japanese Overseas Agency in Taipei (Riben zhu Taibei haiwai shiwusuo 日本駐台北海外事務所), exchange instruments of ratification of the Sino-Japanese peace treaty
Aug. 9: Japan’s ambassador Yoshizawa Kenkichi 芳澤 謙吉 arrives in Taipei
Aug. 16: Hollington K. Tong 董顯光 is sent to Japan as ROC ambassador
Oct. 2: Japanese ambassador Yoshizawa presents his credentials to ROC President Chiang Kai-shek
Oct. 16: Ambassador H. K. Tong presents his credentials to Japan’s Emperor Hirohito
1953July 18: A protocol concerning commerce and navigation is signed by the governments of the ROC and Japan
Nov. 24: The ROC government protests to the US against the proposed American transfer of Amami Oshima Island 奄美大島 to Japan as a violation of the SFPT
1955July 2: ROC Ambassador to Japan Hollington K. Tong and Japan’s FM Mamoru Shigemitsu 重光 葵 sign a bilateral agreement extending the protocol of commerce and navigation, integrated in the Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty
Sept. 4: A delegation from the Japanese Diet returns home after a 12-day mission in Taiwan
1957Feb. 9: The ROC MOFA reiterates that an independent government should be set up in the Ryukyus
June 2–4: Japanese PM Kishi Nobusuke 岸 信介 visits Taiwan
Sept. 16: ROC presidential office secretary-general Chang Chun 張群 goes to Tokyo as a special envoy to ROC President Chiang Kai-shek
1958April 10: Japan’s government denies the PRC trade HQ in Tokyo the right to fly the PRC flag
1961Aug. 1: Former Japan PM Kishi Nobusuke arrives in Taipei for a 6-day visit
1962March 13: ROC FM Shen Chang-huan 沈昌煥 declares that the ROC does not recognize Japan’s ‘residual sovereignty’ over the Ryukyu Islands
1963Aug. 1: A 15-member Ryukyus goodwill mission headed by Ohta Seisaku 大田 政作, executive chairman of the Ryukyuan government, arrives in Taipei for a 6-day visit
Sept. 21: ROC ambassador to Japan Chang Li-sheng 張厲生 returns for consultations on worsening Sino-Japanese relations
1964Feb. 23: Former Japanese PM Yoshida Shigeru 吉田 茂 arrives as the private emissary of PM Ikeda Hayato 池田 勇人
July 16: The ROC Executive Yuan lifts the ban on import of Japanese goods by government establishments and public enterprises
Aug. 12: Presidential office secretary-general Chang Chun leaves for Tokyo for a 10-day goodwill visit
1965April 26: A US$ 158 million loan for economic development of Taiwan is signed in Taipei by the ROC and Japan
1966Oct. 28: Wu Chen-nan 吳振南, former leader of the “Taiwan Independence Revolutionary Council” in Japan, returns to Taiwan
1967Sept. 7: Japan’s PM Sato Eisaku 佐藤 榮作 arrives for a 3-day official visit
Oct. 20: Presidential office secretary-general Chang Chun leaves for Tokyo to attend the 12th assembly of the Association for the Promotion of Sino-Japanese Cooperation
Nov. 27: ROC MND Chiang Ching-kuo leaves for a 6-day visit to Japan
1968Oct. 16: Presidential office secretary-general Chang Chun leaves for Tokyo to attend the first annual memorial service for former Japanese PM Yoshida Shigeru
Dec. 10: Former Japanese PM Kishi Nobusuke arrives for a 2-day visit
1969Jan. 8: Japanese Diet member Otake Heihachiro 大竹 平八郎 arrives for a 5-day visit
Jan. 12: Omori Kan 大森 寛, president of the Japanese Defense University, arrives for a visit
Jan. 15: Five Japanese Diet members arrive for a week’s visit
Jan. 17: A four-member mission from the Ryukyus arrives to attend Freedom Day activities
Jan. 23: Council for International Economic Cooperation and Development [CIECD] secretary-general S. Y. Dao 陶聲洋 leaves for a visit to Tokyo
1971June 17: The US and Japan sign an agreement concerning the Ryukyu Islands and the Daito Islands 大東諸島 (aka Okinawa Reversion Agreement)
1972Jan. 26: A 5-member Japanese economic mission arrives for a week’s visit at the invitation of the MOEA and the CIECD
Feb. 3: Japanese senator Otake Heihachiro arrives for a 5-day official visit
May 15: The Ryukyu Islands including Okinawa 沖繩島 are returned by the US to Japanese administration
Aug. 9: Japanese Dietmen Tamaki Kazuo 玉置 和郎 and Kusunoki Masatoshi 楠 正俊 of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party arrive for a 5-day visit
Sept. 17: Shiina Etsusaburo 椎名 悦三郎 (special envoy of Japanese PM Tanaka Kakuei 田中 角榮) arrives
Sept. 25–30: Japan’s PM Tanaka Kakuei visits the PRC
Sept. 29: Japan and the PRC establish diplomatic relations; the ROC severs diplomatic ties with Japan, the 1952 peace treaty ceases to have effect, the Interchange Association (caituan faren jiaoliu xiehui 財團法人交流協會 / Zaidan Hōjin Kōryu Kyōkai 財団法人交流協会) is established
Nov. 29: Former ROC ambassador to Japan Peng Meng-chi 彭孟緝 returns
Nov. 30: Former Japanese ambassador Uyuma Atushi 宇山 厚 leaves for Tokyo
Dec. 2: The ROC establishes the Association of East Asian Relations (dongyu guanxi xiehui 亞東關係協會, abbrev. AEAR)
Dec. 15: Japan’s embassy in Taipei and its consulate in Kaohsiung are closed
Dec. 26: The ROC’s AEAR and Japan’s Interchange Association sign an agreement in Taipei to establish offices in each nation
Dec. 28: The ROC embassy in Tokyo and the consulates-general in Osaka 大阪, Yokohama 横浜 and Fukuoka 福岡 are formally closed
1973Jan. 4: The AEAR opens its Japan office in Tokyo
March 14: The Japan-ROC Diet Members' Consultative Council (Ri Hua yiyuan kentanhui 日華議員懇談會 / Nikka Giin Kondankai 日華議員懇談会) is established in Japan
1974Feb. 27: Interchange Association chairman Itagaki Osamu 板垣 修 arrives for talks on ROC-Japan civil aviation relations
April 20: The ROC government announces the termination of China Airlines (CAL) and Japan Airlines flights between Taiwan and Japan; CAL routes its flights to the US via Guam instead of Tokyo
Sept. 8: Naka Funada 船田 中, former speaker of the Lower House of the Japanese Diet, heading a delegation of 30 scholars, arrives to participate in the Sino-Japanese Conference on the China Mainland and the Sino-Japanese Cultural Interchange Symposium opened in Taipei
Oct. 30: Former Japanese PM Kishi Nobusuke and Ishii Mitsujiro 石井 光次郎, former speaker of the House of Representatives, arrive to join in birthday greetings for ROC President Chiang Kai-shek
Dec. 10: Urabe Toshio 卜部 敏男, newly appointed chief of the Interchange Association’s Taipei office, arrives to assume office
1975July 9: The ROC and Japan sign a private aviation agreement that restores the Taiwan-Japan services of CAL and a Japanese airline
1977March 3: A 272-member group of the Consultative Council on Japan-ROC problems arrives to pay respect to late ROC President Chiang Kai-shek at his temporary resting place
1978Aug. 12: The PRC and Japan sign a Treaty of Peace and Friendship (Zhong Ri heping youhao tiaoyue 中日和平友好條約) in Beijing
1979Jan. 15: Kanemaru Shin 金丸 信, member of the Japanese Diet and former director of the Japanese Self-Defense Agency (fangwei sheng 防衛省 bōei shō), arrives for a visit
Jan. 17: A 52-member Japanese Diet mission headed by Nadao Hirokichi 灘尾 弘吉 arrives for a week’s visit
July 9: Communications minister Lin Chin-sheng 林金生 opens the first submarine cable between Taiwan and the Ryukyus at Toucheng (Yilan County)
1982Feb. 13: The MOEA BOFT announces that effective immediately the nation would stop importing 1,533 kinds of consumer goods from Japan; the move by the government was to redress the serious imbalance of trade between the ROC and Japan; the BOFT also announces a 1-year ban on imports of Japanese trucks, buses and heavy-duty engines
July 30: MOE Vice Minister Li Mo 李模 says that the ROC government has expressed its concern over the proposed revision by the Japanese government of history textbooks for high schools
Aug. 21: MOEA minister William Y. T. Chao 趙耀東 announces a partial lift of an import ban on 842 categories of Japanese consumer goods
Nov. 22: The ROC government decided to lift import bans on 689 Japanese consumer products to show its sincerity to improve its trade relations with Japan
Dec. 23: The ROC government announces the selection of Japan’s largest auto maker Toyota as the nation’s partner in a US$ 540 million joint venture to produce compact cars in Taiwan
1990Oct. 11: The ROC MOI reiterates that the Diaoyutai Islands in the East China Sea belong to the ROC
1992May 20: The AEAR Tokyo Office is renamed Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in Japan (Taibei zhu Ri jingji wenhua daibiaochu 台北駐日經濟文化代表處, abbrev. TECROJ
1996July 24: The ROC MOFA protests Japan’s decision to include the Diaoyutai Islands in its 200-mile EEZ
Sept. 12: The ROC states a 4-point position in the Diaoyutai Islands dispute with Japan: the ROC’s absolute sovereignty, a rational attitude, no cooperation with Beijing, and the protection of Taiwan’s fishing rights
1997May 6: Japanese lawmaker Nishimura Shingo 西村 真悟 lands on Diaoyutai
1999Nov. 13: Tokyo Governor Ishihara Shintaro 石原 慎太郎 arrives in Taiwan for a 3-day visit
Dec. 28: THSRC gives priority negotiation rights to the Japanese consortium Taiwan Shinkansen Corp. (Taiwan xin’ganxian 台灣新幹線, abbrev. TSC) for a contract to supply the rail and electrical systems for Taiwan’s high speed rail
2005July 26: Video conference between ROC President Chen Shui-bian and the Foreign Correspondents Club of Japan in Tokyo
Sept. 20: Japan grants ROC passport holders visa exemption for 90 days
2007June 7: Former ROC President Lee Teng-hui visits the Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo to pay his respects to his elder brother Lee Teng-chin 李登欽, who died fighting for Japan in WWII
Nov. 21: KMT presidential candidate Ma Ying-jeou departs for a 3-day visit to Japan
2008June 10: The Taiwanese fishing vessel “Lienhe” (lianhehao 聯合號) collides with the Japanese patrol boat “Koshiki” (甑 [zeng]) near the Diaoyutai archipelago and sinks an hour later, the crew is taken to Ishigaki 石垣 (Ryukyu Islands) for questioning, ROC and PRC officials protest
June 14: The ROC government recalls its representative in Japan Koh Se-kai 許世楷
Aug. 25–27: A KMT delegation led by KMT Vice Chairman and SEF Chairman Chiang Pin-kung 江丙坤 visits Japan
Sept. 24: During a visit in Okinawa former ROC President Lee Teng-hui states that “the Diaoyutai Islands have belonged to Japan since a long time ago”; the following day the ROC MOFA distances itself from Lee’s views
2009Feb. 27: Taiwan reaches agreements on a mechanism for settling fishery disputes with Japan
March 15: DPP Chairwoman Tsai Ing-wen embarks on a 3-day visit to Japan
Dec. 13: DPP Chairwoman Tsai Ing-wen departs for Japan on a 4-day visit
2010April 5: Former Japanese PM Aso Taro 麻生 太郎 arrives in Taiwan for a private 4-day visit
April 21: The Taipei Culture Center (Taibei wenhua zhongxin 台北文化中心 Taihoku bunka chūshin) opens in Tokyo to promote cultural exchanges between the ROC and Japan
April 30: The ROC and Japan sign an MOU in Taipei to strengthen cooperation in a wide range of areas, including global warming, disaster prevention and fighting international crime
June 25: Japan extends the western boundary of its Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ)—which also covers the Diaoyutai Islands—22 km westward to include all of Yonaguni Island 與那國島 110 km off Taiwan’s east coast; ROC FM Timothy Yang 楊進添 insists that the Taiwan-Japan ADIZ demarcation line remains unchanged
Sept. 14: The ROC reaffirms its sovereignty over the Diaoyutai Islands following a standoff on Sept. 13 between an ROC fishing vessel and a flotilla of Japanese patrol boats in waters off the disputed archipelago
Oct. 31: Former Japanese PM Abe Shinzo 安倍 晋三 visits Taiwan, meets ROC President Ma Ying-jeou; the same day airplanes begin traveling between Taipei’s Songshan Airport and Tokyo’s Haneda Airport for the first time in over three decades
Dec. 3: Former Japanese PM Mori Yoshiro 森 善朗 arrives in Taipei for a private 2-day visit
2011March 11: In the aftermath of the massive Tohoku Earthquake (Riben dongbei difang taipingyang jinhai dizhen 日本東北地方太平洋近海地震) and tsunami, donations from Taiwan for disaster relief and reconstruction aid exceed US$ 260 million
Sept. 22: AEAR chairman Peng Run-tsu 彭榮次 and Interchange Association chairman Ohashi Mitsuo 大橋光夫 sign a bilateral investment protection agreement in Taipei
Oct. 3–5: DPP Chairwoman Tsai Ing-wen visits Japan, accompanied by former DPP Chairman Frank Hsieh and former ROC Representative to Japan Koh Se-kai
Nov. 10: Taiwan and Japan amend a bilateral aviation agreement, granting respective fifth freedom rights and greenlighting additional services between the two countries
2012April 11: Taiwan and Japan sign a Patent Prosecution Highway MOU which calls for fast-track processing of patent applications lodged in both countries
Aug. 5: ROC President Ma Ying-jeou suggests the East China Sea Peace Initiative (donghai heping changyi 東海和平倡議, abbrev. ECSPI)
Sept. 25: During a standoff close to the Diaoyutai Islands, Japanese and Taiwanese vessels spray each other with water cannons
Nov. 29: Taiwan and Japan conclude a mutual recognition agreement on product certification and an MOU on industrial collaboration
2013Jan. 24: The fishing vessel “Quanjiafu” (全家福) from Shenao Port 深澳漁港 (New Taipei City, Taiwan) with 7 crew and activists from the Chinese Association for Protecting the Diaoyutais (Zhonghua bao Diao xiehui 中華保釣協會), accompanied by four vessels of Taiwan’s Coast Guard Administration (CGA), sails into waters near the Diaoyutai Islands and is blocked by Japanese coast guard 28 nautical miles southwest of the destination, the Japanese shooting water cannons at the boat, the CGA shoots back with water cannons
Feb. 3: DPP Chairman Su Tseng-chang arrives in Tokyo for a 5-day Japan visit
April 10: Taiwan and Japan sign the Taiwan-Japan Fisheries Agreement (Tai Ri yuye xieyi 台日漁業協議) which with immediate effect gives Taiwanese fishermen the right to operate in a 7,400 km² area around the Diaoyutai Islands, leaders of the negotiating delegations were Liao Liou-yi 廖了以 and Ohashi Mitsuo; PRC MOFA Spokesman Hong Lei 洪磊 expresses ‘extreme concerns’
Sept. 9: A 97-member delegation including 33 Japanese lawmakers led by Koizumi Shinjiro 小泉 進次郎 arrives for a 4-day visit in Taiwan
Sept. 12: Former Japanese PM Kan Naoto 菅 直人 arrives in Taiwan for a 4-day visit
Oct. 15: The ROC (Taiwan)-U.S.-Japan Trilateral Security Dialogue opens in Taipei, gathering leading academics and lawmakers from the three countries to discuss strategic security relations
Nov. 5: Taiwan and Japan conclude five cooperative agreements that span e-commerce, high-speed rail transportation, intellectual property rights applications, pharmaceutical regulations, and search and rescue operations involving aviation accidents at sea
Dec. 26: Japan’s PM Abe Shinzo visits the Yasukuni Shrine, Abe’s visit is called ‘regrettable’ by ROC FM David Lin 林永樂
2014Jan. 20: A Taiwan-Japan e-commerce agreement becomes effective, requiring both parties to protect the e-commerce and digital content industries
July 1: The ROC (Taiwan)-U.S.-Japan Trilateral Security Dialogue is held in Taipei, discussing the need for Taiwan to take part in the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)
July 31–Aug. 5: ROC First Lady Chow Mei-ching 周美青 visits Japan
Aug. 1: Japan gives names to 5 disputed islets affiliated to the Diaoyutai Islands, the ROC and the PRC condemn the move
2015April 6–9: ROC legislative speaker Wang Jin-pyng 王金平 visits Japan
July 21: Former ROC President Lee Teng-hui arrives in Tokyo for a 6-day private Japan visit, meets Japan’s PM Abe Shinzo for private talks in Tokyo on July 23 and states that sovereignty over the Diaoyutai Islands lies with Japan
Aug. 14: The movie "Song of the Reed" (luwei zhi ge 蘆葦之歌) on the inspiring stories of six Taiwan comfort women during the 1930s and 1940s and the courage they demonstrated in finding inner peace in the last years of their lives is released nationwide in the ROC
Oct. 6: DPP Chairwoman Tsai Ing-wen arrives for a 4-day visit in Japan
2017Jan. 1: The Interchange Association is renamed Japan–Taiwan Exchange Association (gongyi caituan faren Riben Taiwan jiaoliu xiehui 公益財團法人日本台灣交流協會 / Kōeki Zaidan Hōjin Nihon Taiwan Kōryū Kyōkai 公益財団法人日本台湾交流協会, abbrev. JTEA)
Nov. 27: A Japanese Cultural Center (Riben wenhua zhongxin 日本文化中心 Nihon bunka chūshin) is opened in Taipei
2020Aug. 9: Former Japanese PM Mori Yoshiro visits Taiwan to pay his respects to late ROC President Lee Teng-hui, meets current ROC President Tsai Ing-wen
2021June 4: Japan donates Taiwan 1.24 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines (additional shipments on July 8, July 15, Sept. 7, Sept. 14, and Oct. 27, totalling 4.2 million doses)
Sept. 17: Taiwan donates Japan 10,000 pulse oximeters and 1,008 oxygen concentrators
Dec. 1: Former Japanese PM Shinzo Abe says that ‘Japan cannot allow Taiwan to be invaded by force’ and ‘any emergency over Taiwan would mean an emergency for Tokyo as well’
2022March 22: Former Japanese PM Shinzo Abe and ROC President Tsai Ing-wen meet via videoconference
May 3: A delegation from the Youth Division of Japan's ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) arrives in Taiwan for a 5-day visit
July 11–12: ROC Vice President Lai Ching-te visits Japan to honour Japan's former PM Shinzo Abe who was assassinated on July 8 in Nara, attends a private funeral service on July 12; highest-level visit of an ROC representative in Japan since 1972

* * * SEE ALSO * * *

Additional information pertaining to that subject can be found on the following pages of this website.

🔴 "Introduction Taiwan / ROC", Facts about Japan's colonial rule over Taiwan
🔴 "Tools", Japan's Taiwan

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The ROC and Europe

Taipei Representative Office in the EU and Belgium

Taipei Representative Office in the EU and Belgium 駐歐盟兼駐比利時代表處
Boulevard du Régent 40, 1000 Bruxelles, Belgium
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🌏 Taipei Representative Office in the EU and Belgium – Web link
Description: Nologo07

The Taipei Representative Office in the EU and Belgium (zhu Oumeng jian zhu Bilishi daibiaochu 駐歐盟兼駐比利時代表處) was established in April 2001 based on the Taipei Representative Office in Belgium. It is responsible for maintaining ties with the European Union, the Kingdom of Belgium and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg in all aspects.

Taiwan's representatives in the European Union and Belgium

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
3/2001—7/2004David Lee Ta-wei 李大維b. 1949Taiwan
8/2004—7/2006Chen Chien-jen 程建人b. 1939Jiangsu
7/2006—12/2008Michael Kau 高英茂b. 1934Taiwan
12/2008—10/2009Shen Lyu-shun 沈呂巡b. 1949Taiwan
5/2010—9/2012David Y. L. Lin 林永樂b. 1950Taiwan
3/2013—3/2017Tung Kuo-yu 董國猷b. 1953Taiwan
5/2017—6/2020Harry Tseng 曾厚仁N/AN/A
6/2020—Tsai Ming-yen 蔡明彥b. N/AN/A

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European Economic and Trade Office in Taiwan (EETO)

European Economic and Trade Office in Taiwan (EETO) 歐洲經貿辦事處
Suite 1603, 16 F., No. 333 Keelung Road Sec. 1,
Xinyi District, Taipei City 11012, Taiwan ROC
[11012 台北市信義區基隆路 1 段 333 號 16 樓 1603 室(國際貿易大樓)]
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🌏 EETO – Web link
Description: Nologo07

The EETO (Ouzhou jingmao banshichu 歐洲經貿辦事處, abbrev. EETO, 🏁—chuzhang 處長) was established on March 10, 2003 in Taipei by the European Commission.

Envoys of the European Union to Taiwan

Tenure Name Native country Name in Chinese
3/2003—11/2006Brian McDonaldIrelandMaibaixian 麥百賢
3/2007—1/2011Guy LedouxFranceLi Du 李篤
2011 @Tamás MaczákHungaryMaren Jie 馬人 • 杰
7/2011—8/2015Frédéric LaplancheFrancePang Weide 龐維德
8/2015—8/2019Madeleine MajorenkoSwedenMa Zelian 馬澤璉
9/2019—Filip GrzegorzewskiPolandGao Zhefu 高哲夫

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European Chamber of Commerce Taiwan (ECCT)

European Chamber of Commerce Taiwan (ECCT) 歐洲在台商務協會
11 F., No. 285 Zhongxiao East Road Sec. 4,
Daan District, Taipei City 10692, Taiwan ROC
[10692 台北市大安區忠孝東路 4 段 285 號 11 樓]
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🌏 ECCT – Web link

The ECCT (Ouzhou zai Tai shangwu xiehui 歐洲在台商務協會) was established on Jan. 26, 1988 as European Chamber of Commerce in Taipei. The current English name was adopted on Feb. 26, 2013, the Chinese name was never changed. The organizational structure of the ECCT includes a secretariat, a board of directors and a board of supervisors.

ECCT chairpersons

Tenure Name Tenure Name
1988–1989 John Brinsden 2003–2005 Dirk Sänger
1990 Alex Mackinnon 2006–2007 Ralph Scheller
1991 Jürgen John 2008–2009 Philippe Pellegrin
1992 Ian Hendrie 2009, 2010 Peter Weiss
1993 Olivier Moore 2010 Nick Winsor
1994–1995 John Hollows 2011–2012 Chris James
1996–1997 Don Birch 2013–2014 Giuseppe Izzo
1998 Richard Tangye 2015–2016 Bernd Barkey
1999–2000 Paul Scholten 2017–2019 Håkan Cervell
2001–2002 Fabrice de Murat 2019–2020 Giuseppe Izzo
2002 Paul Zeven 2021— H. Henry Chang 張瀚書
2003 Hugh Inman

Note: Peter Weiss served as Vice Chairman in 2009 and 2010 but the sitting Chairmen in both years (Philippe Pellegrin in 2009 and Nick Winsor in 2010) resigned during their terms and Peter Weiss stepped in to take over as chairman from November–December 2009 and from August–December 2010 to serve out the remainder of the chairmen's terms.

ECCT CEOs

Tenure Name Tenure Name
1988 Stefan Missinne 1995–2002 Theo Stiftl
1989–1991 Barnaby Powell 2002–2009 Guy Wittich
1991–1993 Bruce Stewart 2009— Freddie Höglund
1993–1997 Dirk van der Kamp

Please note that Stefan Missinne, Barnaby Powell and Dirk van der Kamp used the title Secretary General, Bruce Stewart used the title Executive Manager. The title CEO for the head of the ECCT secretariat was first used by Theo Stiftl.

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Embassy of the ROC (Taiwan) to the Holy See

Embassy of the ROC (Taiwan) to the Holy See /
Ambasciata della Repubblica di Cina (Taiwan) presso la Santa Sede
中華民國駐教廷大使館
Via della Conciliazione 4/D, 00193 Rome, Italy
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🌏 Embassy of the ROC (Taiwan) to the Holy See – Web link
Description: Nologo07

Official relations between the ROC and the Holy See date back to July 1942, and on the non-diplomatic level an apostolic delegation had been stationed in China since 1922. In June 1959 the status of the ROC's legation (gongshiguan 公使館) was upgraded to embassy (dashiguan 大使館). After the Chinese Communists seized power on the mainland in 1949, the PRC expelled ambassador Antonio Riberi on Sept. 4, 1951 and cut ties with the Vatican. The Holy See subsequently resumed relations with the ROC government on Taiwan.

ROC ambassadors to the Holy See

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
1/1943—9/1946Hsieh Shou-kang 謝壽康1897-1973Jiangxi
9/1946—7/1949Wu Ching-hsiung 吳經熊1899-1986Zhejiang
7/1949—10/1954 @Chu Ying 朱英N/AN/A
10/1954—9/1966Hsieh Shou-kang (second time)
9/1966—3/1969Shen Chang-huan 沈昌煥1913-1998Jiangsu
3/1969—1/1978Chen Chih-mai 陳之邁1908-1978Guangdong
1/1978—4/1991Chow Shu-kai 周書楷1913-1992Hubei
5/1991—5/1993Hoang Sieou-je 黃秀日1936-2010Taiwan
5/1993—8/1996Edward Tzu-yu Wu 吳祖禹1920-2006Zhejiang
8/1996—1/2004Raymond R. M. Tai 戴瑞明b. 1934Zhejiang
1/2004—9/2008Tou Chou-seng 杜筑生b. 1942Guizhou
9/2008—11/2015Larry Yu-yuan Wang 王豫元b. 1947Henan/Jiangsu
11/2015—Matthew S. M. Lee 李世明b. N/AN/A

The Holy See is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic church in Rome and serves as central point of reference for Catholicism and the church worldwide. Apart from the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Taipei (tianzhujiao Taibei zong jiaoqu 天主教台北總教區, 🏁—zong zhujiao 總主教), there are six dioceses (jiaoqu 教區) and one apostolic administration (zongzuo shuliqu 宗座署理區) in the Taiwan area.

  Archdiocese of Taipei (in Latin: Archidioecesis Taipehensis)
  Diocese of Hsinchu (Xinzhu jiaoqu 新竹教區, in Latin: Dioecesis Hsinchuensis)
  Diocese of Hwalien (Hualian jiaoqu 花蓮教區, in Latin: Dioecesis Hvalienensis)
  Diocese of Kaohsiung (Gaoxiong jiaoqu 高雄教區, in Latin: Dioecesis Kaohsiungensis)
  Diocese of Kiayi (Jiayi jiaoqu 嘉義教區, in Latin: Dioecesis Kiayiensis)
  Diocese of Taichung (Taizhong jiaoqu 台中教區, in Latin: Dioecesis Taichungensis)
  Diocese of Tainan (Tainan jiaoqu 台南教區, in Latin: Dioecesis Tainanensis)
  Kinma Apostolic Administration (Jinmen, Mazu zongzuo shuliqu 金門、馬祖宗座署理區)

Archbishops of Taipei since 1952

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
8/1952—12/1959Joseph Kuo Jo-shih 郭若石1906-1995Hebei
12/1959—2/1966Thomas Tien Ken-sin 田耕莘1890-1967Shandong
2/1966—8/1978Stanislaus Lo Kuang 羅光1911-2004Hunan
11/1978—2/1989Matthew Kia Yen-wen 賈彥文b. 1925Hebei
2/1989—1/2004Joseph Ti Kang 狄剛b. 1928Henan
1/2004—11/2007Joseph Cheng Tsai-fa 鄭再發b. 1932Fujian
11/2007—5/2020John Hung Shan-chuan 洪山川b. 1943Taiwan
5/2020—Thomas Chung An-zu 鍾安住b. 1952Taiwan

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Apostolic Nunciature in China / Nuntiatura Apostolica in Sinis

Apostolic Nunciature in China/Nuntiatura Apostolica in Sinis 教廷駐華大使館
1 F., No. 7-1 Lane 265, Heping East Road Sec. 2,
Daan District, Taipei City 10667, Taiwan ROC
[10667 台北市大安區和平東路 2 段 265 巷 7-1 號 1 樓]
Description: Nologo07

The official titles of the Vatican's representatives in the ROC were as follows—apostolic delegates to China (zhu Hua zongzuo daibiao 駐華宗座代表) between 1922 and 1946, apostolic internuncios to China (zhu Hua jiaoting gongshi 駐華教廷公使) between 1946 and 1966, and apostolic nuncios to China (zhu Hua jiaoting dashi 駐華教廷大使) since 1966.

Representatives of the Holy See in the ROC

Tenure Name Native Country Name in Chinese
8/1922—1933Celso Benigno Luigi CostantiniItalyGang Hengyi 剛恆毅
1/1934—1946Mario ZaninItalyCai Ning 蔡寧
7/1946—9/1951Antonio RiberiMonacoLi Peili 黎培理
5/1959—8/1967Giuseppe CaprioItalyGao Liyao 高理耀
8/1967—9/1970Luigi AccogliItalyAi Keyi 艾可儀
10/1970—10/1971Edward Idris CassidyAustraliaGe Xidi 葛錫迪
8/1972—1974Francesco ColasuonnoItalyGao Letian 高樂天
1974–1978Thomas A. WhiteIrelandTao Huaide 陶懷德
7/1978—1986Paolo GiglioMaltaJi Liyou 吉立友
4/1986—1988Piero BiggioItalyBi Qile 畢齊樂
1/1989—1992Adriano BernardiniItalyPei Nade 裴納德
8/1992—1995Juliusz JanuszPolandYou Yashi 尤雅士
4/1995—1999Joseph ChennothIndiaChenade 車納德
9/1999—1/2002Adolfo Tito YllanaPhilippinesYi Fulin 易福霖
1/2002—2003James Patrick GreenUSAGe Linze 格霖澤
2/2003—5/2008Ambrose MadthaIndiaAn Bosi 安博思
5/2008—4/2016Paul Fitzpatrick RussellUSALu Sidao 陸思道
4/2016—8/2019Sladan CosicBiHGao Delong 高德隆
8/2019—2/2022Arnaldo CatalanPhilippinesJia Andao 佳安道
2/2022— @Pavol TalapkaSlovakiaDa Baolu 達保祿

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Taipei Representation in the Federal Republic of Germany

Taipei Representation in the Federal Republic of Germany /
Taipeh Vertretung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland
駐德國臺北代表處
Berlin HQ—Markgrafenstr. 35, 10117 Berlin, Germany;
Hamburg office (Büro Hamburg)—Mittelweg 144/2. OG, 20148 Hamburg, Germany;
Munich office (Büro München)—Leopoldstr. 28 A/V, 80802 München, Germany;
Frankfurt office (Büro Frankfurt am Main)—Friedrichstr. 2-6, 60323 Frankfurt/Main, Germany
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🌏 Taipeh Vertretung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland – Web link
Description: Nologo07

The first office the ROC government set up in West Germany after WWII was the "Freichina-Informationsdienst" (ziyou Zhongguo xinwenshe 自由中國新聞社 ≈ Free China Information Service), established in October 1958 in Bonn and staffed with ROC GIO officials, renamed to "Fernost-Informationen Bonn" (yuandong xinwenshe Boang zongchu 遠東新聞社波昂總處 ≈ Far East Information Bonn HQ) on Dec. 31, 1973.

In addition, on Oct. 20, 1980 the ROC MOFA set up the Vertretung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (zhu Deguo daibiaochu 駐德國代表處 ≈ Representation in Germany) which became the "Taipei Wirtschafts- und Kulturbüro" (zhu Deguo Taibei jingji wenhua daibiaochu 駐德國臺北經濟文化代表處 ≈ Taipei Economic and Cultural Office) on Sept. 23, 1992 with a subordinate department under GIO supervision. That office was renamed to "Taipeh Vertretung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland" (zhu Deguo Taibei daibiaochu 駐德國臺北代表處 ≈ Taipei Representative Office in the Federal Republic of Germany) on July 1, 1997, and it moved from Bonn to Berlin on Oct. 4, 1999.

Today the ROC maintains four offices in Germany—the headquarters in Berlin, plus three branches in Hamburg, Frankfurt/Main, and Munich. The de-facto ambassador of the ROC in Germany uses the official title "Representative of the ROC in Germany" (Zhonghua minguo zhu Deguo daibiao 中華民國駐德國代表).

ROC representatives in Germany after WWII

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
12/1980—10/1993Sampson C. Shen 沈錡1917-2004Zhejiang
10/1993—4/2001Charles King Shu-chi 金樹基b. 1936Zhejiang
6/2001—5/2005Hu Wei-jen 胡為真b. 1947Jiangsu/Zhejiang
5/2005—6/2007Shieh Jhy-wey 謝志偉b. 1955Taiwan
9/2007—9/2008Yu Ching 尤清b. 1942Taiwan
9/2008—3/2013Wei Wu-lien 魏武煉b. 1942Taiwan
6/2013—7/2016Agnes Chen 陳華玉b. 1952N/A
8/2016—Shieh Jhy-wey (second time)

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Sino-German Cultural and Economic Association (CDKWV)

Chinese-German Culture and Business Association /
Chinesisch-deutscher Kultur- und Wirtschaftsverband (CDKWV)
中德文化經濟協會
8 F., No. 24 Nanjing East Road Sec. 1,
Zhongshan District, Taipei City 10444, Taiwan ROC
[10444 台北巿中山區南京東路 1 段 24 號 8 樓]
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🌏 CDKWV – Web link

The oldest organization in Taiwan/ROC focused on the relations with Germany is the "Chinesisch-Deutscher Kultur- und Wirtschaftsverband" (Zhong De wenhua jingji xiehui 中德文化經濟協會, abbrev. CDKWV, ≈ Sino-German Cultural and Economic Association, 🏁—lishizhang 理事長) which was established in 1933. While its leadership was recruited from high-ranking ROC politicians in the first decades, it gradually lost its significance following the socio-political changes in Taiwan since the 1980s. Today its main area of activities is educational exchange between Taiwan and Germany.

CDKWV presidents

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
1933–1963Chu Chia-hwa 朱家驊1893-1963Zhejiang
1963–1986Wego Chiang 蔣緯國1916-1997<Japan>
1986–1989 @Yang Gi-tzeng 楊繼曾1898-1992Zhejiang
8/1987—1/1993Pan Shu-jen 潘樹人1924-1992Jiangxi
1/1993—1997Shih Chi-yang 施啟揚1935-2019Taiwan
1997–2001Peter Wang Jen-huong 王仁宏b. 1939Taiwan
2001–2005Stephan Hsu 許智偉b. 1931Shanghai
2005–2006Wei Kwang-cheng 韋光正N/AN/A
2006–2012Charlotte Han 韓宜靜N/AN/A
2013—12/2020Lee Hsien-feng 李顯峰b. 1953N/A
12/2020—Franz Chen 陳立恒b. 1951N/A

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German Cultural Center Taipei / Goethe Institute Taipei

Goethe-Institut Taipei 台北歌德學院
12 F., No. 20 Heping West Road Sec. 1,
Zhongzheng District, Taipei City 10078, Taiwan ROC
[10078 台北市中正區和平西路 1 段 20 號 12 樓]
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🌏 Goethe Institute Taipei – Web link

The "Deutsches Kulturzentrum Taipei" (Deguo wenhua zhongxin 德國文化中心, ≈ German Cultural Center Taipei, 🏁—zhuren 主任), established in June 1963, is operated by the Munich-based renowned Goethe Institute. Initially sponsored by West Germany's government, it was the first German semi-official representation in the ROC after the end of WWII, but most of its consular functions were taken over by the German Trade Office (GTO) after the latter's establishment in 1981. It was renamed "Goethe-Institut Taipei" (Taibei gede xueyuan 台北歌德學院, 🏁—yuanzhang 院長) in June 2009.

Goethe Institute Taipei directors

Tenure (started) Name Born/Died Name in Chinese
6/1963Joachim WiercimokN/AN/A
1967–1969F. A. SchulzN/AN/A
1970–1974Helmut SchmidN/AN/A
1975–1977M. KuderN/AN/A
1978–1981W. KochN/AN/A
1982–1985Martin EnglertN/AN/A
1986–1992Ulrich GründlerN/AN/A
9/1992—6/1998Heidegert A. Hoeschb. 1942He Haide 賀海德
1998–2002Sabine Hagemann-Ünlüsoyb. 1944Xiagemei 夏格梅
9/2002—5/2009Jürgen Gerbigb. 1944Ge Han 葛漢
6/2009—8/2014Markus Wernhardb. 1961Wei Song 魏松
8/2014—1/2016Clemens TreterN/AKe Li 柯理
2/2016—9/2020Jens RöslerN/ALuo Yan 羅岩
9/2020—Theresa Hümmerb. N/AYu Desha 余德莎

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German Trade Office (GTO)

German Trade Office (GTO) / Deutsches Wirtschaftsbüro 德國經濟辦事處
19-9 F., No. 333 Keelung Road Sec. 1 (International Trade Building),
Xinyi District, Taipei City 11012, Taiwan ROC
[11012 台北市信義區基隆路 1 段 333 號 19 樓之 9(國際貿易大樓)]
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🌏 GTO – Web link

The "Deutsches Wirtschaftsbüro" (Deguo jingji banshichu 德國經濟辦事處 = German Trade Office, 🏁—chuzhang 處長) was established on May 29, 1981 as a branch of the Deutsche Außenhandelskammer (≈ German Chambers of Commerce Abroad). Its consular functions were taken over by the German Institute Taipei in 2000.

GTO executive directors

Tenure (started) Name Born/Died Name in Chinese
5/1981Peter LemkeN/ALunkaimo 倫楷模
9/1986Jürgen FranzenN/AFan Yude 范育德
5/1994—3/1995Gert Rabbow N/A Ruibaode 芮寶德
3/1995—6/2000Gunther Tetzner N/A Daizile 戴茲勒
6/2000Axel Bartkusb. 1963Zeng Yaode 曾耀德
7/2004Christine MalprichtN/AMofei 莫斐
1/2008Roland WeinN/AWei Nolang 魏諾朗
11/2015Andreas Hergenrötherb. 1969He Ande 賀安德
4/2017—Axel Limbergb. 1968Linbaike 林百科

Please note that Axel Bartkus also used the Chinese name Bai Yashi 白雅仕.

Between 1994 and 2000 the GTO had a dual leadership. In addition to the GTO director of economic affairs (“Direktor für Wirtschaftsfragen” in German) who would be a delegate of the German Association for Industry and Trade (Deutscher Industrie- und Handelstag, abbrev. DIHT), consular and political tasks were handled by an official dispatched by Germany’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Auswärtiges Amt, abbrev. AA) who would use the title director general (“Generaldirektor” in German); the Chinese titles of the two leaders were identical. The two AA officials stationed at the GTO between 1994 and 2000 are listed below.

Tenure started Name Born/Died Name in Chinese
5/1994Klaus M. Franke N/A Falanke 法蘭克
8/1997Hilmar Kaht b. 1941Kede 柯德 / Kate 卡特

The DIHT was renamed Deutscher Industrie- und Handelskammertag (abbrev. DIHK, in English ≈ German Association for Industry and Chambers of Commerce) on July 1, 2001.

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German Institute Taipei

German Institute Taipei / Deutsches Institut Taipei 德國在台協會
33 F., No. 7 Xinyi Road Sec. 5 (Taipei 101),
Xinyi District, Taipei City 11049, Taiwan ROC
[11049 台北市信義區信義路 5 段 7 號 33 樓(台北一0一)]
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🌏 Deutsches Institut Taipei – Web link

The "Deutsches Institut Taipei" (Deguo zai Tai xiehui 德國在台協會, ≈ German Institute Taipei, 🏁—chuzhang 處長) is the semi-official diplomatic representation of the Federal Republic of Germany in the ROC. It was established on Feb. 1, 2000 and is headed by a trained diplomat.

German Institute Taipei director-generals

Tenure Name Born/Died Name in Chinese
2/2000—6/2000Hilmar Kahtb. 1941Kede 柯德 / Kate 卡特
8/2000—8/2002Klaus Rupprechtb. 1942Lubohe 陸柏赫
8/2002—7/2005Ulrich Dreesenb. 1952Daisen 戴森
8/2005—6/2008Detlef Boldtb. 1943Bo Dafu 博達夫
8/2008—6/2011Birgitt Oryb. 1964Ourui 歐芮
9/2011—5/2014Michael Zickerickb. 1948Jikeli 紀克禮
7/2014—7/2018Martin Ebertsb. 1957Oubozhe 歐博哲
7/2018—7/2021Thomas Prinzb. 1959Wangzi Tao 王子陶
7/2021—Jörg Polsterb. 1962Xu Youge 許佑格

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Representative Office in Moscow for the TMECCC

Representative Office in Moscow for the TMECCC /
Представительство в Москве Тайбэйско-Московской координационной комиссии по экономическому и культурному сотрудничеству
台北莫斯科經濟文化協調委員會駐莫斯科代表處
24/2 Tverskaya St., Korpus 1, Gate 4, 4th floor;
Moscow 125009, Russian Federation
[Российская Федерация, Москва 125009,
Улица Тверская, дом 24/2, корпус 1, подъезд 4, третий этаж
]
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🌏 Representative Office in Moscow for the TMECCC – Web link
Description: Nologo07

After the ROC severed ties with the USSR on Oct. 3, 1949, diplomatic relations with the Soviets were never resumed. Following the dissolution of the USSR on Dec. 26, 1991, the president of the Russian Federation Boris N. Yeltsin signed a decree "On Relations Between the Russian Federation and Taiwan" (Eluosi lianbang yu Taiwan guanxi tiaoli 俄羅斯聯邦與台灣關係條例, in Cyrillic: Об отношениях между Российской Федерацией и Тайванем) on Sept. 15, 1992. The bilateral relations are handled by two organizations—the Taipei-Moscow Economic and Cultural Coordination Commission (Taibei Mosike jingji wenhua hezuo xietiao weiyuanhui 台北莫斯科經濟文化合作協調委員會, abbrev. beimoxie 北莫協 in Chinese and TMECCC in English, name in Cyrillic: Тайбэйско-Московская координационная комиссия по экономическому и культурному сотрудничеству) run by the ROC, and the Moscow-Taipei Economic and Cultural Coordination Commission (Mosike Taibei jingji wenhua hezuo xietiao weiyuanhui 莫斯科台北經濟文化合作協調委員會, abbrev. mobeixie 莫北協 in Chinese and MTECCC in English, name in Cyrillic: Московско-Тайбэйская координационная комиссия по экономическому и культурному сотрудничеству, abbrev. MTK) run by the Russian Federation; the presidential instruction for the establishment of MTECCC was issued on Sept. 2, 1992. The Representative Office in Moscow for the TMECCC was formally established on July 12, 1993, the Representative Office in Taipei for the MTECCC was set up on Dec. 15, 1996.

ROC representatives in the Russian Federation since 1993

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
10/1993—12/1997Lo Loon 羅龍b. 1928Jiangsu
12/1997—4/2001James Chang Wen-chung 張文中b. 1935Sichuan
4/2001—9/2002Charles King Shu-chi 金樹基b. 1936Zhejiang
11/2002—2/2009Chen Jung-chieh 陳榮傑b. 1943Taiwan
5/2009—9/2015Antonio C. S. Chen 陳俊賢b. 1954Taiwan
9/2015—5/2017David C. Y. Wang 王建業b. 1953Taiwan
5/2017—4/2018Kelly W. Hsieh 謝武樵b. 1955Taiwan
2018—Keng Chung-yung 耿中庸b. N/AN/A

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Representative Office in Taipei for the MTECCC

Representative Office in Taipei for the MTECCC /
Представительство Московско-Тайбэйской координационной комиссии по экономическому и культурному сотрудничеству в Тайбэе
莫斯科台北經濟文化協調委員會駐台北代表處
9 F., No. 2 Xinyi Road Sec. 5,
Xinyi District, Taipei City 11049, Taiwan ROC
[11049 台北市信義區信義路 5 段 2 號 9 樓]
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🌏 Representative Office in Taipei for the MTECCC – Web link
Description: Nologo07

Representatives of the Russian Federation in the ROC since 1996

No. Tenure Name Born/Died Name in Chinese
1st1996–2001Victor I. Trifonovb. 1937Telifunuofu 特里福諾夫
2nd2001–2005Vladislav N. Verchenkob. 1944Wei Zhekang 韋哲康
3rd2005–2009Sergey N. Gubarevb. 1955Gubofu 古博夫
4th2009–2015Vasily N. Dobrovolskyb. 1950Duwoqi 杜沃齊
5th2016–2017Dmitrii A. Polianskiib. 1971Ji Boliang 紀柏梁
6th2017–2018 @Vladislav I. KuznetsovN/ATie Zhirong 鐵之榮
7th2018–2021Sergey V. Petrovb. 1962Bai Lexian 白樂賢
8th11/2021—Yury A. Metelevb. 1961Meijieliaofu 梅杰廖夫

Names in Cyrillic— 1: Виктор Иванович Трифонов, 2: Владислав Николаевич Верченко, 3: Сергей Николаевич Губарев, 4: Василий Николаевич Добровольский, 5: Дмитрий Алексеевич Полянский, 6: Владислав Игоревич Кузнецов, 7: Сергей Владимирович Петров, 8: Юрий Анатольевич Метелев.

Please note that as of July 30, 2021 the MOFA website listed Mr Vladimir Konovalov (in Cyrillic: Владимир Юрьевич Коновалов, in Chinese: Kang Shiquan 康世權) as acting representative, while at the same time the website of the Representative Office in Taipei for the MTECCC still listed Mr Petrov as representative.

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The ROC and selected other countries

Ties between the ROC and Singapore

Singapore has maintained close and friendly relations with the ROC since it gained independence on Aug. 9, 1965, although the two sides never formally established diplomatic ties. Even when Singapore took up diplomatic relations with the PRC on Oct. 3, 1990, the relationship with Taiwan remained cordial. According to the ROC MOFA, Lee Kuan Yew 李光耀 (1923-2015)—the founding father of the Republic of Singapore and its prime minister from 1959 to 1990—paid a total of 25 visits to Taiwan during his 31 years in office and after he retired. Singapore has strived to keep a neutral stance in the cross-strait conflict and worked with both sides to reduce tensions, but its administration is also known for opposing Taiwan independence. Disagreements concerning that point in 2004 led to a noteworthy disgruntlement between Singapore and ROC government which was at that time led by the DPP.

The unique nature of Singapore's relationship with the ROC and the PRC is at least partly due to Singapore's demographic structure (more than 70 percent of its population are of Chinese descent), and it is highlighted by the fact that the first SEF-ARATS summit in 1993 as well as the meeting between ROC President Ma Ying-jeou and PRC President Xi Jinping in 2016 were staged in Singapore.

One special aspect of the relations between the ROC and Singapore is military cooperation. Due to space restraints and limited airspace (the city state has an area of 710 km² only), the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) need to conduct much of its training overseas. In April 1975, ROC Premier Chiang Ching-kuo and Lee Kuan Yew forged an agreement dubbed "Project Starlight" (xingguang jihua 星光計畫) which allowed the SAF using military bases in Taiwan for training exercises, an arrangement that is still in force even after Singapore and the PRC on Oct. 20, 2019 signed an Agreement on Defense Exchanges and Security Cooperation (guofang jiaoliu yu anquan hezuo xieding 國防交流與安全合作協定).

Taipei Representative Office in Singapore

Taipei Representative Office in Singapore 駐新加坡台北代表處
No. 460 Alexandra Road, #23-00 PSA Building, Singapore 119963
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🌏 Taipei Representative Office in Singapore – Web link
Description: Nologo07

The Taipei Representative Office in Singapore (zhu Xinjiapo Taibei daibiaochu 駐新加坡台北代表處, 🏁—dashi 大使) was established on March 6, 1969 as Trade Mission of the Republic of China (Zhonghua minguo zhu Xinjiapo shangwu daibiaotuan 中華民國駐新加坡商務代表團) and renamed on Sept. 30, 1990. Before Sept. 1, 2012 the representative used the Chinese title daibiao 代表.

Representatives of the Taipei Representative Office in Singapore

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
1969–1980Peter B. T. Chang 張彼德b. 1912, d. N/AGuangdong
1980—8/1988Hu Shing 胡炘1914-2002Zhejiang
12/1988—1990Chiang Hsiao-wu 蔣孝武1945-1991Chongqing/Zhejiang
1990–1994Chen Yu-chu 陳毓駒b. 1932Hubei
1994–1996Cheyne J. Y. Chiu 邱進益b. 1936Jiangsu
1997–2003Ou-yang Jui-hsiung 歐陽瑞雄b. 1940Taiwan
2003–2005Roy Y. Y. Wu 烏元彥b. 1943Yunnan
2005—7/2007Hu Wei-jen 胡為真b. 1947Zhejiang/Jiangsu
9/2007—9/2008Kuo Shih-nan 郭時南b. 1952Taiwan
1/2009—5/2012Vanessa Shih 史亞平b. 1962Taiwan
5/2012—7/2015Hsieh Fa-da 謝發達b. 1950Taiwan
7/2015—5/2016Jacob Ta-tung Chang 張大同b. 1951Taiwan
8/2016 XAntonio Chiang 江春男b. 1944Taiwan
11/2016—Francis Liang 梁國新b. 1951Taiwan

Singapore Trade Office in Taipei

Singapore Trade Office in Taipei 新加坡駐臺北商務辦事處
9 F., No. 85 Ren'ai Road Sec. 4,
Daan District, Taipei City 10688, Taiwan ROC
[10688 台北市大安區仁愛路 4 段 85 號 9 樓]
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🌏 Singapore Trade Office in Taipei – Web link
Description: Nologo07

The Singapore Trade Office in Taipei (Xinjiapo zhu Taibei shangwu banshichu 新加坡駐臺北商務辦事處, 🏁—daibiao 代表) was established in June 1979 as the Trade Representative Office (maoyi daibiao bangongshi 貿易代表辦公室) and renamed in 1990.

Representatives of the Singapore Trade Office in Taipei

Tenure Name [Hanyu Pinyin] Born/Died
1979–1988William CHENG 鄭維廉 [Zheng Weilian]1928-2010
6/1988—1991Alphonsus TAN Chok Kian 陳祝強 [Chen Zhuqiang]1931-2015
5/1991—8/1994CHAI Chong Yii 蔡崇語 [Cai Chongyu]N/A
1/1995—7/1996CHIN Siat Yoon 陳燮榮 [Chen Xierong]b. 1954
7/1996—9/2002Joseph KOH Kok Hong 許國豐 [Xu Guofeng]b. 1948
10/2002—6/2007KER Sin Tze 柯新治 [Ke Xinzhi]b. 1944
7/2007—4/2011Stanley LOH Ka Leung 羅家良 [Luo Jialiang]b. 1971
2011–2015Calvin EU Mun Hoo 于文豪 [Yu Wenhao]b. 1954
7/2015—1/2020Simon WONG Wie Kuen 黃偉權 [Huang Weiquan]b. 1965
2/2020—YIP Wei Kiat 葉偉傑 [Ye Weijie]b. 1969

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ROC relations with Panama before 2017

Official Sino-Panamanian relations dated back to pre-ROC times when the Qing court approved the establishment of a legation (zong lingshiguan 總領事館) in Panama on Dec. 6, 1909. (At that time the Panama Canal, formally opened on Aug. 15, 1914, was still under construction.) Both sides raised the status of their legations to embassies on May 1, 1954.

On June 12, 2017 Panamanian President Juan Carlos Varela announced that Panama had decided to switch diplomatic recognition from Taipei to Beijing. The following day the ROC MOFA declared the official ties between the two countries terminated. Both countries closed their embassies on July 12, 2017, and so far neither of them have set up trade offices as unofficial representations instead yet.

Embassy of the ROC in Panama

Embassy of the ROC in the Republic of Panama / Embajada de la República de China (Taiwán) en Panamá 中華民國駐巴拿馬共和國大使館
Piso 10, Torre Banistmo, Avenida Samuel Lewis,
Obarrio, Panamá, República de Panamá
Description: Nologo07

Ambassadors of the ROC in Panama 1954–2017

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
1954–1956Yu Wang-teh 于望德b. 1910, d. N/AShaanxi
9/1956—7/1959Tuan Mao-lan 段茂瀾1899-1980Anhui
7/1959—11/1964Ma Hsin-yeh 馬星野1909-1991Zhejiang
11/1964—2/1975Huang Jen-lin 黃仁霖1901-1983Jiangxi
2/1975—6/1987Pablo S. K. Tseng 曾憲揆1926-1987Hubei
6/1987—12/1990Soong Chang-chih 宋長志1916-2002Liaoning
1991–1996Su Pingchao 蘇秉照b. 1930Taiwan
6/1996—10/1998Jason Yuan 袁健生b. 1942Guizhou
10/1998—12/2000Lan Chih-min 藍智民b. 1939Fujian
12/2000—2004David C. Y. Hu 胡正堯b. 1947Taiwan
2004–2008Hou Ping-fu 侯平福b. 1946Taiwan
10/2008—2012Simon Ko Shen-yeaw 柯森耀b. 1953Taiwan
1/2012—10/2015Diego L. Chou 周麟b. 1958Taiwan
10/2015—4/2017Liu Der-li 劉德立b. 1958N/A
5/2017—6/2017Miguel Tsao 曹立傑N/AN/A

Panama's embassy in the ROC

Embassy of the Republic of Panama in the ROC / Embajada de Panamá en República de China 巴拿馬共和國駐華大使館
6 F., No. 111 Songjiang Road,
Zhongshan District, Taipei City 10486, Taiwan ROC
[10486 台北市中山區松江路 111 號 6 樓]
Description: Nologo07

Panamanian ambassadors in the ROC 1954–2017

Tenure Name Name in Chinese
1954–1957Mario E. GuillenZhilan 芝蘭
1957–1960Angel Vega MéndezWeijia 韋嘉
1960–1963Armando Moreno GuillenMolainuo 莫萊諾
1963–1965Sofia Karicas ManfredoKelijia 柯理嘉
1965–1967Adolfo J. ArrochaAiluojia 艾羅嘉
1967–1969Caesar A. Guillen MarcucciQiying 祁英
1969–1971Rafael RichardLijiade 李嘉德
1971–1979Ricardo E. Chiari de LeonJiali 賈理
1979–1983Ramón Siero MurgasXiailuo 席艾洛
1984–1986Jose Maria Serrano TejeiraXienanluo 謝南洛
1986–1990Aurelio Chu YiZhu Liji 朱立基
1990–1994Carlos Yap ChongYe Lusheng 葉祿生
1994–1995Isaac Hanono MissriHanuonuo 哈諾諾
5/1995—10/1999Carlos Alberto Mendoza ChatagnonMengdaosa 孟道撒
11/1999—9/2004Jose Antonio Dominguez AlvarezDumingge 杜明格
12/2004—7/2009Julio Mock CardenasMoxindu 莫新度
10/2009—12/2011Mario Luis Cucalón D'AnelloGukalong 古卡隆
2/2012—7/2014José Antonio Pérez IranzoPeiruisi 裴瑞斯
11/2014—4/2017Alfredo Martiz FuentesMadisi 馬締斯

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