Taiwan Politics Database
www.taiwan-database.net

Executive Yuan (Cabinet)

  1. The Executive Yuan in the Republic of China (Taiwan)
  2. Leadership of the ROC Executive Yuan
  3. Past and present Ministers without Portfolio in the Executive Yuan
  4. History of the ROC Executive Yuan
  5. A few remarks about the ROC before 1928

Note: This page provides a general introduction of the Executive Yuan, its structure and leadership, history, and lists all ministers without portfolio since 1948. For details about the ministries and cabinet agencies under the ROC Executive Yuan, please refer to the page Ministries and cabinet agencies of this website. Information and data about semi-official organizations, agencies involved in handling cross-Strait relations, state-owned enterprises and the ROC military are presented on the page Other central government agencies.

TOP   HOME

===== ===== ===== ===== =====

◆ The Executive Yuan in the Republic of China (Taiwan)

++++++++++   TOP   HOME    [next chapter]   ++++++++++


ROC Executive Yuan 行政院
No. 1 Zhongxiao East Road Sec. 1, Zhongzheng District,
Taipei City 10058, Taiwan ROC
[10058 台北市中正區忠孝東路 1 段 1 號]
————————————
🌏 Executive Yuan – Web link
Older logo (before July 2014) Description: Exe-01d

The Executive Yuan, formally established on Oct. 25, 1928, is the authoritative body of the ROC central government tasked with implementing the policies devised by the ROC president. The president also appoints the head of the Executive Yuan (xingzhengyuan yuanzhang 行政院院長), a position which in English is often referred to as "Premier". A shorter Chinese term for Premier often used in media reports is kui 揆 or gekui 閣揆; accordingly, the vice premier can also be referred to in Chinese as fukui 副揆 or fugekui 副閣揆.

The functions, structure and leadership of today's Executive Yuan are introduced in the paragraphs directly below, the history and development since its founding are outlined further below (click here). The chapter at the bottom of this page provides a depiction of the ROC central government between the founding of the ROC in 1912 and the establishment of the Executive Yuan (click here).

The site of the Executive Yuan was designated a "historical site of injustice" (buyi yizhi 不義遺址) on Feb. 26, 2024 to commemorate the victims killed during the 228 Incident of 1947.

TOP   HOME    [◆ Overview Executive Yuan]


Different layers of government

Official ROC publications explaining the Executive Yuan often refer to so-called "cabinet-level agencies". On the top of the ROC's central government level, three categories of agencies can be formally distinguished:
 ◉ level 1 central agencies (zhongyang yiji jiguan 中央一級機關),
 ◉ level 2 central agencies (zhongyang erji jiguan 中央二級機關), and
 ◉ level 3 central agencies (zhongyang sanji jiguan 中央三級機關).
The first category applies to the highest government layer and comprises the Presidential Office, the National Security Council and the Five Yuan. The second level includes what is usually dubbed "cabinet-level agencies" in English, i. e. organizations subordinate to level 1 central agencies. The third category consists of sub-organizations of the second category, e. g. distinct agencies inside a ministry like the Bureau of Consular Affairs (waijiaobu lingshi shiwuju 外交部領事事務局, abbrev. BOCA) et al. in the MOFA or the Tourism Administration (jiaotongbu guan'guangshu 交通部觀光署) in the MOTC.

The ROC Executive Yuan comprises internal departments, affiliated committees and organizations, and the Executive Yuan Council (= the cabinet). The leadership of the Executive Yuan consists of the premier, other senior positions are the vice premier, the secretary-general, the spokesperson as well as the ministers without portfolio.

TOP   HOME    [◆ Overview Executive Yuan]    [Government layers]


Departments in the Executive Yuan

The official website of the Executive Yuan contains charts explaining its internal organizational structure. The departments within the Executive Yuan are subdivided into three categories:
 ◉ business units (yewu danwei 業務單位),
 ◉ auxiliary units (fuzhu danwei輔助單位), and
 ◉ permanent task groups (changshexing renwu bianzu 常設性任務編組).

Business units

 Department of Coordination and Planning (zonghe yewuchu 綜合業務處)
 Department of the Interior, Health and Welfare, and Labor (neizheng weifu laodongchu 內政衛福勞動處)
 Department of Foreign Affairs, National Defense and Justice (waijiao guofang fawuchu 外交國防法務處)
 Department of Transportation, Environment and Natural Resources (jiaotong huanjing ziyuanchu 交通環境資源處)
 Department of Fiscal, Statistical and Financial Affairs (caizheng zhuji jinrongchu 財政主計金融處)
 Department of Economics, Energy and Agriculture (jingji nengyuan nongyechu 經濟能源農業處)
 Department of Education, Science and Culture (jiaoyu kexue wenhuachu 教育科學文化處)
 Department of Consumer Protection (xiaofeizhe baohuchu 消費者保護處)
 Department of Gender Equality (xingbie pingdengchu 性別平等處)
 Department of Information Services (xinwen chuanbochu 新聞傳播處)
 Department of Cyber Security (zitong anquanchu 資通安全處, abbrev. zianchu 資安處)
 Department of Human Rights and Transitional Justice (renquan ji zhuanxing zhengyichu 人權及轉型正義處)
 Office of Homeland Security (guotu anquan bangongshi 國土安全辦公室), established on Aug. 31, 2007 as successor to the Counterterrorism Office (fan kongbu xingdong guankong bangongshi 反恐怖行動管控辦公室)
 Office of Disaster Management (zaihai fangjiu bangongshi 災害防救辦公室)
 Legal Affairs Committee (faguihui 法規會)

TOP   HOME    [◆ Overview Executive Yuan]    [EY departments]

Auxiliary units

 Department of Public Relations (gonggong guanxichu 公共關係處)
 Secretariat (mishuchu 秘書處)
 Department of Personnel (renshichu 人事處)
 Department of Civil Service Ethics (zhengfengchu 政風處)
 Department of Accounting and Statistics (zhujichu 主計處)
 Department of Information Management (zixunchu 資訊處)

TOP   HOME    [◆ Overview Executive Yuan]    [EY departments]

Permanent task groups

 Office of Science and Technology (keji huibao bangongshi 科技會報辦公室)
 Office of Food Safety/OFS [more details see further below under FOOD SAFETY]
 Central Taiwan Joint Services Center (zhongbu lianhe fuwu zhongxin 中部聯合服務中心)
 Southern Taiwan Joint Services Center (nanbu lianhe fuwu zhongxin 南部聯合服務中心)
 Eastern Taiwan Joint Services Center (dongbu lianhe fuwu zhongxin 東部聯合服務中心)
 Yunlin-Chiayi-Tainan Joint Services Center (Yun Jia Nan qu lianhe fuwu zhongxin 雲嘉南區聯合服務中心)

Seven more new agencies under the Executive Yuan were added by the Tsai Ing-wen administration:

 Energy and Carbon Emission Reductions Office (nengyuan jiantan bangongshi 能源減碳辦公室), first convened on Aug. 16, 2016
Ill-gotten Party Assets Settlement Committee (budang dangchan chuli weiyuanhui 不當黨產處理委員會, abbrev. dangchanhui黨產會 in Chinese and CIPAS in English), established on Aug. 31, 2016
Office of Trade Negotiations (xingzhengyuan jingmao tanpan bangongshi 行政院經貿談判辦公室, abbrev. OTN), established on Sept. 20, 2016
Kinmen-Matsu Joint Services Center (xingzhengyuan Jin Ma lianhe fuwu zhongxin 行政院金馬聯合服務中心), established on Jan. 17, 2017
 Anti-Money Laundering Office (xingzhengyuan xiqian fangzhi bangongshi 行政院洗錢防制辦公室, abbrev. AMLO), established on March 16, 2017
Transitional Justice Commission (cujin zhuanxing zhengyi weiyuanhui 促進轉型正義委員會, abbrev. cuzhuanhui 促轉會 in Chinese and TJC in English), formally set up on May 31, 2018 and abolished on May 31, 2022
 Anti-Fraud Office (dazha bangongshi 打詐辦公室), established on May 31, 2023

TOP   HOME    [◆ Overview Executive Yuan]    [EY departments]


Other committees and organizations under the Executive Yuan

Other organizations under the Executive Yuan that do not enjoy the status of a ministry include the National Security Bureau (NSB) and the Board of Science and Technology (BOST), as well as the following:

 Referendum Review Committee (xingzhengyuan gongtou shenyi weiyuanhui 行政院公投審議委員會 or xingzhengyuan gongmin toupiao shenyi weiyuanhui 行政院公民投票審議委員會, abbrev. gongshenhui 公審會 in Chinese and RRC in English)
 Petitions and Appeals Committee (xingzhengyuan suyuan shenyi weiyuanhui 行政院訴願審議委員會, abbrev. sushenhui 訴審會)
 Legal Affairs Committee (xingzhengyuan fagui weiyuanhui 行政院法規委員會)
 Gender Equality Committee (xingzhengyuan xingbie pingdenghui 行政院性別平等會, abbrev. GEC)
 National Information and Communications Security Taskforce (xingzhengyuan guojia zitong anquan huibao 行政院國家資通安全會報, abbrev. NICST) and its subordinate National Center for Cyber Security Technology (guojia zitong anquan huibao jishu fuwu zhongxin 國家資通安全會報技術服務中心, abbrev. NCCST)
 National Information and Communications Initiative Committee (xingzhengyuan guojia zixun tongxin fazhan tuidong xiaozu 行政院國家資訊通信發展推動小組, abbrev. NICI)
 National Development Fund, Executive Yuan (xingzhengyuan guojia fazhan jijin guanlihui 行政院國家發展基金管理會, abbrev. guofa jijin 國發基金 in Chinese and NDF in English)
 Sustainable Development Committee (xingzhengyuan guojia yongxu fazhan weiyuanhui 行政院國家永續發展委員會)
 Commission for Social Welfare Advancement (xingzhengyuan shehui fuli tuidong weiyuanhui 行政院社會福利推動委員會)
 Consumer Protection Committee (xiaofeizhe baohuhui 消費者保護會)
 Central Integrity Committee (zhongyang lianzheng weiyuanhui 中央廉政委員會)
 Human Rights Task Force (xingzhengyuan renquan baozhang tuidong xiaozu 行政院人權保障推動小組)
 Task Force for Maritime Affairs (xingzhengyuan haiyang shiwu tuidong xiaozu 行政院海洋事務推動小組)
 International Living Environment Promotion Committee (xingzhengyuan yingzao guoji shenghuo huanjing tuidong xiaozu 行政院營造國際生活環境推動小組)
 New Immigrants Affairs Coordination Task Force (xingzhengyuan xinzhumin shiwu xietiao huibao 行政院新住民事務協調會報)

Disaster prevention—The original National Disaster Prevention and Protection Commission (xingzhengyuan zaihai fangjiu weiyuanhui 行政院災害防救委員會, abbrev. NDPPC) was transformed into the Central Disaster Prevention and Response Council (zhongyang zaihai fangjiu huibao 中央災害防救會報, abbrev. CDPRC) which maintains close contact and coordinates with other relevant organizations in the sector—the National Rescue Command Center (xingzhengyuan guojia soujiu zhihui zhongxin 行政院國家搜救指揮中心), the Disaster Prevention and Protection Experts Consultation Committee (xingzhengyuan zaihai fangjiu zhuanjia zixun weiyuanhui 行政院災害防救專家諮詢委員會), the Central Disaster Prevention and Protection Commission (zhongyang zaihai fangjiu weiyuanhui 中央災害防救委員會), and the Central Emergency Operation Center (zhongyang zaihai yingbian zhongxin 中央災害應變中心, abbrev. CEOC) under the MOI NFA.

Food safety—On June 1, 2009 the Board of Food Safety (xingzhengyuan shipin anquan huibao 行政院食品安全會報) under the ROC Executive Yuan was formally established, and it was restructured as Board of Food and Medicine Safety (xingzhengyuan shipin yaopin anquan huibao 行政院食品藥品安全會報) in September 2013. The Executive Yuan announced the establishment of a Food Safety Task Force (shipin anquan tuidong gongzuo xiaozu 食品安全推動工作小組) under the Board of Food and Medicine Safety on July 8, 2014. That agency was upgraded to Office of Food Safety (shipin anquan bangongshi 食品安全辦公室, abbrev. shian bangongshi 食安辦公室 or shian ban 食安辦 in Chinese and OFS in English) on Oct. 22, 2014.

Another organization worth mentioning is the Nuclear-Free Homeland Commission of the ROC Executive Yuan (xingzhengyuan feihe jiayuan tuidong weiyuanhui 行政院非核家園推動委員會), also called "Council for Nuclear Free Homeland" in English. It was established by the DPP-led government and convened for its first meeting on Sept. 13, 2002, but it appears to have become inactive after the KMT's return to power in 2008. Furthermore, a Military Injustice Petitions Committee (xingzhengyuan junshi yuanan shensu weiyuanhui 行政院軍事冤案申訴委員會), established on Aug. 29, 2013 under the Executive Yuan, was disbanded on Aug. 28, 2014.

TOP   HOME    [◆ Overview Executive Yuan]    [EY committees etc.]


The Executive Yuan Council

The chief policymaking organ of the ROC government is the Executive Yuan Council (xingzhengyuan huiyi 行政院會議). It is also commonly referred to as "cabinet" (neige 內閣), although that is not an official term. According to regulations provided by Article 58 of the ROC Constitution (Zhonghua minguo xianfa 中華民國憲法), Article 11 in the Organizational Act of the Executive Yuan (xingzhengyuan zuzhifa 行政院組織法), and Articles 2 and 14 in the Rules of Procedure of the Executive Yuan (xingzhengyuan huiyi yishi guize 行政院會議議事規則), the Executive Yuan Council consists of the premier (xingzhengyuan yuanzhang 行政院院長), vice premier (xingzhengyuan fuyuanzhang 行政院副院長), the ministers without portfolio (zhengwu weiyuan 政務委員), and the heads of all cabinet-level agencies (ge buhui shouzhang 各部會首長). The premier may invite or appoint any relevant person to attend the Executive Yuan meetings.

The table below shows the current members of the Executive Yuan Council.

Office/agency Name of incumbent Born In office since
ROC Premier Chen Chien-jen 陳建仁 1951 1/2023
ROC Vice Premier Cheng Wen-tsan 鄭文燦 1967 1/2023
Secretary-general, Executive Yuan Lee Meng-yen 李孟諺 1966 1/2019
Cabinet Spokesperson Alan Lin 林子倫 1967 5/2023
MOI [內政部] Lin Yu-chang 林右昌 1971 1/2023
MOFA [外交部] Joseph Wu 吳釗燮 1956 2/2018
MND [國防部] Chiu Kuo-cheng 邱國正 1953 2/2021
MOJ [法務部] Tsai Ching-hsiang 蔡清祥 1953 7/2018
MOEA [經濟部] Wang Mei-hua 王美花 1958 6/2020
MOF [財政部] Chuang Tsui-yun 莊翠雲 1957 1/2023
MOTC [交通部] Wang Kwo-tsai 王國材 1959 4/2021
MOE [教育部] Pan Wen-chung 潘文忠 1962 1/2019
MOC [文化部] Shih Che 史哲 1969 1/2023
MOHW [衛福部] Hsueh Jui-yuan 薛瑞元 1955 7/2022
MOL [勞動部] Hsu Ming-chun 許銘春 1966 2/2018
MODA [數位部] Audrey Tang 唐鳳 1981 8/2022
MOA [農葉部] Chen Junne-jih 陳駿季 @ 1958 9/2023
MOENV [環境部] Shieu Fuh-sheng 薛富盛 1959 8/2023
NSTC [國科會] Wu Tsung-tsong 吳政忠 1955 5/2020
MAC [陸委會] Chiu Tai-san 邱太三 1956 2/2021
NDC [國發會] Kung Ming-hsin 龔明鑫 1964 5/2020
OAC [海委會] Kuan Bi-ling 管碧玲 1956 1/2023
FTC [公交會] Lee May 李鎂 N/A 2/2021
PCC [工程會] Wu Tse-cheng 吳澤成 1945 11/2017
NCC [通傳會] Chen Yaw-shyang 陳耀祥 1964 5/2019
FSC [金管會] Huang Tien-mu 黃天牧 1959 5/2020
ROC Central Bank [央行] Yang Chin-long 楊金龍 1953 2/2018
DGBAS [主計總處] Chu Tzer-ming 朱澤民 1949 5/2016
DGPA [人事總處] Su Chun-jung 蘇俊榮 1960 2/2022
CEC [中選會] John C. Y. Lee 李進勇 1951 6/2019
VAC [退輔會] Kent Feng 馮世寬 1945 8/2019
OCAC [僑委會] Hsu Chia-ching 徐佳青 1967 1/2023
HAC [客委會] Yiong Cong-ziin 楊長鎮 1964 5/2020
CIP [原民會] Icyang Parod 1960 5/2016
NPM [故宮] Hsiao Tsung-huang 蕭宗煌 1958 1/2023
Minister without Portfolio Chang Ching-sen 張景森 1959 5/2016
 " Lin Wan-i 林萬億 1952 5/2016
 " John C. C. Deng 鄧振中 1952 8/2016
 " Lo Ping-chen 羅秉成 1962 9/2017
 " Wu Tse-cheng 吳澤成 1945 11/2017
 " Kung Ming-hsin 龔明鑫 1964 1/2019
 " Wu Tsung-tsong 吳政忠 1955 7/2022
 " Chang Tzi-chin 張子敬 1949 8/2023

TOP   HOME    [◆ Overview Executive Yuan]    [EY Council]

===== ===== ===== ===== =====

◆ Leadership of the ROC Executive Yuan

++++++++++   TOP   HOME    [next chapter]   [previous chapter]   ++++++++++


ROC Premiers/Vice Premiers—pre-constitutional period [1928-1948]

Premier Vice Premier
1928, Oct. 28—1930, Sept. 22
Tan Yen-kai 譚延闓 (1880-1930, Hunan)
1928, Oct. 28—1930
Feng Yu-hsiang 馮玉祥 (1882-1948, Anhui)
1930, Nov. 24—1931, Dec. 16
Chiang Kai-shek 蔣介石 (1887-1975, Zhejiang)
1930, Jan. 16—1931, Dec. 16
T. V. Soong 宋子文 (1894-1971, Shanghai)
1932, Jan. 1–29
Sun Fo 孫科 (1891-1973, Guangdong)
1931, Dec. 16—1932, Jan. 29
Chen Ming-shu 陳銘樞 (1888-1965, Guangdong)
1932, Jan. 29—1935, Dec. 16
Wang Ching-wei 汪精衛 (1883-1944, Guangdong)
1932, Jan. 29—1933, Nov. 4
T. V. Soong

1935, Dec. 16—1938, Jan. 1
Chiang Kai-shek (second time)
1933, Nov. 4—1938, Jan. 1
H. H. Kung 孔祥熙 (1881-1967, Shanxi)
 
1938, Jan. 1—1939, Dec. 11
H. H. Kung
1938, Jan. 1—1939, Dec. 11
Chang Chun 張群 (1889-1990, Sichuan)
1939, Dec. 11—1945, June 4
Chiang Kai-shek (third time)
1939, Dec. 11—1945, June 4
H. H. Kung
1945, June 4—1947, March 1
T. V. Soong
1945, June 4—1947, April 21
Wang Wen-ho 翁文灝 (1889-1971, Zhejiang)
1947, March 1—April 23
Chiang Kai-shek (fourth time)
1947, April 23—1948, May 24
Chang Chun
1947, April 23—1948, May 24
Wang Yün-wu 王雲五 (1888-1979, Guangdong/Shanghai)

The period between 1928 and 1948 is sometimes referred to as the "period of political tutelage" (xunzheng shiqi 訓政時期).

TOP   HOME    [◆ Leadership Executive Yuan]    [1928–1948]


ROC Premiers/Vice Premiers—constitutional period [since 1948]

Premier Vice Premier
1948, May 25—Nov. 26
Wang Wen-ho 翁文灝 (1889-1971, Zhejiang)
 

1948, May 31—June 22
Ku Meng-yu 顧孟餘 (1888-1972, Zhejiang)

1948, Nov. 26—1949, March 12
Sun Fo 孫科 (1891-1973, Guangdong)
1948, June 22—Dec. 12
Chang Li-sheng 張厲生 (1901-1971, Hebei)
1948, Dec. 12—1949, March 21
Wu Te-chen 吳鐵城 (1888-1953, Guangdong)
1949, March 12—June 13
Ho Ying-chin 何應欽 (1890-1987, Guizhou)
1949, March 21—June 13
Chia Ching-teh 賈景德 (1880-1960, Shanxi)
1949, June 13—1950, March 10
Yen Hsi-shan 閻錫山 (1883-1960, Shanxi)
1949, June 12—1950, March 10
Chu Chia-hwa 朱家驊 (1893-1963, Zhejiang)
1950, March 10—1954, June 1
Chen Cheng 陳誠 (1898-1965, Zhejiang)
1950, March 12—1954, June 1
Chang Li-sheng
1954, June 1—1958, July 15
O. K. Yui 俞鴻鈞 (1897-1960, Guangdong)
1954, June 1—1958, July 15
Huang Shao-ku 黃少谷 (1901-1996, Hunan)
1958, July 15—1963, Dec. 16
Chen Cheng (second time)
1958, July 15—1963, Dec. 16
Wang Yün-wu 王雲五 (1888-1979, Guangdong/Shanghai)
1963, Dec. 16—1972, June 1
Yen Chia-kan 嚴家淦 (1905-1993, Jiangsu)
1963, Dec. 16—1966, June 1
Yu Ching-tang 余井塘 (1896-1985, Jiangsu)
1966, June 1—1969, July 1
Huang Shao-ku
1969, July 1—1972, June 1
Chiang Ching-kuo 蔣經國 (1910-1988, Zhejiang)
1972, June 1—1978, May 20
Chiang Ching-kuo
1972, June 1—1981, Dec. 1
Hsu Ching-chung 徐慶鐘 (1907-1996, Taiwan)
1978, June 1—1984, May 31
Sun Yun-suan 孫運璿 (1913-2006, Shandong)
1981, Dec. 1—1984, May 31
Chiu Chuang-huan 邱創煥 (1925-2020, Taiwan)
1984, June 1—1989, June 1
Yu Kuo-hwa 俞國華 (1914-2000, Zhejiang)
1984, June 1—1987, May 1
Lin Yang-kang 林洋港 (1927-2013, Taiwan)
1987, May 1—1988, July 22
Lien Chan 連戰 (b. 1936, Shaanxi/Taiwan)

1989, June 1—1990, June 1
Lee Huan 李煥 (1917-2010, Hubei)
1988, July 22—1993, Feb. 27
Shih Chi-yang 施啟揚 (1935-2019, Taiwan)
1990, June 1—1993, Feb. 27
Hao Pei-tsun 郝柏村 (1919-2020, Jiangsu)
1993, Feb. 27—1997, Sept. 1
Lien Chan
1993, Feb. 27—1997, Sept. 1
Hsu Li-teh 徐立德 (b. 1931, Henan)
1997, Sept. 1—2000, May 20
Vincent Siew 蕭萬長 (b. 1939, Taiwan)
1997, Sept. 1—Dec. 11
John Chang 章孝嚴 (b. 1941, Jiangxi)
1997, Dec. 11—2000, May 20
Liu Chao-shiuan 劉兆玄 (b. 1943, Sichuan/Hunan)
2000, May 20—Oct. 6
Frank Tang 唐飛 (b. 1932, Jiangsu)
2000, May 20—July 27
Yu Shyi-kun 游錫堃 (b. 1948, Taiwan)
2000, Aug. 1—Oct. 6
Chang Chun-hsiung 張俊雄 (b. 1938, Taiwan)
2000, Oct. 6—2002, Feb. 1
Chang Chun-hsiung
2000, Oct. 6—2002, Feb. 1
Lai In-jaw 賴英照 (b. 1946, Taiwan)
2002, Feb. 1—2005, Feb. 1
Yu Shyi-kun
2002, Feb. 1—2004, May 20
Lin Hsin-yi 林信義 (b. 1946, Taiwan)
2004, May 20—2005, Feb. 1
Yeh Chu-lan 葉菊蘭 (b. 1949, Taiwan)
2005, Feb. 1—2006, Jan. 25
Frank Hsieh 謝長廷 (b. 1946, Taiwan)
2005, Feb. 21—2006, Jan. 25
Wu Rong-i 吳榮義 (b. 1939, Taiwan)
2006, Jan. 25—2007, May 21
Su Tseng-chang 蘇貞昌 (b. 1947, Taiwan)
2006, Jan. 25—2007, May 21
Tsai Ing-wen 蔡英文 (b. 1956, Taiwan)
2007, May 21—2008, May 20
Chang Chun-hsiung (second time)
2007, May 21—2008, May 6
Chiou I-jen 邱義仁 (b. 1950, Taiwan)
2008, May 20—2009, Sept. 10
Liu Chao-shiuan
2008, May 20—2009, Sept. 10
Paul Chiu 邱正雄 (b. 1942, Taiwan)
2009, Sept. 10—2012, Feb. 6
Wu Den-yih 吳敦義 (b. 1948, Taiwan)
2009, Sept. 10—2010, May 17
Eric Chu 朱立倫 (b. 1961, Taiwan/Zhejiang)
2010, May 17—2012, Feb. 6
Sean C. Chen 陳冲 (b. 1949, Taiwan/Fujian)
2012, Feb. 6—2013, Feb. 18
Sean C. Chen
2012, Feb. 6—2013, Feb. 18
Jiang Yi-huah 江宜樺 (b. 1960, Taiwan)
2013, Feb. 18—2014, Dec. 8
Jiang Yi-huah
2013, Feb. 18—2014, Dec. 8
Mao Chi-kuo 毛治國 (b. 1948, Zhejiang)
2014, Dec. 8—2016, Feb. 1
Mao Chi-kuo
2014, Dec. 8—2016, Feb. 1
Simon Chang San-cheng 張善政 (b. 1954, N/A)
2016, Feb. 1—May 20
Simon Chang San-cheng
2016, Feb. 1—May 20
Duh Tyzz-jiun 杜紫軍 (b. 1959, Taiwan)
2016, May 20—2017, Sept. 8
Lin Chuan 林全 (b. 1951, Jiangsu/Taiwan)
2016, May 20—2017, Sept. 8
Lin Si-yao 林錫耀 (b. 1961, Taiwan)
2017, Sept. 8—2019, Jan. 14
William Lai 賴清德 (b. 1959, Taiwan)
2017, Sept. 8—2019, Jan. 14
Shih Jun-ji 施俊吉 (b. 1955, Taiwan)
2019, Jan. 31—2023, Jan. 31
Su Tseng-chang (second time)
2019, Jan. 14—2020, June 18
Chen Chi-mai 陳其邁 (b. 1964, Taiwan)
2020, June 18—2023, Jan. 31
Shen Jong-chin 沈榮津 (b. 1951, N/A)
2023, Jan. 31—
Chen Chien-jen 陳建仁 (b. 1951, Taiwan)
2023, Jan. 31—
Cheng Wen-tsan 鄭文燦 (b. 1967, Taiwan)

Note: The official residence of the ROC premier in Taipei's Jinhua Street—previously the house last lived in by General Peng Meng-chi 彭孟緝 until his death in 1997—was returned to the MOF's National Property Administration (caizhengbu guoyou caichanju 財政部國有財產局, abbrev. NPA) in November 2013 for asset revitalization after standing empty for five years. According to Taiwanese media reports, ROC premiers then used the official residence of the ROC vice premier, although Mao Chi-kuo 毛治國 kept using his private residence near the south side of Daan Forest Park (daan senlin gongyuan 大安森林公園) in Taipei City during his term as head of the ROC Executive Yuan. The former official residence of the ROC premier was transformed into the Start-up Hub of the Executive Yuan (xingzhengyuan qingchuang jidi 行政院青創基地) in March 2015 but became the official residence of the ROC premier again in June 2017; the Start-up Hub of the Executive Yuan is now housed in the Social Innovation Lab (shehui chuangxin shiyan zhongxin 社會創新實驗中心) which was founded by the MOEA SMEA in 2017.

(Former) Official Residence of the ROC Premier 行政院院長官邸/閣揆官邸:
No. 142 Jinhua Street, Daan District, Taipei City 10649, Taiwan ROC
[10649 台北市大安區金華街 142 號]
Official Residence of the ROC Vice Premier 行政院副院長官邸/副閣揆官邸:
No. 20 Ji'nan Road Sec. 2, Zhongzheng District, Taipei City 10054, Taiwan ROC
[10054 台北市中正區濟南路 2 段 20 號]

TOP   HOME    [◆ Leadership Executive Yuan]    [Since 1948]


Secretary-generals of the Executive Yuan

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
10/1928—1/1932 Lu Pi-chou 呂苾籌 b. N/A, d. 1939 Hunan
1/1932 Cheng Hung-nien 鄭洪年 1876-1958 Guangdong
1/1932—2/1932 Tseng Chung-ming 曾仲鳴 1896-1939 Fujian
2/1932—12/1935 Chu Min-yi 褚民誼 1884-1946 Zhejiang
12/1935—9/1937 Wang Wen-ho 翁文灝 1889-1971 Zhejiang
9/1937—12/1941 Wei Tao-ming 魏道明 1900-1978 Jiangxi
12/1941—12/1942 Chen Yi 陳儀 1883-1950 Zhejiang
12/1942—6/1945 Chang Li-sheng 張厲生 1901-1971 Hebei
6/1945—4/1947 Monlin Chiang 蔣夢麟 1886-1964 Zhejiang
4/1947—5/1948 Kan Nai-kuang 甘乃光 1897-1956 Guangxi
5/1948—12/1948 Li Wei-ku 李惟果 1903-1992 Guizhou
12/1948—3/1949 Tuan Mu-kai 端木愷 1903-1987 Anhui
3/1949—6/1949 Huang Shao-ku 黃少谷 1901-1996 Hunan
6/1949—3/1950 Wang Shih-tseng 王師曾 1903-1983 Sichuan
6/1949—3/1950 Chia Ching-the 賈景德 1880-1960 Shanxi
3/1950—6/1954 Huang Shao-ku (second time)
6/1954—7/1958 Chen Ching-yu 陳慶瑜 1901-1981 Jiangsu
7/1958—12/1963 Chen Hsueh-ping 陳雪屏 1901-1999 Jiangsu
12/1963—12/1967 Hsieh Keng-min 謝耿民 1909-1981 Zhejiang
12/1967—6/1972 Tsiang Yien-si 蔣彥士 1915-1998 Zhejiang
6/1972—6/1976 Fei Hwa 費驊 1912-1984 Jiangsu
6/1976—6/1978 Chang Chi-cheng 張繼正 1918-2015 Sichuan
6/1978—12/1978 Ma Chi-chuang 馬紀壯 1912-1998 Hebei
12/1978—6/1984 Chu Shao-hwa 瞿韶華 1914-1996 Hebei
6/1984—7/1988 Wang Chang-ching 王章清 1920-2001 Hubei
7/1988—6/1989 Robert C. Chien 錢純 1929-2014 Zhejiang
6/1989—2/1993 Wang Chou-ming 王昭明 1920-2015 Fujian
2/1993—12/1994 Harry H. K. Lee 李厚高 b. 1926 Hubei
12/1994—9/1997 Chao Shou-po 趙守博 b. 1941 Taiwan
9/1997—2/1999 Chang Yu-huei 張有惠 b. 1941 Taiwan
2/1999—5/2000 Hsieh Shen-san 謝深山 b. 1939 Taiwan
5/2000—10/2000 Wea Chi-lin 魏啟林 b. 1947 Taiwan
10/2000—2/2002 Chiou I-jen 邱義仁 b. 1950 Taiwan
2/2002—7/2002 Lee Ying-yuan 李應元 1953-2021 Taiwan
7/2002—5/2004 Liu Shyh-fang 劉世芳 b. 1959 Taiwan
5/2004—2/2005 Arthur Iap 葉國興 b. 1952 Taiwan
2/2005—9/2005 Lee Ying-yuan (second time)
9/2005—1/2006 Cho Jung-tai 卓榮泰 b. 1959 Taiwan
1/2006—5/2007 Liu Yuh-san 劉玉山 b. 1944 Taiwan
5/2007—5/2008 Chen Chin-jun 陳景峻 b. 1956 Taiwan
5/2008—9/2009 Hsueh Hsiang-chuan 薛香川 b. 1944 Taiwan
9/2009—1/2012 Lin Join-sane 林中森 b. 1944 Taiwan
2/2012—6/2012 Lin Yi-shih 林益世 b. 1968 Taiwan
7/2012—2/2013 Steve S. K. Chen 陳士魁 b. 1952 N/A
2/2013—3/2014 Chen Wei-zen 陳威仁 b. 1953 Taiwan
3/2014—1/2015 Lee Shu-chuan 李四川 b. 1958 Taiwan
1/2015—5/2016 Chien Tai-lang 簡太郎 b. 1947 Taiwan
5/2016—9/2017 Chen Mei-ling 陳美伶 b. 1958 Taiwan
9/2017—12/2018 Cho Jung-tai (second time)
12/2018—1/2019
>>> [vacant] <<<
1/2019— Lee Meng-yen 李孟諺 b. 1966 Taiwan

The official Chinese title of the Executive Yuan's secretary-general is xingzhengyuan mishuzhang 行政院秘書長.

TOP   HOME    [◆ Leadership Executive Yuan]    [EY secretary-generals]


Spokespersons of the Executive Yuan

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
5/2012—10/2012 Hu Yu-wei 胡幼偉 b. 1961 Taiwan
10/2012 @ Huang Min-kon 黃敏恭 b. 1947 N/A
10/2012—2/2014 Cheng Li-wun 鄭麗文 b. 1969 Taiwan
2/2014—5/2016 Sun Lih-chyun 孫立群 b. 1961 N/A
5/2016—9/2016 Tung Chen-yuan 童振源 b. 1969 Taiwan
10/2016—7/2018 Hsu Kuo-yung 徐國勇 b. 1958 Taiwan
7/2018—5/2020 Kolas Yotaka 谷辣斯 • 尤達卡 b. 1974 Taiwan
5/2020—11/2020 Ting Yi-ming 丁怡銘 b. 1976 N/A
11/2020—2/2021 @ Lee Meng-yen 李孟諺 b. 1966 Taiwan
2/2021—1/2023 Lo Ping-cheng 羅秉成 b. 1962 N/A
1/2023—2/2023 Chen Tsung-yen 陳宗彥 b. 1967 Taiwan
2/2023—5/2023 @ Lo Ping-cheng (second time)
5/2023— Alan Lin 林子倫 b. 1967 Taiwan

When the Government Information Office (xingzhengyuan xinwenju 行政院新聞局, abbrev. GIO)—whose head had also performed the function of government spokesperson—was abolished on May 20, 2012, the new position of spokesperson of the Executive Yuan (xingzhengyuan fayanren 行政院發言人) was created.

TOP   HOME    [◆ Leadership Executive Yuan]    [EY spokespersons]

===== ===== ===== ===== =====

◆ Past and present Ministers without Portfolio in the Executive Yuan

++++++++++   TOP   HOME    [next chapter]   [previous chapter]   ++++++++++


Since 1948, the ROC cabinet (neige 內閣) usually included between five and nine ministers without portfolio (zhengwu weiyuan 政務委員); a position sometimes also called "minister of state" in English. An arrow [] in the lists below indicates that the minister without portfolio in the line directly above the arrow was replaced by the official following the arrow.

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


Wang Wen-ho cabinet (took office on May 31, 1948)

Term in Chinese: Weng Wenhao neige 翁文灝內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
5/1948—7/1948 Cheng Chen-wen 鄭振文 1898-1963 Guangdong
5/1948—7/1948 Yang Yung-chiun 楊永浚 1894-1960 Chongqing
5/1948—12/1948 Lei Chen 雷震 1897-1979 Zhejiang
5/1948—12/1948 Hollington K. Tong 董顯光 1887-1971 Zhejiang
6/1948—10/1948 Wang Cheng 王徵 b. 1887, d. N/A Heilongjiang
7/1948—12/1948 Ling Keo-chi 林可璣 1900-1996 Fujian
7/1948—12/1948 Liu Ching-yuan 劉靜遠 N/A N/A
10/1948—12/1948 Ho Hao-jo 何浩若 1899-1971 Hunan

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


Sun Fo cabinet (took office on Dec. 22, 1948)

Term in Chinese: Sun Ke neige 孫科內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
12/1948—3/1949 Chang Chun 張群 1889-1990 Sichuan
12/1948—3/1949 Wang Wen-ho 翁文灝 1889-1971 Zhejiang
12/1948—3/1949 Zhang Zhizhong 張治中 1890-1969 Anhui
12/1948—3/1949 Chen Li-fu 陳立夫 1900-2001 Zhejiang
12/1948—3/1949 Chang Li-sheng 張厲生 1901-1971 Hebei
12/1948—3/1949 Ling Keo-chi 林可璣 1900-1996 Fujian
12/1948—3/1949 Chu Chia-hwa 朱家驊 1893-1963 Zhejiang

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


Ho Ying-chin cabinet (took office on March 21, 1949)

Term in Chinese: He Yingqin neige 何應欽內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
3/1949—6/1949 Chang Chun 張群 1889-1990 Sichuan
3/1949—6/1949 Mo Teh-hui 莫德惠 1883-1968 Kirin
3/1949—6/1949 Zhang Zhizhong 張治中 1890-1969 Anhui
3/1949—6/1949 Chu Chia-hwa 朱家驊 1893-1963 Zhejiang
3/1949—6/1949 Ho Yao-tsu 賀耀組 1889-1961 Gansu

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


Yen Hsi-shan cabinet (took office on June 12, 1949)

Term in Chinese: Yan Xishan neige 閻錫山內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
6/1949—3/1950 Huang Shao-ku 黃少谷 1901-1996 Hunan
6/1949—3/1950 Wan Hung-tu 萬鴻圖 1885-1960 Henan
6/1949—3/1950 Chang Chun 張群 1889-1990 Sichuan
6/1949—3/1950 Wu Te-chen 吳鐵城 1888-1953 Guangdong
6/1949—3/1950 Chen Li-fu 陳立夫 1900-2001 Zhejiang
6/1949—1/1950 Hsu Yung-ch'ang 徐永昌 1887-1959 Shanxi
1/1950—3/1950 Liu Hang-chen 劉航琛 1896-1975 Sichuan

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


First Chen Cheng cabinet (took office on March 12, 1950)

Term in Chinese: diyici Chen Cheng neige 第一次陳誠內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
3/1950—1/1954 Wang Shih-tseng 王師曾 1903-1983 Sichuan
3/1950—3/1954 K. C. Wu 吳國楨 1903-1984 Hubei
3/1950—5/1954 Tsai Pei-huo 蔡培火 1889-1983 Taiwan
3/1950—5/1954 Tung Wen-ch'i 董文琦 1902-1988 Heilongjiang
3/1950—10/1950 Yang Yu-tzu 楊毓滋 1905-1994 Jiangsu
11/1950—5/1954 Chiang Yun-tien 蔣勻田 1904-1994 Anhui
3/1950—2/1951 Tien Chung-chin 田炯錦 1899-1977 Gansu
3/1951—5/1954 Huang Shao-ku 黃少谷 1901-1996 Hunan
3/1950—4/1952 Huang Chi-lu 黃季陸 1899-1985 Sichuan
4/1952—5/1954 Yu Ching-tang 余井塘 1896-1985 Jiangsu

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


O. K. Yui cabinet ( took office on June 1, 1954)

Term in Chinese: Yu Hongjun neige 俞鴻鈞內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
6/1954—7/1958 Tsai Pei-huo 蔡培火 1889-1983 Taiwan
6/1954—7/1958 Meng Chao-tsan 孟昭瓚 b. 1904, d. N/A Henan
6/1954—7/1958 Yu Ching-tang 余井塘 1896-1985 Jiangsu
6/1954—7/1958 Huang Chi-lu 黃季陸 1899-1985 Sichuan
6/1954—3/1958 Tien Chung-chin 田炯錦 1899-1977 Gansu
8/1957—3/1958 Yen Chia-kan 嚴家淦 1905-1993 Jiangsu

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


Second Chen Cheng cabinet (took office on July 15, 1958)

Term in Chinese: dierci Chen Cheng neige 第二次陳誠內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
7/1958—5/1962 Wang Shih-chieh 王世杰 1891-1981 Hubei
7/1958—12/1963 Hsueh Yueh 薛岳 1896-1998 Guangdong
7/1958—12/1963 Yu Ching-tang 余井塘 1896-1985 Jiangsu
7/1958—12/1963 Tsai Pei-huo 蔡培火 1889-1983 Taiwan
7/1958—12/1963 Chiang Ching-kuo 蔣經國 1910-1988 Zhejiang
11/1961—12/1963 Yeh Kung-chao 葉公超 1904-1981 Guangdong

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


Yen Chia-kan cabinet (took office on Dec. 16, 1963)

Term in Chinese: Yan Jiagan neige 嚴家淦內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
12/1963—1/1965 Chiang Ching-kuo 蔣經國 1910-1988 Zhejiang
12/1963—6/1966 Tsai Pei-huo 蔡培火 1889-1983 Taiwan
6/1966—5/1972 Lien Chen-tung 連震東 1904-1986 Taiwan
12/1963—7/1970 Tien Chung-chin 田炯錦 1899-1977 Gansu
12/1963—7/1970 Ho Chung-han 賀衷寒 1900-1972 Hunan
12/1963—5/1972 Tung Wen-ch'i 董文琦 1902-1988 Heilongjiang
12/1963—5/1972 Yeh Kung-chao 葉公超 1904-1981 Guangdong
12/1963—5/1972 Chen Hsueh-ping 陳雪屏 1901-1999 Jiangsu
1/1965—6/1966 David Yule 俞大維 1897-1993 Zhejiang
6/1966—4/1969 P. Y. Shu 徐柏園 1903-1980 Zhejiang
7/1969—5/1972 Yu Kuo-hwa 俞國華 1914-2000 Zhejiang

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


Chiang Ching-kuo cabinet (took office on June 1, 1972)

Term in Chinese: Jiang Jingguo neige 蔣經國內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
6/1972—6/1976 Kuo Cheng 郭澄 1907-1980 Shanxi
6/1976—5/1978 Li Kwoh-ting 李國鼎 1910-2001 Jiangsu
6/1972—1/1978 Chow Shu-kai 周書楷 1913-1992 Hubei
1/1978—5/1978 Chen Chi-lu 陳奇祿 1923-2014 Taiwan
6/1972—5/1978 Yu Kuo-hwa 俞國華 1914-2000 Zhejiang
6/1972—5/1978 Lee Teng-hui 李登輝 1923-2020 Taiwan
6/1972—5/1978 Yeh Kung-chao 葉公超 1904-1981 Guangdong
6/1976—5/1978 Henry Kao Yu-shu 高玉樹 1913-2005 Taiwan
6/1976—5/1978 Chiu Chuang-huan 邱創煥 1925-2020 Taiwan
6/1972—6/1976 Kuo Cheng 郭澄 1907-1980 Shanxi

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


Sun Yun-suan cabinet (took office on June 1, 1978)

Term in Chinese: Sun Yunxuan neige 孫運璿內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
6/1978—12/1981 Chen Chi-lu 陳奇祿 1923-2014 Taiwan
12/1981—5/1984 Lin Chin-sheng 林金生 1916-2001 Taiwan
6/1978—2/1984 Fei Hwa 費驊 1912-1984 Jiangsu
6/1978—5/1984 Chow Hong-tao 周宏濤 1916-2004 Zhejiang
6/1978—5/1984 Chang Feng-shu 張豐緒 1928-2014 Taiwan
6/1978—5/1984 Yu Kuo-hwa 俞國華 1914-2000 Zhejiang
6/1978—5/1984 Li Kwoh-ting 李國鼎 1910-2001 Jiangsu
6/1978—5/1984 Henry Kao Yu-shu 高玉樹 1913-2005 Taiwan

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


Yu Kuo-hwa cabinet (took office on June 1, 1984)

Term in Chinese: Yu Guohua neige 俞國華內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
6/1984—1/1986 Ma Chi-chuang 馬紀壯 1912-1998 Hebei
7/1986—7/1988 Hsiao Tien-tzang 蕭天讚 1934-2017 Taiwan
7/1988—5/1989 Huang Kun-huei 黃昆輝 b. 1936 Taiwan
6/1984—7/1988 Chao Yao-tung 趙耀東 1915-2008 Shanghai
7/1988—5/1989 Shen Chun-shan 沈君山 b. 1932 Zhejiang
6/1984—7/1988 Li Kwoh-ting 李國鼎 1910-2001 Jiangsu
7/1988—5/1989 Wang You-tsao 王友釗 b. 1925 Fujian
6/1984—7/1988 Kuo Wei-fan 郭為藩 b. 1937 Taiwan
8/1988—5/1989 Fredrick F. Chien 錢復 b. 1935 Beijing
6/1984—5/1989 Henry Kao Yu-shu 高玉樹 1913-2005 Taiwan
6/1984—5/1989 Chang Feng-shu 張豐緒 1928-2014 Taiwan
6/1984—5/1989 Chow Hong-tao 周宏濤 1916-2004 Zhejiang

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


Lee Huan cabinet (took office on June 1, 1989)

Term in Chinese: Li Huan neige 李煥內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
6/1989—5/1990 Chang Feng-shu 張豐緒 1928-2014 Taiwan
6/1989—5/1990 Chow Hong-tao 周宏濤 1916-2004 Zhejiang
6/1989—5/1990 Fredrick F. Chien 錢復 b. 1935 Beijing
6/1989—5/1990 Wang You-tsao 王友釗 b. 1925 Fujian
6/1989—5/1990 Chang Chien-han 張劍寒 b. 1928 Jiangsu
6/1989—5/1990 Huang Kun-huei 黃昆輝 b. 1936 Taiwan
6/1989—5/1990 Kuo Nan-hung 郭南宏 b. 1936 Taiwan

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


Hao Pei-tsun cabinet (took office on June 1, 1990)

Term in Chinese: Hao Bocun neige 郝柏村內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
6/1990—2/1993 Wang Chou-ming 王昭明 1920-2015 Fujian
6/1990—2/1993 Shirley W. Y. Kuo 郭婉容 b. 1930 Taiwan
6/1990—6/1991 Wu Po-hsiung 吳伯雄 b. 1939 Taiwan
6/1991—2/1993 Kao Ming-huey 高銘輝 b. 1931 Taiwan
6/1990—6/1992 Chang Chien-han 張劍寒 b. 1928 Jiangsu
10/1992—2/1993 Li Mo 李模 b. 1922 Shanghai
6/1990—2/1993 Huang Kun-huei 黃昆輝 b. 1936 Taiwan
6/1990—2/1993 Kuo Nan-hung 郭南宏 b. 1936 Taiwan
6/1990—2/1993 Huang Shih-cheng 黃石城 b. 1935 Taiwan

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


Lien Chan cabinet (took office on Feb. 27, 1993)

Term in Chinese: Lian Zhan neige 連戰內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
2/1993—2/1994 Chiu Hungdah 丘宏達 1936-2011 Fujian
3/1994—2/1996 Chang King-yuh 張京育 b. 1937 Hunan
2/1993—12/1994 Huang Kun-huei 黃昆輝 b. 1936 Taiwan
12/1994—2/1996 Sun Chen 孫震 b. 1934 Shandong
2/1993—12/1995 Vincent Siew 蕭萬長 b. 1939 Taiwan
2/1993—2/1996 Shirley W. Y. Kuo 郭婉容 b. 1930 Taiwan
2/1993—2/1996 Wang Chou-ming 王昭明 1920-2015 Fujian
2/1993—2/1996 Huang Shih-cheng 黃石城 b. 1935 Taiwan
2/1993—2/1996 Hsia Han-min 夏漢民 b. 1932 Fujian

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


Reshuffled Lien Chan cabinet (took office on Feb. 28, 1996)

Term in Chinese: Lian Zhan neige (gaizu hou) 連戰內閣( 改組後)

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
2/1996—6/1996 Wang Chou-ming 王昭明 1920-2015 Fujian
6/1996—8/1997 Tu Teh-chi 涂德錡 b. 1934 Taiwan
2/1996—6/1996 Sun Chen 孫震 b. 1934 Shandong
6/1996—8/1997 Yang Shih-chien 楊世緘 b. 1944 Shanghai
2/1996—6/1996 Huang Shih-cheng 黃石城 b. 1935 Taiwan
6/1996—8/1997 Tsai Cheng-wen 蔡政文 b. 1940 Taiwan
2/1996—6/1996 Hsia Han-min 夏漢民 b. 1932 Fujian
6/1996—5/1997 Yeh Chin-fong 葉金鳳 b. 1943 Taiwan
5/1997—8/1997 Chao Shou-po 趙守博 b. 1941 Taiwan
2/1996—6/1996 Chang King-yuh 張京育 b. 1937 Hunan
6/1996—5/1997 Ma Ying-jeou 馬英九 b. 1950 Hong Kong/Hunan
5/1997—8/1997 Su Chi 蘇起 b. 1949 Taiwan
2/1996—8/1997 Shirley W. Y. Kuo 郭婉容 b. 1930 Taiwan
6/1996— 8/1997 Lin Chen-kuo 林振國 b. 1937 Fujian

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


Vincent Siew cabinet (took office on Sept. 1, 1997)

Term in Chinese: Xiao Wanchang neige 蕭萬長內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
9/1997—2/1998 Chan Hou-sheng 詹火生 b. 1949 Taiwan
2/1998—1/1999 Chiang Pin-kung 江丙坤 1932-2018 Taiwan
9/1997—4/1998 Lin Fong-cheng 林豐正 b. 1940 Taiwan
4/1998—1/1999 Tsay Jaw-yang 蔡兆陽 1941-2008 Taiwan
9/1997—12/1998 Chao Shou-po 趙守博 b. 1941 Taiwan
9/1997—1/1999 Huang Ta-chou 黃大洲 b. 1936 Taiwan
9/1997—1/1999 Yang Shih-chien 楊世緘 b. 1944 Shanghai
9/1997—1/1999 Chen Chien-min 陳健民 b. 1942 Taiwan/Zhejiang
9/1997—1/1999 Shirley W. Y. Kuo 郭婉容 b. 1930 Taiwan

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


Reshuffled Vincent Siew cabinet (took office on Jan. 27, 1999)

Term in Chinese: Xiao Wanchang neige (gaizu hou) 蕭萬長內閣( 改組後)

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
1/1999—5/2000 Shirley W. Y. Kuo 郭婉容 b. 1930 Taiwan
1/1999—5/2000 Chiang Pin-kung 江丙坤 1932-2018 Taiwan
1/1999—5/2000 Tsay Jaw-yang 蔡兆陽 1941-2008 Taiwan
1/1999—5/2000 Huang Ta-chou 黃大洲 b. 1936 Taiwan
1/1999—5/2000 Yang Shih-chien 楊世緘 b. 1944 Shanghai
1/1999—5/2000 Chen Chien-min 陳健民 b. 1942 Taiwan/Zhejiang
2/1999—8/1999 Wu Rong-ming 吳容明 b. 1943 Taiwan
11/1999—3/2000 Chung Jung-chi 鍾榮吉 b. 1943 Taiwan

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


Frank Tang cabinet (took office on May 20, 2000)

Term in Chinese: Tang Fei neige 唐飛內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
5/2000—10/2000 Lin Neng-pai 林能白 b. 1953 Taiwan
5/2000—10/2000 Huang Jung-tsun 黃榮村 b. 1947 Taiwan
5/2000—10/2000 Chen Chin-huang 陳錦煌 b. 1952 Taiwan
5/2000—10/2000 Chang Yu-huei 張有惠 b. 1941 Taiwan
5/2000—10/2000 Tsay Ching-yen 蔡清彥 b. 1944 Taiwan
5/2000—10/2000 Hu Ching-piao 胡錦標 b. 1943 Guangdong

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


First Chang Chun-hsiung cabinet (took office on Oct. 6, 2000)

Term in Chinese: diyici Zhang Junxiong neige 第一次張俊雄內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
10/2000—3/2001 Hu Ching-piao 胡錦標 b. 1943 Guangdong
3/2001—1/2002 Hu Sheng-cheng 胡勝正 1940-2018 Taiwan
10/2000—4/2001 Chang Yu-huei 張有惠 b. 1941 Taiwan
6/2001—1/2002 Hsu Chih-hsiung 許志雄 b. 1953 Taiwan
10/2000—1/2002 Chung Chin 鍾琴 b. 1953 Zhejiang
10/2000—1/2002 Lin Neng-pai 林能白 b. 1953 Taiwan
10/2000—1/2002 Huang Jung-tsun 黃榮村 b. 1947 Taiwan
10/2000—1/2002 Chen Chin-huang 陳錦煌 b. 1952 Taiwan
10/2000—1/2002 Tsay Ching-yen 蔡清彥 b. 1944 Taiwan

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


First Yu Shyi-kun cabinet (took office on Feb. 1, 2002)

Term in Chinese: diyici You Xikun neige 第一次游錫堃內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
2/2002—3/2002 Chiou I-jen 邱義仁 b. 1950 Taiwan
5/2002—5/2004 Yeh Jiunn-rong 葉俊榮 b. 1958 Taiwan
2/2002—7/2003 Huang Hwei-chen 黃輝珍 b. 1954 Taiwan
7/2003—5/2004 Arthur Iap 葉國興 b. 1952 Taiwan
2/2002—5/2004 Tsay Ching-yen 蔡清彥 b. 1944 Taiwan
2/2002—5/2004 Hu Sheng-cheng 胡勝正 1940-2018 Taiwan
2/2002—5/2004 Lin Sheng-fong 林盛豐 b. 1951 Taiwan
2/2002—5/2004 Kuo Yao-chi 郭瑤琪 b. 1956 Taiwan
2/2002—5/2004 Chen Chi-nan 陳其南 b. 1947 Taiwan

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


Second Yu Shyi-kun cabinet (took office on May 20, 2004)

Term in Chinese: dierci You Xikun neige 第二次游錫堃內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
5/2004—1/2005 Lin Yi-fu 林義夫 b. 1942 Taiwan
5/2004—1/2005 Chen Chi-mai 陳其邁 b. 1964 Taiwan
5/2004—1/2005 Lin Sheng-fong 林盛豐 b. 1951 Taiwan
5/2004—1/2005 Kuo Yao-chi 郭瑤琪 b. 1956 Taiwan
5/2004—1/2005 Fu Li-yeh 傅立葉 b. 1959 Taiwan
5/2004—1/2005 Hu Sheng-cheng 胡勝正 1940-2018 Taiwan
5/2004—1/2005 Lin Ferng-ching 林逢慶 b. 1947 Taiwan

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


Frank Hsieh cabinet (took office on Feb. 1, 2005)

Term in Chinese: Xie Changting neige 謝長廷內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
2/2005—9/2005 Chen Chi-mai 陳其邁 b. 1964 Taiwan
2/2005—9/2005 Cho Jung-tai 卓榮泰 b. 1959 Taiwan
9/2005—1/2006 Lee Ying-yuan 李應元 1953-2021 Taiwan
2/2005—1/2006 Hu Sheng-cheng 胡勝正 1940-2018 Taiwan
2/2005—1/2006 Lin Sheng-fong 林盛豐 b. 1951 Taiwan
2/2005—1/2006 Kuo Yao-chi 郭瑤琪 b. 1956 Taiwan
2/2005—1/2006 Lin Ferng-ching 林逢慶 b. 1947 Taiwan
2/2005—1/2006 Fu Li-yeh 傅立葉 b. 1959 Taiwan

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


Su Tseng-chang cabinet (took office on Jan. 25, 2006)

Term in Chinese: Su Zhenchang neige 蘇貞昌內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
1/2006—5/2007 Lin Si-yao 林錫耀 b. 1961 Taiwan
1/2006—5/2007 Wu Tse-cheng 吳澤成 b. 1945 Taiwan
1/2006—5/2007 Ho Mei-yueh 何美玥 b. 1951 Taiwan
1/2006—5/2007 Frank Wu Feng-shan 吳豐山 b. 1945 Taiwan
1/2006—5/2006 Fu Li-yeh 傅立葉 b. 1959 Taiwan
5/2006—5/2007 Lin Wan-i 林萬億 b. 1952 Taiwan
1/2006—7/2006 Hu Sheng-cheng 胡勝正 1940-2018 Taiwan
7/2006—9/2006 Joseph C. Lyu 呂桔誠 b. 1956 Taiwan
10/2006—1/2007 Hu Sheng-cheng (second time)
1/2006—5/2007 Lin Ferng-ching 林逢慶 b. 1947 Taiwan

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


Second Chang Chun-hsiung cabinet (took office on May 21, 2007)

Term in Chinese: dierci Zhang Junxiong neige 第二次張俊雄內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
5/2007—5/2008 Lin Si-yao 林錫耀 b. 1961 Taiwan
5/2007—5/2008 Wu Tse-cheng 吳澤成 b. 1945 Taiwan
5/2007—5/2008 Liu Yuh-san 劉玉山 b. 1944 Taiwan
5/2007—5/2008 Huang Hwei-chen 黃輝珍 b. 1954 Taiwan
5/2007—5/2008 Lin Ferng-ching 林逢慶 b. 1947 Taiwan
6/2007—5/2008 Ho Mei-yueh 何美玥 b. 1951 Taiwan
7/2007—2/2008 Lin Jin-chang 林錦昌 b. 1967 Taiwan
2/2008—5/2008 Liu Shyh-fang劉世芳 b. 1959 Taiwan

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


Liu Chao-shiuan cabinet (took office on May 20, 2008)

Term in Chinese: Liu Zhaoxuan neige 劉兆玄內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
5/2008—4/2009 Chu Yun-peng 朱雲鵬 b. 1953 Taiwan/Zhejiang
5/2008—9/2009 Chen Tain-jy 陳添枝 b. 1953 Taiwan
5/2008—9/2009 Ovid J. L. Tzeng 曾志朗 b. 1944 Taiwan
5/2008—9/2009 Chang Jin-fu 張進福 b. 1948 Taiwan
5/2008—9/2009 James Cherng-tay Hsueh 薛承泰 b. 1956 Fujian
5/2008—9/2009 Fan Liang-shiow 范良銹 b. 1946 Taiwan
5/2008—9/2009 Tsai Hsun-hsiung 蔡勳雄 b. 1941 Taiwan

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


Wu Den-yih cabinet (took office on Sept. 10, 2009)

Term in Chinese: Wu Dunyi neige 吳敦義內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
9/2009—2/2010 Tsai Hsun-hsiung 蔡勳雄 b. 1941 Taiwan
9/2009—2/2011 Kao Su-po 高思博 b. 1968 Taiwan
2/2011—1/2012 Luo Ying-shay 羅瑩雪 1951-2021 Taiwan
9/2009—2/2011 Liang Chi-yuan 梁啟源 b. 1946 Taiwan
2/2011—1/2012 Cyrus C. Y. Chu 朱敬一 b. 1955 Taiwan
9/2009—4/2011 Fan Liang-shiow 范良銹 b. 1946 Taiwan
4/2011—1/2012 Lee Hong-yuan 李鴻源 b. 1956 Taiwan
9/2009—12/2011 Yiin Chii-ming 尹啟銘 b. 1952 Taiwan
9/2009—1/2012 Ovid J. L. Tzeng 曾志朗 b. 1944 Taiwan
9/2009—1/2012 Chang Jin-fu 張進福 b. 1948 Taiwan
9/2009—1/2012 James Cherng-tay Hsueh 薛承泰 b. 1956 Fujian
9/2009—1/2012 Lin Junq-tzer 林政則 b. 1944 Taiwan

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


Sean C. Chen cabinet (took office on Feb. 6, 2012)

Term in Chinese: Chen Chong neige 陳冲內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
2/2012—2/2013 Kuan Chung-ming 管中閔 b. 1956 Taiwan
2/2012—2/2013 James Cherng-tay Hsueh 薛承泰 b. 1956 Fujian
2/2012—5/2012 Chang Jin-fu 張進福 b. 1948 Taiwan
5/2012—2/2013 Yiin Chii-ming 尹啟銘 b. 1952 Taiwan
2/2012—2/2013 Huang Kuang-nan 黃光男 b. 1944 Taiwan
2/2012—2/2013 Simon Chang San-cheng 張善政 b. 1954 N/A
2/2012—2/2013 Yang Chiu-hsing 楊秋興 b. 1956 Taiwan
2/2012—2/2013 Luo Ying-shay 羅瑩雪 1951-2021 Taiwan
2/2012—2/2013 Lin Junq-tzer 林政則 b. 1944 Taiwan
2/2012—2/2013 Chern Jenn-chuan 陳振川 b. 1954 Fujian

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


Chiang Yi-huah cabinet (took office on Feb. 18, 2013)

Term in Chinese: Jiang Yihua neige 江宜樺內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
2/2013—2/2014 Huang Kuang-nan 黃光男 b. 1944 Taiwan
2/2014—9/2014 Chien Tai-lang 簡太郎 b. 1947 Taiwan
2/2013—3/2014 Simon Chang San-cheng 張善政 b. 1954 N/A
3/2014—10/2014 Chiang Been-huang 蔣丙煌 b. 1951 N/A
2/2013—9/2014 Yang Chiu-hsing 楊秋興 b. 1956 Taiwan
2/2013—12/2014 Lin Junq-tzer 林政則 b. 1944 Taiwan
2/2013—12/2014 Kuan Chung-ming 管中閔 b. 1956 Taiwan
2/2013—7/2013 Steven S. K. Chen 陳士魁 b. 1952 N/A
8/2013—12/2014 Joyce Feng 馮燕 b. 1956 Taiwan
2/2013—3/2014 Schive Chi 薛琦 b. 1947 Fujian
3/2014—12/2014 John C. C. Deng 鄧振中 b. 1952 N/A
2/2013—9/2013 Luo Ying-shay 羅瑩雪 1951-2021 Taiwan
11/2013—12/2014 Tsai Yu-ling 蔡玉玲 b. 1955 N/A
2/2013—7/2013 Chern Jenn-chuan 陳振川 b. 1954 Fujian
11/2013—4/2014 Chen Shi-shuenn 陳希舜 b. 1950 Taiwan
7/2014—12/2014 Hsu Chun-yat 許俊逸 N/A N/A

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


Mao Chi-kuo cabinet (took office on Dec. 8, 2014)

Term in Chinese: Mao Zhiguo neige 毛治國內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
12/2014—2/2015 Kuan Chung-ming 管中閔 b. 1956 Taiwan
12/2014—1/2016 Duh Tyzz-jiun 杜紫軍 b. 1959 Taiwan
12/2014—1/2016 Yeh Shin-cheng 葉欣誠 b. 1965 Taiwan
12/2014—1/2016 Lin Junq-tzer 林政則 b. 1944 Taiwan
12/2014—1/2016 Joyce Feng 馮燕 b. 1956 Taiwan
12/2014—1/2016 Tsai Yu-ling 蔡玉玲 b. 1955 N/A
12/2014—1/2016 Hsu Chun-yat 許俊逸 N/A N/A
2/2015—1/2016 Yan Hong-sen 顏鴻森 b. 1951 Taiwan
2/2015—1/2016 Hsiao Chia-chi 蕭家淇 b. 1961 Taiwan

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


Simon Chang San-cheng cabinet (took office on Feb. 1, 2016)

Term in Chinese: Zhang Shanzheng neige 張善政內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
2/2016—5/2016 Chung Char-dir 鐘嘉德 N/A N/A
2/2016—5/2016 Lin Chu-chia 林祖嘉 N/A N/A
2/2016—5/2016 Lin Junq-tzer 林政則 b. 1944 Taiwan
2/2016—5/2016 Joyce Feng 馮燕 b. 1956 Taiwan
2/2016—5/2016 Tsai Yu-ling 蔡玉玲 b. 1955 N/A
2/2016—5/2016 Hsu Chun-yat 許俊逸 N/A N/A
2/2016—5/2016 Hsiao Chia-chi 蕭家淇 b. 1961 Taiwan

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


Lin Chuan cabinet (took office on May 20, 2016)

Term in Chinese: Lin Quan neige 林全內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
5/2016—6/2016 Shih Jun-ji 施俊吉 b. 1955 Taiwan
5/2016—2/2017 Lin Mei-chu 林美珠 b. 1953 Guangdong
5/2016—9/2017 Chen Tain-jy 陳添枝 b. 1953 Taiwan
5/2016—9/2017 Wu Hong-mo 吳宏謀 b. 1954 N/A
5/2016—9/2017 Hsu Jan-yau 許璋瑤 b. 1951 Taiwan
5/2016—9/2017 Chang Ching-sen 張景森 b. 1959 Taiwan
5/2016—9/2017 Lin Wan-i 林萬億 b. 1952 Taiwan
5/2016—9/2017 Wu Tsung-tsong 吳政忠 b. 1955 N/A
8/2016—9/2017 John C. C. Deng 鄧振中 b. 1952 N/A
10/2016—9/2017 Audrey Tang 唐鳳 b. 1981 Taiwan

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


William Lai Ching-te cabinet (took office on Sept. 8, 2017)

Term in Chinese: Lai Qingde neige 賴清德內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
9/2017—11/2017 Wu Hong-mo 吳宏謀 b. 1954 N/A
9/2017—11/2017 Hsu Jan-yau 許璋瑤 b. 1951 Taiwan
11/2017—1/2019 Wu Tse-cheng 吳澤成 b. 1945 Taiwan
12/2017—7/2018 Hsu Kuo-yung 徐國勇 b. 1958 Taiwan
9/2017—1/2019 Chen Mei-ling 陳美伶 b. 1958 Taiwan
9/2017—1/2019 Chang Ching-sen 張景森 b. 1959 Taiwan
9/2017—1/2019 Lin Wan-i 林萬億 b. 1952 Taiwan
9/2017—1/2019 Wu Tsung-tsong 吳政忠 b. 1955 N/A
9/2017—1/2019 John C. C. Deng 鄧振中 b. 1952 N/A
9/2017—1/2019 Audrey Tang 唐鳳 b. 1981 Taiwan
9/2017—1/2019 Lo Ping-chen 羅秉成 b. 1962 N/A

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


Second Su Tseng-chang cabinet (took office on Jan. 14, 2019)

Term in Chinese: Dierci Su Zhenchang neige 第二次蘇貞昌內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
1/2019—5/2020 Chen Mei-ling 陳美伶 b. 1958 Taiwan
10/2020—5/2022 Kuo Yau-hwang 郭耀煌 b. 1959 Taiwan
1/2019—8/2022 Audrey Tang 唐鳳 b. 1981 Taiwan
1/2019—5/2020;
7/2022—1/2023
Wu Tsung-tsong 吳政忠 b. 1955 N/A
1/2019—1/2023 Wu Tse-cheng 吳澤成 b. 1945 Taiwan
1/2019—1/2023 Chang Ching-sen 張景森 b. 1959 Taiwan
1/2019—1/2023 Lin Wan-i 林萬億 b. 1952 Taiwan
1/2019—1/2023 John C. C. Deng 鄧振中 b. 1952 N/A
1/2019—1/2023 Lo Ping-chen 羅秉成 b. 1962 N/A
1/2019—1/2023 Kung Ming-hsin 龔明鑫 b. 1964 N/A
5/2020—1/2023 Huang Chih-ta 黃致達 b. 1972 N/A

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]


Chen Chien-jen cabinet (incumbent; took office on Jan. 31, 2023)

Term in Chinese: Chen Jianren neige 陳建仁內閣

Tenure Ministers w/o portfolio Born/Died Native Province
1/2023—6/2023 Lee Yung-te 李永得 b. 1955 Taiwan
1/2023—7/2023 Huang Chih-ta 黃致達 b. 1972 N/A
1/2023— Wu Tse-cheng 吳澤成 b. 1945 Taiwan
1/2023— Chang Ching-sen 張景森 b. 1959 Taiwan
1/2023— Lin Wan-i 林萬億 b. 1952 Taiwan
1/2023— John C. C. Deng 鄧振中 b. 1952 N/A
1/2023— Lo Ping-chen 羅秉成 b. 1962 N/A
1/2023— Kung Ming-hsin 龔明鑫 b. 1964 N/A
1/2023— Wu Tsung-tsong 吳政忠 b. 1955 N/A
8/2023— Chang Tzi-chin 張子敬 b. 1949 N/A

TOP   HOME    [◆ Ministers Without Portfolio]

===== ===== ===== ===== =====

◆ History of the ROC Executive Yuan

++++++++++   TOP   HOME    [next chapter]   [previous chapter]   ++++++++++


Founding of the Executive Yuan in 1928

The Executive Yuan (xingzhengyuan 行政院) was established on Oct. 25, 1928, and since then the ROC central government has been reorganized several times. Typically, restructuring of the central government involves not only the creation of new agencies and the abolition of existing ones but also changes and shifts concerning departments under specific agencies and modification of their responsibilities. The ROC has seen several rounds of government restructuring, especially in the troubled decade following the end of WWII.

Initially, the ROC central government in Nanjing comprised 10 ministries:
Ministry of Interior (neizhengbu 內政部, abbrev. MOI),
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (waijiaobu 外交部, abbrev. MOFA),
Ministry of War (junzhengbu 軍政部),
Ministry of Finance (caizhengbu 財政部, abbrev. MOF),
Ministry of Farming and Mining (nongkuangbu 農礦部) aka Ministry of Agriculture and Mines,
Ministry of Commerce (gongshangbu 工商部) aka Ministry of Industry and Commerce,
Ministry of Education (jiaoyubu 教育部, abbrev. MOE),
Ministry of Communications (jiaotongbu 交通部),
 Ministry of Railways (tiedaobu 鐵道部), and
Ministry of Health (weishengbu 衛生部).

TITLES—In English, the title of the President of the ROC Executive Yuan (xingzhengyuan yuanzhang 行政院院長) is usually translated as "premier", and the title of the Vice President of the Executive Yuan (xingzhengyuan fuyuanzhang 行政院副院長) as "vice premier". In written language, Taiwanese media often use the ancient title "prime minister" (kui 揆) for reports about the ROC premier. The heads of all ministries under the Executive Yuan use the title "minister" (buzhang 部長). Those ministers, the heads of the other agencies under the Executive Yuan, and the Ministers without Portfolio (zhengwu weiyuan 政務委員) are also referred to as "cabinet" (neige 內閣). The title zhuren weiyuan 主任委員 (mostly used by heads of commissions or councils) is often abbreviated as zhuwei 主委.

TOP   HOME    [◆ Executive Yuan history]   [Founding in 1928]


Early development until the end of WWII

Most of the original ten ministries were retained in later restructurings, with the following exceptions:

  • The Ministry of Farming and Mining was merged in 1931 with the Ministry of Commerce, constituting the new Ministry of Basic Industries (shiyebu 實業部) aka Ministry of Enterprises, which in turn became the Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) in 1937. The MOEA Department of Agriculture and Forestry (nonglinsi 農林司) was upgraded to Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (nonglinbu 農林部) in 1940.
  • The Ministry of Railways was abolished in 1938, its responsibilities were taken over by the Ministry of Communications.
  • The Ministry of Health was downgraded to Department of Health (weishengshu 衛生署) under the MOI in 1935, upgraded and put directly under the Executive Yuan's jurisdiction in 1936; then back under the MOI in 1938 and once more placed under the Executive Yuan in 1940.

Furthermore, a Ministry of Social Affairs (shehuibu 社會部) was established in October 1940 by transforming the former KMT Department of Social Affairs (guomindang shehuibu 國民黨中央社會部), and a Ministry of Food (liangshibu 糧食部) was set up in May 1941.

Please note that the "China Handbook 1943" and the "Chinese Year Book 1944-1945" each contained a detailled directory of agencies under the ROC central government, divided in six categories:
✿ National Government State Council (guomin zhengfu weiyuanhui 國民政府委員會),
✿ Executive Yuan (xingzhengyuan 行政院),
✿ Legislative Yuan (lifayuan 立法院),
✿ Judicial Yuan (sifayuan 司法院),
✿ Control Yuan (jianchayuan 監察院), and
✿ Examination Yuan (kaoshiyuan 考試院).

TOP   HOME    [◆ Executive Yuan history]   [Development before WWII]

ROC government agencies listed in the "China Handbook 1943"

National Government State Council:
 Department of Civil Affairs (wenguanchu 文官處),
 Department of Military Affairs (canjunchu 參軍處),
 Comptroller-General's Office (zhujichu主計處),
 Commission for the Disciplinary Punishment of Political Officials (zhengwuguan chengjie weiyuanhui 政務官懲戒委員會),
 National Military Council (junshi weiyuanhui 軍事委員會), and
 Academia Sinica (zhongyang yanjiuyuan 中央研究院);

Executive Yuan:
 Ministry of Interior (MOI),
 Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA),
 Ministry of Finance (MOF),
 Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA),
 Ministry of Communications,
 Ministry of Education (MOE),
 Commission on Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs (mengzang weiyuanhui 蒙藏委員會),
 Commission on Overseas Chinese Affairs (qiaowu weiyuanhui 僑務委員會),
 National Relief Commission (zhenji weiyuanhui 賑濟委員會),
 Board of Trustees for the Administration of the Indemnity Funds Remitted by the British Government (guanli Zhong Ying gengkuan dongshihui 管理中英庚款董事會), and
 National Commission on Aeronautical Affairs (Zhongguo hangkong jianshe xiehui 中國航空建設協會);

Legislative Yuan;

Judicial Yuan:
 Ministry of Justice (sifa xingzhengbu 司法行政部, abbrev. MOJ),
 Supreme Court (zuigao fayuan 最高法院),
 Administrative Court (xingzheng fayuan 行政法院), and
 Commission for the Disciplinary Punishment of Public Functionaries (zhongyang gongwuyuan chengjie weiyuanhui 中央公務員懲戒委員會);

Control Yuan:
 Ministry of Audit (shenjibu 審計部);

Examination Yuan:
 Ministry of Personnel (quanxubu 銓敘部), and
 Examination Commission (kaoxuan weiyuanhui 考選委員會).

TOP   HOME    [◆ Executive Yuan history]   [Development before WWII]

ROC government agencies listed in the "Chinese Year Book 1944-1945"

National Government State Council:
 Department of Civil Affairs,
 Department of Military Affairs,
 Comptroller-General's Office,
 Academia Sinica,
 Exploits Examination Commission (jixun weiyuanhui 稽勛委員會),
 Commission for the Disciplinary Punishment of Political Officials, and
 National Military Council;

Executive Yuan:
 Ministry of Interior (MOI),
 Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA),
 Ministry of War,
 Ministry of Finance (MOF),
 Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA),
 Ministry of Education (MOE),
 Ministry of Communications,
 Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry,
 Ministry of Social Affairs,
 Ministry of Food,
 Ministry of Justice (MOJ),
 Commission on Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs,
 Overseas Affairs Commission (qiaowu weiyuanhui 僑務委員會),
 National Conservancy Board (shuili weiyuanhui 水利委員會),
 National Health Administration (weishengshu 衛生署),
 National Land Administration (dizhengshu 地政署),
 Chinese National Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (shanhou jiuji zongshu 善後救濟總署),
 Office of Special Commission for Mongol Banners in Chahar (Chahaer mengqi tepai yuangongshu 察哈爾蒙旗特派員公署),
 Suiyuan Mongolian Local Self-government Political Commission (Suiyuansheng jingnei Menggu gemengqi difang zizhi zhengwu weiyuanhui 綏遠省境內蒙古各盟旗地方自治政務委員會),
 Office of Special Political Commission for Mongol Banners (mengqi xuanhua shigongshu 蒙旗宣化使公署),
 Political Committee of the Generalissimo's Headquarters in the Northeast (junshi weiyuanhui weiyuanzhang dongbei xingying zhengzhi weiyuanhui 軍事委員會委員長東北行營政治委員會),
 Economic Affairs Committee of the Generalissimo's Headquarters in the Northeast (junshi weiyuanhui weiyuanzhang dongbei xingying jingji weiyuanhui 軍事委員會委員長東北行營經濟委員會),
 Taiwan Administration Office (Taiwan xingzheng zhangguan gongshu 台灣行政長官公署),
 National Publication Examination Committee (zhongyang tushu zazhi shencha weiyuanhui 中央圖書雜誌審查委員會), and
 Committee for the Taking-over of All China, Japanese and Puppet Enterprises in Recovered Areas (xingzhengyuan shoufuqu quanguoxing shiye jieshou weiyuanhui 行政院收復區全國性事業接收委員會);

Legislative Yuan;

Judicial Yuan:
 Administrative Court,
 Commission for the Disciplinary Punishment of Public Functionaries;

Control Yuan:
 Ministry of Audit;

Examination Yuan:
 Ministry of Personnel, and
 Commission of Civil Service Examinations (kaoxuan weiyuanhui 考選委員會).

TOP   HOME    [◆ Executive Yuan history]   [Development before WWII]


Unsteady years: The Chinese Civil War and its aftermath

After the long-standing conflict between the KMT-led ROC government and Communist rebels broke out again following Japan's surrender in 1945, the Executive Yuan experienced frequent changes in a relatively short time. The table below shows details on the ROC government restructuring according to information listed on the website of the ROC Executive Yuan. The date refers to the day a particular government restructuring took effect.

Date Structure / agencies under the ROC Executive Yuan
1947,
March 31
17 agencies—
14 ministries (bu 部): Ministry of Interior (MOI), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA), Ministry of National Defense (MND), Ministry of Finance (MOF), Ministry of Education (MOE), Ministry of Justice (MOJ), Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Ministry of Commerce, Ministry of Communications, Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications (youdianbu 郵電部), Ministry of Labour Affairs (laodongbu 勞動部), Ministry of Water Resources (shuilibu 水利部), Ministry of Land Administration (dizhengbu 地政部), Ministry of Health (weishengbu 衛生部, abbrev. MOH)
3 councils/commissions (hui 會): Resources Commission (ziyuan weiyuanhui 資源委員會), Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission (MTAC), Overseas Chinese Affairs Commission (OCAC)
1947,
April 22
19 agencies—
15 ministries (bu 部): MOI, MOFA, MND, MOF, Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA), MOE, Ministry of Communications, Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Ministry of Social Affairs, Ministry of Food, Ministry of Water Resources, MOJ, Ministry of Land Administration, MOH
3 councils/commissions (hui 會): Resources Commission, MTAC, OCAC
1 office (ju 局): Government Information Office (GIO)
1947,
Dec. 25
19 agencies—
14 ministries (bu 部): MOI, MOFA, MND, MOF, MOE, MOJ, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Ministry of Commerce, Ministry of Communications, Ministry of Social Affairs, Ministry of Water Resources, Ministry of Land Administration, MOH, Ministry of Food
3 councils/commissions (hui 會): Resources Commission, MTAC, OCAC
1 directorate-general (chu 處): Directorate-General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics (zhujichu 主計處, abbrev. DGBAS)
1 office (ju 局): GIO
1948,
May 13
19 agencies—
15 ministries (bu 部): MOI, MOFA, MND, MOF, MOE, MOJ, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Ministry of Commerce, Ministry of Communications, Ministry of Social Affairs, Ministry of Water Resources, Ministry of Land Administration, MOH, Ministry of Food, Ministry of Budget, Accounting and Statistics (zhujibu 主計部)
3 councils/commissions (hui 會): Resources Commission, MTAC, OCAC
1 office (ju 局): GIO
1949,
March 21
11 agencies—
8 ministries (bu 部): MOI, MOFA, MND, MOF, MOE, MOJ, MOEA, Ministry of Communications
2 councils/commissions (hui 會): MTAC, OCAC
1 directorate-general (chu 處): DGBAS
1952,
Nov. 20
12 agencies—
8 ministries (bu 部): MOI, MOFA, MND, MOF, MOE, MOJ, MOEA, Ministry of Communications
2 councils/commissions (hui 會): MTAC, OCAC
1 directorate-general (chu 處): DGBAS
1 office (ju 局): GIO

The most significant ROC government restructuring before the 1950s was the one which was enacted on March 21, 1949 and saw the reduction from 15 to 8 ministries:

  • The Ministry of Social Affairs, Ministry of Land administration, and the Ministry of Health were integrated into the Ministry of Interior.
  • The Ministry of Food was integrated into the Ministry of Finance.
  • The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Ministry of Commerce, Ministry of Water Resources and the Resources Commission were merged into the Ministry of Economic Affairs.

Other agencies like the Council of Agriculture (COA), the Central Bank, the National Palace Museum (NPM), and the Council for Economic Planning and Development (CEPD) which were established before 1949—some of them under a different name—became cabinet-level agencies at a later date.

TOP   HOME    [◆ Executive Yuan history]   [After civil war]


New cabinet-level agencies established between 1954 and 2006

1954, Nov. 1 Veterans Affairs Commission (VAC)  
1955, May 31 Atomic Energy Council (AEC) []
1959, Feb. 1 National Science Council (NSC)  
1966, Jan. 28 National Youth Commission (NYC)
1967, Sept. 16 Central Personnel Administration (renxingju人行局, abbrev. CPA)   
1969, March 1 Research, Development and Evaluation Commission (RDEC)
1971, March 17 Department of Health (DOH)  
1980, July 16 Central Election Commission (CEC)  
1987, Aug. 1 Council of Labor Affairs (CLA)  
1987, Aug. 22 Environmental Protection Administration (EPA)  
1991, Feb. 7 Mainland Affairs Council (MAC)  
1992, Jan. 27 Fair Trade Commission (FTC)  
1994, July 1 Consumer Protection Commission
1995, July 20 Public Construction Commission (PCC) []
1996, Dec. 10 Council of Indigenous Peoples (CIP)  
1997, July 16 Sports Affairs Council (SAC)
1998, May 25 Aviation Safety Council (ASC)  
2000, Jan. 28 Coast Guard Administration (CGA)  
2000, June 1 921 Earthquake Post-Disaster Recovery Commission
2001, June 14 Hakka Affairs Council (HAC)  
2004, July 1 Financial Supervisory Commission (FSC)  
2006, Feb. 22 National Communications Commission (NCC)  

Note: The square brackets around the "" symbol in above list indicate that the agency is still extant and has not been abolished yet.

TOP   HOME    [◆ Executive Yuan history]   [New agencies 1954–2006]


2012–2014 Restructuring of the Executive Yuan

A comprehensive undertaking of ROC government restructuring was started on Jan. 1, 2012 and was scheduled to be completed by Jan. 1, 2015. According to the plan, the number of cabinet-level agencies under the Executive Yuan was to be reduced from 37 to 29 (for details see tables below). A new Speaker Office under the Executive Yuan (xingzhengyuan fayanren shi 行政院發言人室) was established as well.

Structure before Jan. 1, 2012 Planned structure after Jan. 1, 2015
8 ministries (bu 部)
21 commissions/councils (weiyuanhui 委員會)
2 offices/administrations (ju 局)
3 administrations/departments (shu 署)
1 directorate (chu 處): DGBAS
1 bank (hang 行): Central Bank
1 museum (yuan 院): NPM
14 ministries (bu 部)
8 commissions/councils (weiyuanhui 委員會)
2 directorates/administrations (zongchu 總處): DGBAS, DGPA
3 independent agencies (duli jiguan 獨立機關): FTC, NCC, CEC
2 affiliated agencies (fushu jiguan 附屬機關): Central Bank, NPM

Behind schedule

The table below is a comparative overview showing a more detailed summary of the 2012–2014 ROC government restructuring. Contrary to the original planning, the restructuring process has not been completed yet.

Cabinet before Jan. 1, 2012 (37 agencies) Planned cabinet after Jan. 1, 2015 (29 agencies)
MOI MOI
MOFA MOFA
MND MND
MOJ MOJ
MOF MOF
MOE MOE
MOEA Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy
(jingji ji nengyuanbu 經濟及能源部)
MOTC Ministry of Transport and Construction
(jiaotong ji jianshebu 交通及建設部)
COA Ministry of Agriculture (nongyebu 農業部, abbrev. MOA)
CLA Ministry of Labor (laodongbu 勞動部, abbrev. MOL)
EPA Ministry of Environment
(huanjingbu 環境部, abbrev. MOENV)
DOH Ministry of Health and Welfare
(weisheng fulibu 衛生福利部, abbrev. MOHW)
NSC Ministry of Science and Technology
(kejibu 科技部, abbrev. MOST)
CCA Ministry of Culture (wenhuabu 文化部, abbrev. MOC)
MAC MAC
VAC VAC
OCAC OCAC
HAC HAC
CIP CIP
FSC FSC
FTC FTC (independent agency)
NCC NCC (independent agency)
CEC CEC (independent agency)
Central Bank Central Bank (affiliated agency)
NPM NPM (affiliated agency)
DGBAS DGBAS (zhuji zongchu 主計總處)
CPA Directorate-General of Personnel Administration
(renshi xingzheng zongchu 人事行政總處, abbrev. DGPA)
CGA Ocean Affairs Council
(haiyang weiyuanhui 海洋委員會, abbrev. OAC)
CEPD National Development Council
(guojia fazhan weiyuanhui 國家發展委員會, abbrev. NDC)
RDEC
Consumer Protection Commission
Explanation of symbols in this table
 Agency remained unchanged
 Agency was renamed/upgraded/transformed
 Agency will be renamed/upgraded/transformed
 Agency was abolished
 Agency will be abolished
GIO
SAC
NYC
MTAC
AEC
PCC

TOP   HOME    [◆ Executive Yuan history]   [EY restructuring since 2012]

Timetable

The relevant law for cabinet restructuring—the Provisional Act for Adjustment of Functions and Organizations of the Executive Yuan (xingzhengyuan gongneng yewu yu zuzhi tiaozheng zhanxing tiaoli 行政院功能業務與組織調整暫行條例), promulgated on Feb. 3, 2010—was first amended on Dec. 23, 2015 to extend the effective period to allow more time for the restructuring. On Oct. 19, 2017 the Cabinet announced that it would extend the expiration date of said law from Jan. 31, 2018 to Jan. 31, 2020. Another two-year extension of that law was promulgated by presidential order on Dec. 31, 2019. On Dec. 29, 2021 the act mentioned above was renamed, amended and promulgated under the name "Act for Adjustment of Functions and Organizations of the Executive Yuan" (xingzhengyuan gongneng yewu yu zuzhi tiaozheng tiaoli 行政院功能業務與組織調整條例).

2012 Jan. 1 The Consumer Protection Commission is downgraded
Feb. 6 The DGBAS and the CPA are renamed
May 20 The CCA is upgraded to Ministry of Culture (MOC), and the GIO is abolished 
2013Jan. 1 The NYC is abolished
Jan. 2 The SAC is abolished
July 23 The DOH is upgraded to Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW)
2014Jan. 22 The CEPD and the RDEC are merged to National Development Council (NDC) 
Feb. 17 The CLA is upgraded to Ministry of Labor (MOL)
March 3 The NSC is upgraded to Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST)

Originally, the restructuring of the ROC cabinet was supposed to be complete by Jan. 1, 2015. After the transfer of power from the KMT to the DPP following the 2016 ROC presidential election, the cabinet restructuring project was not abandoned but partially adjusted.

2017 Sept. 15 The MTAC is abolished
2018April 28 The CGA is reorganized and merged into the Ocean Affairs Council (OAC)
2022July 27 The MOST is reorganized as National Science and Technology Council (guojia kexue ji jishu weiyuanhui 國家科學及技術委員會, abbrev. NSTC in English and guokehui 國科會 in Chinese)
Aug. 27 A new Ministry of Digital Affairs (shuwei fazhanbu 數位發展部, abbrev. shuweibu 數位部 in Chinese and MODA in English) is founded
2023Aug. 1 The COA is upgraded to Ministry of Agriculture (MOA)
Aug. 22 The EPA is upgraded, yet not to Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (huanjing ziyuanbu 環境資源部) as originally planned but to Ministry of Environment (huanjingbu 環境部, abbrev. MOENV)
Sept. 27 The AEC is not downgraded as originally planned but restructured to Nuclear Safety Commission (heneng anquan weiyuanhui 核能安全委員會, abbrev. he'anhui 核安會 in Chinese and NSC in English) outside the ROC cabinet

Since the upgrade from EPA to MOENV and the reorganizing of AEC to NSC, the cabinet structure under the ROC Executive Yuan has been consisting of 14 ministries (bu 部), 13 councils/commissions (hui 會), 2 directorate-generals (zongchu 總處), and 2 other institutions (see table below).

14 ministries 13 councils / commissions 2 directorate-generals
MOI [內政部]
MOFA [外交部]
MND [國防部]
MOJ [法務部]
MOEA [經濟部]
MOF [財政部]
MOTC [交通部]
MOE [教育部]
MOC [文化部]
MOHW [衛福部]
MOL [勞動部]
MODA [數位部]
MOA [農葉部]
MOENV [環境部] 
NSTC [國科會]
MAC [陸委會]
NDC [國發會]
OAC [海委會]
FTC [公交會]
PCC [工程會]
NCC [通傳會]
FSC [金管會]
CEC [中選會]
VAC [退輔會]
OCAC [僑委會]
HAC [客委會] 
CIP [原民會]
DGBAS [主計總處]
DGPA [人事總處]



2 other institutions
ROC Central Bank [央行] 
NPM [故宮]



As for the remaining restructuring process, at the end of April 2024 the designated changes for the MOEA, MOTC and PCC have not been implemented yet and no dates had been set for related measures.

TOP   HOME    [◆ Executive Yuan history]   [EY restructuring since 2012]

===== ===== ===== ===== =====

◆ A few remarks about the ROC before 1928

++++++++++   TOP   HOME    [previous chapter]   ++++++++++


The Xinhai Revolution

Decline of the Qing and mounting opposition

Xinhai Revolution (xinhai geming 辛亥革命) aka Hsinhai Revolution is the term used for describing the events which brought down the Qing dynasty (1644-1911), paving the way for the establishment of the ROC. The Qing dynasty was dominated by ethnic Manchus who had swept away the Ming dynasty (1368-1644), and before the late 18th century the rule of the Qing in China had by and large been unchallenged. But around the turn to the 19th century Western powers—especially Great Britain—began to apply pressure aiming at opening China to trade and diplomacy. As no agreement between the Qing and the Western powers concerning rules for relations acceptable for both sides was reached, the differences soon escalated into military conflict where the Qing were confronted with their enemy's superior firepower.

Within a century Qing rule was greatly weakened. Humiliating defeats in wars like the First Opium War (diyi yapian zhanzheng 第一鴉片戰爭) 1841-1842, the Second Opium War (dier yapian zhanzheng 第二鴉片戰爭) 1856-1860, the First Sino-Japanese War (jiawu zhanzheng 甲午戰爭) 1894-1895 and others forced the Qing to make painful concessions, sign several Unequal Treaties (bu pingdeng tiaoyue 不平等條約) and allow the establishment of foreign concessions in major Chinese cities. The grip of the Qing on power slipped further as a result of major internal uprisings like the Taiping Rebellion (Taiping Tianguo 太平天國) 1850-1864 and the insurgency of the Boxers (Yihetuan 義和團) in 1900.

Under the terms of the Unequal Treaties, the Qing were forced to pay the foreign colonial powers substantial amounts of money. To pay their debts, the Qing depended on foreign loans, and collateral was offered in form of economic privileges. In this respect, railway construction played a key role, as new railways were often financed and built by foreigners, and the foreigners gradually assumed the right to exploit natural resources along the new railway routes. Widespread resentment against foreign domination in railway construction gave birth to the Railway Protection Movement (baolu yundong 保路運動) and fuelled growing nationalism and anti-Manchu sentiment. The stage was thus set for the improvised Wuchang Uprising (Wuchang qiyi 武昌起義) and the Xinhai Revolution in 1911.

In 1894 the "Revive China Society" (xing Zhong hui 興中會) was founded in Honolulu, its leader was Sun Yat-sen 孫逸仙. Sun was a native of Guangdong, a physician educated in Hong Kong and Hawaii. Around 1897 while in exile in Europe, Sun formulated the "Three Principles of the People" (sanmin zhuyi 三民主義) which represented his political philosophy and consisted of nationalism (minzu 民族), democracy (minquan 民權) and livelihood (minsheng 民生). "Nationalism" meant having a nation state and China being free of foreign control, "democracy" meant ending Manchu rule and establishing a democratic government, "livelihood" meant economic prosperity—or socialism, according to a different interpretation.

In 1903 Huang Hsing 黃興, Sung Chiao-jen 宋教仁 and ten other revolutionaries founded the "Society for the Revival of China" (Huaxinghui 華興會) in Changsha, and in 1904 the "Restoration Society" (guangfuhui 光復會) was established by Tsai Yuan-pei 蔡元培 and others in Shanghai. In 1905 the three organizations merged to become the "United League" (tongmenghui 同盟會 or Zhongguo tongmenghui 中國同盟會) in Tokyo. The goals of the United League were both radical and moderate—radical concerning the Qing as they advocated revolution and the establishment of a parliamentary democracy, but moderate concerning foreigners, because the revolutionaries were well aware that their chances for success were zero if they made enemies of foreign nations, so they pledged to abide by the treaties signed with foreign powers.

TOP   HOME   [◆ ROC before 1928]   [Xinhai revolution]

The Wuchang Uprising and its aftermath

The Xinhai Revolution itself came about, with very little planning aforehand, as the result of railway disturbances and a hasty uprising in Wuchang. It began with a decision of the Qing government to award a US consortium the right to build a railway in Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, and Sichuan, causing a storm of nationalistic protests. In May 1911, the Qing government announced a policy of nationalizing the railroads but still had to turn to foreign creditors due to the empire's dire financial situation. In August and September, the "Sichuan Railroad Protection Society" (Sichuan baolu tongzhihui 四川保路同志會) staged demonstrations with more than 10,000 participants in Chengdu, prompting the government to dispatch elite troops from Wuchang. While a bloody crackdown occurred in Chengdu on Sept. 7, members of the cooperating revolutionary organizations "Literary Society" (wenxueshe 文學社) and "Forward Together Society" (gongjinhui 共進會) decided to use the opportunity of Wuchang being empty of troops to start a rebellion.

After coordination with Huang Hsing and Sung Chiao-jen of the United League, they set Oct. 16 as the date their revolution would begin. But on Oct. 9 a homemade explosive device in the clandestine rebel headquarter (located in the Russian concession of Hankow) accidentially detonated. In the subsequent police raids 32 revolutionaries were arrested and weapons, explosives, and important documents (including membership lists of the revolutionary organizations) were seized. The revolutionaries, who had been joined by elements of the Qing imperial army, now had no choice but to strike immediately.

On Oct. 10, 1911, the rebels seized the government munitions depot in Wuchang and attacked the office of the local governor-general. On that same day the rebels gained control of Wuchang. Two days later the neighbouring cities Hankow and Hanyang were in their hands, and by the end of October the whole of Hubei Province. A local senior military officer named Li Yuan-hung 黎元洪 who had supported the railway protection movement was persuaded to become provisional military governor of Hubei. In the following weeks most of the Chinese provinces declared their independence from the Qing government, leaving the Manchus only in control of Beijing, Zhili, Henan, and Gansu.

At the time of the Wuchang Uprising, Sun Yat-sen was in the US, but he hurried back to China by ship as soon as he heard the news. On Dec. 25 he arrived in Shanghai, and four days later delegates from the provinces which had declared their independence from the Qing gathered in Shanghai and elected Sun provisional president of the ROC, and Li Yuan-hung was elected ROC vice president. Sun traveled to Nanjing where he officially proclaimed the founding of the ROC on Jan. 1, 1912. But at that time, the Qing court was still fighting for power and not willing to give up yet.

After the first provinces defected in October 1911, the Manchus were desperate and resorted to recalling General Yuan Shikai 袁世凱, making him prime minister (zongli dachen 總理大臣) on Nov. 1. The troops of the modern Beiyang Army (beiyang lujun 北洋陸軍) were personally loyal to Yuan, and the Qing relied on them to turn the tide. On the other hand, the revolutionaries needed Yuan as well because they were not strong enough to overthrow the Qing or force their abdication, so the goals of the revolution could not be reached without Yuan's assistance. Sun Yat-sen and Huang Hsing agreed that Yuan was the only hope to prevent a civil war. Wooed by both sides, Yuan for his part saw the events as an opportunity to seize power for himself, and the revolutionaries, who had already accomplished quite a lot, were the right tool to get rid of the Qing. The revolutionaries offered Yuan the ROC presidency if he achieved the abdication of the Qing emperor. After the provisional ROC government was set up, Yuan declared to the Qing court that the monarchy could no longer be defended, and on Feb. 12, 1912 the Qing finally issued an edict renouncing the throne of China. Sun Yat-sen resigned two days later, and Yuan Shikai became ROC president on Feb. 15, 1912, retaining Li Yuan-hung as vice president. Although Yuan sabotaged the development of democracy and strived to make himself emperor (see details in the next subchapter), his importance for preserving China's unity became evident after his death in 1916 when China quickly disintegrated into the chaos of the warlord period.

TOP   HOME   [◆ ROC before 1928]   [Xinhai revolution]

List of the most important Unequal Treaties

Unequal treaty Year Consignatories
Treaty of Nanjing 南京條約 1842  UK
Treaty of Wanghia 中美望廈條約 1844USA
Treaty of Whampoa 黃埔條約 1844France
Treaty of Aigun 中俄璦琿條約 1858Russia
Treaty of Tianjin 天津條約 1858UK, France, Russia, USA
First Convention of Peking 北京條約 1860UK, France, Russia
Treaty of Shimonoseki 馬關條約 1895Japan
Boxer Protocol 辛丑條約 1901  Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia,
UK, USA (+ Belgium, Netherlands, Spain)

TOP   HOME   [◆ ROC before 1928]   [Xinhai revolution]

Colonial powers and their possessions in China

Country Possession(s) Period
BritainHong Kong 香港1842-1997
Kowloon 九龍1860-1997
New Territories 新界1898-1997
Weihaiwei 威海衛
(present-day Weihai City 威海市, Shandong Province)
1898-1930
FranceGuangzhouwan 廣州灣
(present-day Zhanjiang City 湛江市, Guangdong Province)
1898-1943
Germany Qingdao 青島, Jiaozhou 膠州 (both Shandong Province)1898-1914
JapanTaiwan 台灣1895-1945
Port Arthur 旅順
(present-day Dalian City 大連市, Liaoning Province)
1905
Qingdao, Jiaozhou1914-1922
Manchuria as Japanese puppet regime (Manchukuo 滿州國) 1932-1945
PortugalMacau 澳門1557 / 1887-1999 
RussiaPort Arthur1898-1905
Manchuria1900-1905

A detailed summary of the history of imperial China can be found here.

TOP   HOME    [◆ ROC before 1928]   [Xinhai revolution]


The ROC central government 1912-1916

After the revolution

In retrospective, the political system and government structure of the ROC before 1928 are of limited significance for today's ROC because the current system with the Five Yuan did not exist before that year. The main periods before 1928 are the era Yuan Shikai (1912-1916) and the Warlord period (1916-1928). The following paragraphs focus on the era of Yuan Shikai's presidency because in the Warlord period there was no undisputed ROC central government—the political order had dissolved after Yuan Shikai's death in June 1916, leading to a period of division dominated by local warlords (junfa 軍伐). National unity was restored only with the defeat of the warlords by Chiang Kai-shek in July 1928.

Key figures in the development of events in late 1911 and early 1912 were Sun Yat-sen 孫逸仙 (1866-1925) and Yuan Shikai 袁世凱 (1859-1916). Sun is being revered as the father of the nation to this day, and indeed he had dedicated his life to overthrow the Qing, while his vision for a post-Qing state found its expression in the Three Principles of the People (sanmin zhuyi 三民主義). Yuan on the other hand was not a visionary, but he was regarded instrumental in persuading the Qing to relinquish rule over China and prevent a civil war. Yuan cooperated with the revolutionaries with the goal to promote his own rise to the top and eventually make himself emperor. Sun agreed to step aside and accept Yuan as ROC president in 1912 because at the time he believed this was the best way to preserve the young republic.

In the wake of the 1911 Hsinhai Revolution, the Qing court witnessed the rapid erosion of its power as one province after another declared itself independent. The revolutionaries proclaimed the founding of the Republic of China on Jan. 1, 1912 in Nanjing with Sun Yat-sen as provisional president (linshi da zongtong 臨時大總統). A Provisional Senate (linshi canyiyuan 臨時參議院) was established there on Jan. 28 that year. The first cabinet assembled by the revolutionaries included the following agencies, each headed by a minister (zongzhang 總長): Ministry of War (lujunbu 陸軍部) aka Ministry of the Army, Ministry of the Navy (haijunbu 海軍部), Ministry of Internal Affairs (neiwubu 內務部), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (waijiaobu 外交部), Ministry of the Judiciary (sifabu 司法部), Ministry of Education (jiaoyubu 教育部), Ministry of Finance (caizhengbu 財政部), Ministry of Communications (jiaotongbu 交通部), Ministry of Commerce (shiyebu 實業部), and there was also the position of Chief of Staff (canmou benbu 參謀本部).

The Qing government structure should briefly be mentioned here for comparison. While in Imperial China the emperor (huangdi 皇帝) was generally the absolute ruler, a core government institution in the second half of the Qing Dynasty was the Grand Council (junjichu 軍機處), formally established in 1732 as a major policy-making body. Besides this, there were six ministries—Board of Civil Appointments (libu 吏部), Board of Finance (hubu 戶部), Board of Rites (libu 禮部), Board of War (bingbu 兵部), Board of Punishments (xingbu 刑部), and Board of Works (gongbu 工部). An agency especially tasked with handling foreign affairs was the "Zongli Yamen" (總理衙門), established on March 11, 1861.

TOP   HOME   [◆ ROC before 1928]   [Central government 1912–1916]

Monarchy dismantled

After the Qing court bowed to the pressure and abdicated on Feb. 12, 1912, Sun Yat-sen stepped aside the following day, and the Provisional Senate elected Yuan Shikai president on Feb. 15. A provisional constitution (Zhonghua minguo linshi yuefa 中華民國臨時約法) was promulgated on March 11. Two days later a new cabinet headed by Tang Shao-yi 唐紹儀 was appointed. (The successive cabinets under Yuan's leadership and their members are listed below.)

The revolutionaries had designed Nanjing to be the nation's new capital, but after Yuan had refused to leave his power base Beijing, the Provisional Senate resolved to move the seat of the government from Nanjing to Beijing on April 5, 1912.

According to the provisional constitution, a parliament was to be elected within six months of the formation of the government, and on Aug. 10, 1912 the Provisional Senate promulgated relevant election laws for a bicameral system comprising a Senate (canyiyuan 參議院) and a House of Representatives (zhongyiyuan 眾議院). Elections took place from December 1912 to January 1913, eligible voters were adult males over the age of 21 who were educated or owned property and paid taxes and who could prove two-year residency in a particular county. China's population at that time stood at ca. 406.8 million persons, the number of votes cast was 42,933,992—about 10.5 percent of the total population.

An addition to the KMT, three major parties fielded candidates in the elections:

  • Republican Party (gonghedang 共和黨): established on May 9, 1912,
  • Unity Party (tongyidang 統一黨): established on Jan. 30, 1912, and
  • Democratic Party (minzhudang 民主黨): established on Aug. 27, 1912.

On April 6, 1913 the Provisional Senate was dissolved, and the newly elected Congress (guohui 國會) composed of the Senate with 274 seats and the House with 596 seats convened on April 8 that year. The table below shows the distribution of seats in the Congress, the figures in brackets refer to the respective seat percentage.

Political Party Senate House Total seats
KMT 123 (44.890 %) 269 (45.134 %) 392 (45.057 %)
Republican Party 55 (20.072 %) 120 (20.134 %) 175 (20.114 %)
Unity Party 6 (2.189 %) 18 (3.020 %) 24 (2.758 %)
Democratic Party 8 (2.919 %) 16 (2.684 %) 24 (2.758 %)
Other 38 (13.868 %) 147 (24.664 %) 185 (21.264 %)
Independent 44 (16.058 %) 26 (4.362 %) 70 (8.045 %)

The Republican Party, the Unity Party and the Democratic Party merged to the Progressive Party (jinbudang 進步黨) on May 29, 1913, but when Yuan Shikai pronounced himself emperor and outlawed all political parties, the Progressive Party was dissolved, and some of its leaders, including Liang Chi-chao 梁啟超 (1873-1929), participated in the campaign of the National Protection Army (huguojun 護國軍) against Yuan in late 1915.

The young KMT heavyweight Sung Chiao-jen 宋教仁 had played a major role in his party's election victory and was widely regarded as a prime candidate for the position of premier. After he had shown indications of a desire to limit Yuan's powers within the new government, he was shot by assassins on March 20, 1913 and died two days later. Subsequent investigations implicated premier Chao Ping-chun 趙秉鈞 and possibly Yuan Shikai himself.

TOP   HOME   [◆ ROC before 1928]   [Central government 1912–1916]

Troubled young republic

Open resistance against Yuan's increasingly dictatorial rule broke out on July 12, 1913 in Jiangxi, events which were later called "Second Revolution" (erci geming 二次革命), but Yuan had little trouble crushing the poorly equipped movement. In the aftermath Huang Xing 黃興 (1874-1916), one of the leading forces of the rebellion, fled to Japan, as did Sun Yat-sen in August 1913.

The process of presidential election was set in motion by the Congress on Oct. 6, 1913. Yuan Shikai was elected in the third ballot, and on Oct. 10 he was formally inaugurated as president—the provisional government of the ROC then became the regular government.

On Oct. 31, 1913 the Congress promulgated the "Tiantan Constitution draft" (tiantan xianfa caoan 天壇憲法草案) which adopted a cabinet rather than a presidential system in order to check Yuan's powers. Yuan retaliated by dissolving the KMT on Nov. 4 and revoking the credentials of 358 of its parlamentarians on the pretext of their involvement in the Second Revolution. After that the Congress lacked a legal quorum, and Yuan disbanded it on Jan. 10, 1914.

Yuan went on to call a National Conference (guomin dahui 國民大會) on March 18, 1914 to revise the 1912 provisional constitution. On May 1, 1914 the provisional constitution was annulled, and the Constitutional Compact (Zhonghua minguo yuefa 中華民國約法) was promulgated instead. It extended the presidential term to 10 years, renewable by re-election without limit, and giving the president the right to name his own successor.

TOP   HOME   [◆ ROC before 1928]   [Central government 1912–1916]

Failed restoration of monarchy

On Aug. 21, 1915 a Peace-Planning Society (chouanhui 籌安會) was organized to draft Yuan for emperor, and after a National People's Representative Assembly (guomin daibiao dahui 國民代表大會) had approved monarchy on Nov. 20, 1915, Yuan Shikai 'agreed' to become emperor of the "Empire of China" (Zhonghua diguo 中華帝國) on Dec. 12, 1915, taking the era name "Hongxian" 洪憲.

At that time, mounting opposition and resistance forced Yuan to postpone the accession rites. A National Protection Army in Yunnan issued an ultimatum to Yuan on Dec. 23, 1915 to cancel the monarchist movement, which Yuan refused. Yunnan then declared independence on Dec. 25, 1915, and the National Protection Army launched a military campaign. Guangxi also declared independence on March 15, 1916. Meanwhile, domestic and international support for Yuan had dwindled—Tuan Chi-jui 段祺瑞 and Feng Kuo-chang 馮國璋 (1859-1919) both declined appointments as commander of the campaign against the National Protection Army on pretext of illness; Japan announced Yuan's administration had forfeited its right to represent China, and Japan would henceforth treat the north and the south as equal belligerent parties. Yuan was eventually forced to abolish monarchy on March 22, 1916, but nonetheless more provinces declared independence: Guangdong on April 6, Zhejiang on April 12, Shaanxi on May 9, Sichuan on May 22, and Hunan on May 27. On June 6, 1916, Yuan Shikai died, leaving the ROC in shambles and divided.

The following lists show the ROC cabinets and their members during Yuan Shikai's presidency.

TOP   HOME    [◆ ROC before 1928]   [Central government 1912–1916]


List of ROC cabinets before Yuan Shikai's death

Cabinet Appointed on Dismissed on
First Tang Shao-yi cabinet (diyici Tang Shaoyi neige 第一次唐紹儀內閣) 1912, March 13 1912, June 27
First Lou Tseng-tsiang cabinet (diyici Lu Zhengxiang neige 第一次陸徵祥內閣) 1912, June 29 1912, Sept. 22
Chao Ping-chun cabinet (Zhao Bingjun neige 趙秉鈞內閣) 1912, Sept. 25 1913, July 16
Temporary Tuan Chi-jui cabinet (Duan Qirui linshi neige 段祺瑞臨時內閣) 1913, July 19 1913, July 31
Hsiung Hsi-ling cabinet (Xiong Xiling neige 熊希齡內閣) 1913, July 31 1914, Feb. 12
Temporary Sun Pao-chi cabinet (Sun Baoqi linshi neige 孫寶琦臨時內閣) 1914, Feb. 12 1914, May 1
First Hsu Shih-chang cabinet (diyici Xu Shichang neige 第一次徐世昌內閣) 1914, May 1 1915, Dec. 21
Second Lou Tseng-tsiang cabinet (dierci Lu Zhengxiang neige 第二次陸徵祥內閣) 1915, Dec. 21 1916, March 22
Second Hsu Shih-chang cabinet (dierci Xu Shichang neige 第二次徐世昌內閣) 1916, March 22 1916, April 22
First Tuan Chi-jui cabinet (diyici Duan Qirui neige 第一次段祺瑞內閣) 1916, April 22 1916, June 29

TOP   HOME    [◆ ROC before 1928]   [Cabinets before 1916]


ROC cabinet members before Yuan Shikai's death

Premiers

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
3/1912—6/1912Tang Shao-yi 唐紹儀1862-1938Guangdong
6/1912—8/1912Lou Tseng-tsiang 陸徵祥1871-1949Shanghai
9/1912—4/1913Chao Ping-chun 趙秉鈞1859-1914Henan
5/1913—7/1913 @Tuan Chi-jui 段祺瑞1865-1936Anhui
7/1913 @Chu Ch'i-ch'ien 朱啟鈐1871-1964Henan/Guizhou
7/1913 @Tuan Chi-jui (second time acting)
7/1913—2/1914Hsiung Hsi-ling 熊希齡1870-1937Hunan
2/1914—4/1914Sun Pao-chi 孫寶琦1867-1931Zhejiang
5/1914—10/1914Hsu Shih-chang 徐世昌1855-1939Tianjin
10/1914—3/1916Lou Tseng-tsiang (second time)
3/1916—4/1916Hsu Shih-chang (second time)
4/1916—5/1917Tuan Chi-jui (third time)

Note: On May 1, 1914 the title of "premier" in Chinese was changed to guowuqing 國務卿.

TOP   HOME    [◆ ROC before 1928]   [Cabinet members before 1916]

Ministers of Interior

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
3/1912—5/1913Chao Ping-chun 趙秉鈞1859-1914Henan
5/1913—7/1913Yen Tun-yuan 言敦源1869-1932Jiangsu
7/1913—9/1913Wang Chih-hsin 王治馨1868-1914Shandong
9/1913—4/1916Chu Ch'i-ch'ien 朱啟鈐1871-1964Henan/Guizhou
4/1916—6/1916Wang Yi-tang 王揖唐1877-1948Anhui

TOP   HOME    [◆ ROC before 1928]   [Cabinet members before 1916]

Ministers of Finance

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
3/1912—6/1912Hsiung Hsi-ling 熊希齡1870-1937Hunan
7/1912 @Chao Ping-chun 趙秉鈞1859-1914Henan
7/1912—5/1913Chou Hsüeh-hsi 周學熙1866-1947Anhui
5/1913—9/1913 @Liang Shih-i 梁士詒1869-1933Guangdong
9/1913—2/1914Hsiung Hsi-ling (second time)
2/1914—4/1915Chow Tzu-ch'i 周自齊1869-1923Shandong
4/1915—4/1916Chou Hsüeh-hsi (second time)
4/1916—6/1916Sun Pao-chi 孫寶琦1867-1931Zhejiang

TOP   HOME    [◆ ROC before 1928]   [Cabinet members before 1916]

Foreign Ministers

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
3/1912—6/1912Hu Wei-te 胡惟德1863-1933Zhejiang
3/1912—9/1912Lou Tseng-tsiang 陸徵祥1871-1949Shanghai
9/1912—11/1912Liang Ju-hao 梁如浩1863-1941Guangdong
11/1912—9/1913Lou Tseng-tsiang (second time)
9/1913—1/1915Sun Pao-chi 孫寶琦1867-1931Zhejiang
1/1915—5/1916Lou Tseng-tsiang (third time)
5/1916—6/1916Tsao Ju-lin 曹汝霖1877-1966Shanghai

TOP   HOME    [◆ ROC before 1928]   [Cabinet members before 1916]

Ministers of War

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
3/1912—8/1915Tuan Chi-jui 段祺瑞1865-1936Anhui
8/1915—4/1916Wang Shih-chen 王士珍1861-1930Hebei
4/1916—5/1917Tuan Chi-jui (second time)

TOP   HOME    [◆ ROC before 1928]   [Cabinet members before 1916]

Ministers of Navy

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
3/1912—6/1916Liu Kuan-hsiung 劉冠雄1861-1927Fujian

TOP   HOME    [◆ ROC before 1928]   [Cabinet members before 1916]

Ministers of Justice

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
3/1912—7/1912Wang Chung-hui 王寵惠1881-1958Guangdong
7/1912—9/1913Hsu Shih-ying 許世英1873-1964Anhui
9/1913—2/1914Liang Chi-chao 梁啟超1873-1929Guangdong
2/1914—6/1916Chang Tsung-hsiang 章宗祥1879-1962Zhejiang

TOP   HOME    [◆ ROC before 1928]   [Cabinet members before 1916]

Ministers of Education

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
3/1912—7/1912Tsai Yuan-pei 蔡元培1868-1940Zhejiang
7/1912—1/1913Fan Yüan-lien 範源濂1876-1927Hunan
1/1913—3/1913 @Liu Kuan-hsiung 劉冠雄1861-1927Fujian
3/1913—5/1913Chen Chen-hsien 陳振先1876-1938Guangdong
5/1913—9/1913Tung Hung-wei 董鴻禕1878-1916Zhejiang
9/1913—2/1914Wang Ta-hsieh 汪大燮1859-1929Anhui
2/1914 Yen Hsiu 嚴修1860-1929Tianjin
2/1914—5/1914Tsai Ju-kai 蔡儒楷1869-1923Jiangxi
5/1914—10/1915Tang Hua-long 湯化龍1874-1918Hubei
10/1915—4/1916Chang I-lin 張一麐1867-1943Jiangsu
4/1916—6/1916Chang Kuo-kan 張國淦1876-1959Hubei

TOP   HOME    [◆ ROC before 1928]   [Cabinet members before 1916]

Ministers of Communications

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
3/1912—6/1912Alfred Sao-ke Sze 施肇基1877-1958Jiangsu
6/1912—7/1912 @Liu Kuan-hsiung 劉冠雄1861-1927Fujian
7/1912—9/1913Chu Ch'i-ch'ien 朱啟鈐1871-1964Henan/Guizhou
9/1913—2/1914Chow Tzu-ch'i 周自齊1869-1923Shandong
2/1914—5/1914Chu Ch'i-ch'ien (second time)
5/1914—4/1916Liang Tun-yen 梁敦彥1858-1924Guangdong
4/1916—6/1916Tsao Ju-lin 曹汝霖1877-1966Shanghai

TOP   HOME    [◆ ROC before 1928]   [Cabinet members before 1916]

Ministers of Commerce

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
3/1912 Chen Chi-mei 陳其美1878-1916Zhejiang
3/1912—6/1912Thomas Wang 王正廷1882-1961Zhejiang
7/1912Chang Hsin-wu 張新吾1879-1976Shanghai
8/1912—7/1913Liu K'ui-i 劉揆一1878-1950Hunan
7/1913—9/1913Hsiang Jui-k'un 向瑞琨1883-1929Hunan
9/1913—3/1914Chang Chien 張謇1853-1926Jiangsu

Note: On March 22, 1914 the Ministry of Commerce was merged with the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, the head of the new agency used the title "Minister of Agriculture and Commerce" (nongshang zongzhang農商總長).

TOP   HOME    [◆ ROC before 1928]   [Cabinet members before 1916]

Ministers of Agriculture and Forestry

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
3/1912—7/1912Sung Chiao-jen 宋教仁1882-1913Hunan
7/1912—9/1913Chen Chen-hsien 陳振先1876-1938Guangdong
9/1913—3/1915Chang Chien 張謇1853-1926Jiangsu
3/1915—4/1916Chow Tzu-ch'i 周自齊1869-1923Shandong
4/1916—6/1916Chin Pang-p'ing 金邦平1881-1946Anhui

TOP   HOME    [◆ ROC before 1928]   [Cabinet members before 1916]


Beiyang government premiers and FMs 1916–1928

Between Yuan Shikai's death in June 1916 and the successful conclusion of the Northern Expedition (beifa zhanzheng 北伐戰爭) in July 1928, the government based in Beijing—also referred to as Beiyang government (beiyang zhengfu 北洋政府)—lost control over most of the former ROC territory, but it was still recognized internationally als legitimate representative of China.

The following list shows the premiers (guowu zongli 國務總理) and foreign ministers (waijiao zongzhang 外交總長) of the Beiyang government only, its other cabinet members as well as the governments based in Canton are omitted here. For a lists of presidents in that period click here.

The national flag used by the Beiyang government was the five-coloured flag which had also been the ROC national flag since 1912. The symbol used by the Beiyang Army was the Beiyang Star.

Beiyang government premiers 1916–1928

Premier's tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
6/1916—5/1917Tuan Chi-jui 段祺瑞1865-1936Anhui
5/1917—6/1917 @Ng Achoy 伍廷芳1842-1922<Malacca>
6/1917 @Chiang Ch'ao-tsung 江朝宗1861-1943Anhui
5/1917—7/1917Lee Ching-hsi 李經羲1857-1925Anhui
7/1917—11/1917Tuan Chi-jui (second time)
11/1917 @Wang Ta-hsieh 汪大燮1859-1929Anhui
11/1917—2/1918Wang Shih-chen 王士珍1861-1930Hebei
2/1918—3/1918 @Chien Neng-hsun 錢能訓1869-1924Zhejiang
3/1918—10/1918Tuan Chi-jui (third time)
10/1918—6/1919Chien Neng-hsun (second time)
6/1919—9/1919 @Kung Hsin-chan 龔心湛1871-1943Anhui
9/1919—7/1920Chin Yun-peng 靳雲鵬1877-1951Shandong
5/1920—8/1920 @Sah Chen-ping 薩鎮冰1859-1952Fujian
8/1920—12/1921Chin Yun-peng (second time)
12/1921 @Yen Hui-ch'ing 顏惠慶1877-1950Shanghai
12/1921—5/1922Liang Shih-i 梁士詒1869-1933Guangdong
1/1922—4/1922 @Yen Hui-ch'ing (second time acting)
4/1922—6/1922 @Chow Tzu-ch'i 周自齊1869-1923Shandong
6/1922—8/1922Yen Hui-ch'ing (third time)
7/1922—9/1922 @Wang Chung-hui 王寵惠1881-1958Guangdong
8/1922—9/1922Tang Shao-yi 唐紹儀1862-1938Guangdong
9/1922—11/1922Wang Chung-hui (second time)
11/1922—12/1922Wang Ta-hsieh (second time)
12/1922—1/1923 @Thomas Wang 王正廷1882-1961Zhejiang
1/1923—6/1923Chang Shao-ts'eng 張紹曾1879-1928Hebei
6/1923—9/1923 @Lee Ken-yuan 李根源1879-1965Yunnan
6/1923—1/1924 @Kao Ling-wei 高凌霨1870-1940Tianjin
1/1924—7/1924Sun Pao-chi 孫寶琦1867-1931Zhejiang
7/1924—9/1924 @Wellington Koo 顧維鈞1888-1985Shanghai
9/1924—10/1924Yen Hui-ch'ing (fourth time)
10/1924—11/1924Huang Fu 黃郛1880-1936Zhejiang
11/1924—12/1925
>>> [vacant] <<<
12/1925—3/1926Hsu Shih-ying 許世英1873-1964Anhui
3/1926—4/1926Chia Te-yao 賈德耀1880-1941Anhui
4/1926—5/1926 @Hu Wei-te 胡惟德1863-1933Zhejiang
5/1926—6/1926Yen Hui-ch'ing (fifth time)
6/1926—10/1926 @Tu Hsi-kuei 杜錫珪1874-1933Fujian
10/1926—6/1927Wellington Koo (second time)
6/1927 @Hu Wei-te (second time)
6/1927—6/1928Pan Fu 潘復1883-1936Shandong

TOP   HOME    [◆ ROC before 1928]   [Beiyang government]

Beiyang government FMs 1916–1928

FM's tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
6/1916—9/1916 Tang Shao-yi 唐紹儀1862-1938Guangdong
6/1916—12/1916 @Chen Chin-tao 陳錦濤1871-1939Guangdong
10/1916—11/1916 @Hsia Yi-ting 夏詒霆1878-1944Jiangsu
11/1916—7/1917Ng Achoy 伍廷芳1842-1922<Malacca>
7/1917—11/1917Wang Ta-hsieh 汪大燮1859-1929Anhui
12/1917—2/1920 Lou Tseng-tsiang 陸徵祥1871-1949Shanghai
1/1919—2/1920Chen Lu 陳籙1877-1939Fujian
8/1920—8/1922Yen Hui-ch'ing 顏惠慶1877-1950Shanghai
8/1922—11/1922Wellington Koo 顧維鈞1888-1985Shanghai
11/1922—1/1923Thomas Wang 王正廷1882-1961Zhejiang
1/1923—2/1923Alfred Sao-ke Sze 施肇基1877-1958Jiangsu
2/1923—4/1923Huang Fu 黃郛1880-1936Zhejiang
4/1923—6/1923Wellington Koo (second time)
6/1923—7/1924Shen Jui-lin 沈瑞麟1874-1945Zhejiang
1/1924—10/1924Wellington Koo (third time)
10/1924—11/1924Thomas Wang (second time)
11/1924—2/1925 Tang Shao-yi (second time)
11/1924—12/1925Shen Jui-lin (second time)
12/1925—3/1926Thomas Wang (third time)
3/1926Yen Hui-ch'ing (second time)
3/1926—5/1926Hu Wei-te 胡惟德1863-1933Zhejiang
5/1926—6/1926 Alfred Sao-ke Sze (second time)
5/1926—6/1926Yen Hui-ch'ing (third time)
7/1926—10/1926Tsai Ting-kan 蔡廷幹1861-1935Guangdong
10/1926—6/1927Wellington Koo (fourth time)
6/1927—2/1928Wang Yin-tai 王蔭泰1886-1961Shanxi
2/1928—6/1928Lo Wen-kan 羅文幹1888-1941Guangdong

TOP   HOME    [◆ ROC before 1928]   [Beiyang government]

===== ===== ===== ===== =====