Taiwan Politics Database

ROC presidency

  1. Details about the office
  2. Presidents of the ROC 1912–1948
  3. Presidents / Vice Presidents of the ROC since 1948
  4. Biographical background of popularly elected ROC presidents (since 1996)

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◆ Details about the office

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Top job

The presidency is the highest and most powerful position in ROC politics. In Chinese, the president is called zongtong 總統 and the vice president fuzongtong 副總統, their office zongtongfu 總統府 (term applies both to the institution and its building in downtown Taipei).

Presidential Office 總統府
No. 122 Chongqing South Road Sec. 1,
Zhongzheng District, Taipei City 10048, Taiwan ROC
[10048 台北市中正區重慶南路 1 段 122 號]
🌏 Presidential Office – Web link
Older logo (before June 2017)


The president is not only head of state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces; he or she has the authority to appoint the head of the Executive Yuan (= premier), of the Judicial Yuan (as well as its grand justices [dafaguan 大法官]), of the Control Yuan, and of the Examination Yuan. Furthermore, the president represents the ROC in foreign relations.

Election and inauguration

Before March 1996, the president was elected by the National Assembly, since then the president has been elected directly by the citizens of the ROC. That change of the electoral process came along with a reduction of the president's term of office from six to four years, and he or she is now also barred from serving more than two consecutive terms. Following a presidential election, the winners (if not identical with the incumbent) are referred to as president-elect (zhun zongtong 準總統) and VP-elect (zhun fuzongtong 準副總統).

Since 1948, the inauguration date of the ROC president at the onset of each new term has been May 20, following the election in the first quarter of the same year. The inaugural speech of a new ROC president is usually regarded as a major political statement about the concepts and plans the incoming head of state wishes to implement during his/her term of office, and it always attracts close attention from domestic and international observers.


If the office of the ROC president becomes vacant, the vice president (VP) serves the remainder of the term until its expiration. If during that time the VP becomes incapacitated as well, Article 49 of the ROC Constitution (Zhonghua minguo xianfa 中華民國憲法) stipulates that the President of the Executive Yuan (xingzhengyuan yuanzhang 行政院院長), i. e. the ROC Premier, shall act for the ROC President.


According to the current laws and regulations, the ROC president and/or VP can be impeached when at least one half of the total members of the ROC Legislative Yuan initiate such a proposal which must be passed by no less than two-thirds of the total legislators (Article 4, Paragraph 7 of the Additional Articles). After that, the ROC Constitutional Court of the Judicial Yuan will hold a judgment on the matter. If impeachment is upheld in the adjudication by the Justices of the Constitutional Court, the impeached person shall be relieved of his/her duties.

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The organizational chart on the official website of the ROC Presidential Office lists the following posts and departments:

 Secretary-General to the President (mishuzhang 秘書長),
 Deputy Secretary-General to the President (fu mishuzhang 副秘書長);
 First Bureau (diyiju 第一局),
 Second Bureau (dierju 第二局),
 Third Bureau (disanju 第三局);
 Department of Public Affairs (gonggong shiwushi 公共事務室),
 Department of Security Affairs (shiweishi 侍衛室),
 Department of Special Affairs (jiyaoshi 機要室);
 Department of Accounting and Statistics (zhujichu主計處),
 Government Ethics Department (zhengfengchu 政風處),
 Personnel Department (renshichu 人事處); and
 Legal Affairs Committee (fagui weiyuanhui 法規委員會).

Four more agencies under the ROC Presidential Office are worth noting.

 Economic Advisory Task Force (caijing zixun xiaozu 財經諮詢小組), first meeting was held on Sept. 23, 2008 with the sitting VP as convener (zhaojiren 召集人), apparently inactive since 2012;
 Human Rights Consultative Committee (zongtongfu renquan zixun weiyuanhui 總統府人權諮詢委員會, 🏁—zhaojiren 召集人), established on Dec. 10, 2010 and headed by the sitting VP as convener, final meeting on May 6, 2020;
 National Pension Reform Committee (guojia nianjin gaige weiyuanhui 國家年金改革委員會), first meeting took place on June 23, 2016; and
 Indigenous Historical Justice and Transitional Justice Commission (yuanzhu minzu lishi zhengyi yu zhuanxing zhengyi weiyuanhui 原住民族歷史正義與轉型正義委員會, abbrev. yuanzhuanhui 原轉會, 🏁—zhaojiren 召集人), first announced by ROC President Tsai Ing-wen on Aug. 1, 2016 with the ROC president as its convener. A preparatory meeting took place on Dec. 27, 2016, and the commission convened for its first meeting on March 20, 2017.

On June 19, 2024 President Lai Ching-te announced the establishment of three committees under the Presidential Office in order to develop national strategies, engage in dialogue with civil society, deepen cooperation with the international community, and take action for Taiwan’s future.
 National Climate Change Response Committee (guojia qihou bianqian duice weiyuanhui 國家氣候變遷對策委員會),
 National Whole-of-Society Resilience Committee (quan shehui fangwei renxing weiyuanhui 全社會防衛韌性委員會), and
 Healthy Taiwan Promotion Committee (jiankang Taiwan tuidong weiyuanhui 健康台灣推動委員會).

According to the ROC Office of the President Organization Act (Zhonghua minguo zongtongfu zuzhifa 中華民國總統府組織法) which was promulgated on May 1, 1948 and entered into force on May 20 the same year, the following institutions are under the direct administrative supervision of the presidential office:

Academia Sinica (zhongyang yanjiuyuan 中央研究院),
Academia Historica (guoshiguan 國史館); and
 Management Commission of Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum (guofu lingyuan guanli weiyuanhui 國父陵園管理委員會)—exists on paper only but was never actually set up as provided by said organization act.

Spokesperson, advisors, security detail

The function of Spokesperson of the Presidential Office (zongtongfu fayanren 總統府發言人) has at times been a separate post in its own right since Cheyne J. Y. Chiu 邱進益 was appointed the first-ever presidential spokesman on April 24, 1990. According to information provided by the Presidential Office, the position is usually filled by by a senior official of the Presidential Office—such as the secretary-general, deputy secretary-general (fumishuzhang 副秘書長), or director of the Department of Public Affairs (zongtongfu gonggong shiwushi zhuren 總統府公共事務室主任)—and reassigned as necessary.

Additionally, the president also consults with senior advisors (zizheng 資政), national policy advisors (guoce guwen 國策顧問), and military strategy advisors (zhanlüe guwen 戰略顧問) appointed by him or her.

The presidential office chief of security (zongtongfu shiweizhang 總統府侍衛長) is responsible for handling the protection of the president and the VP.

TOP   HOME    [◆ Introduction ROC presidency]   [Organization]

Palace of power

The Presidential Office Building, located in downtown Taipei, was designed by Japanese architects Nagano Uheiji 長野 宇平治 (1867-1937) and Moriyama Matsunosuke 森山 松之助 (1869-1949) in a late-Renaissance style. After their blueprint was selected following the final stage of a design contest in 1910, construction began in June 1912 and was completed in March 1919 at a cost of 2.8 million Japanese yen. The maximum height of the tower in the center is 60 meters, and between its completion and 1932 the building was the tallest structure in Taiwan. During the period of Japanese colonial rule in Taiwan (1895-1945), the structure housed the Office of the Governor-general of Taiwan (Taiwan zongdufu 台灣總督府 / Taiwan Sōtokufu 台湾総督府 in Japanese).

The iconic complex with its ornate exterior featuring a creative blend of traditional European elements (Renaissance, Baroque and neo-Classical) is a major landmark in the capital and has become a symbol for Taiwan's government. The building sustained extensive damage after suffering a direct hit by bombs dropped during an air raid by the US Air Force on Taipei on May 31, 1945, rendering it inoperable; it was repaired only after the KMT-led ROC government took over Taiwan following the end of the war.

Please note that between 1947 and 2006 the presidential palace was also called "Chieh Shou Hall" (jieshouguan 介壽館) in Chinese, jieshou meaning "Long live Chiang Kai-shek" in English; that name was adopted to honour President Chiang's 60th birthday. The sign bearing those three characters was replaced with a sign showing the three characters zongtongfu 總統府 (= Presidential Office) on March 25, 2006. The main road between the front side of the Presidential Office and Taipei's East Gate (dongmen 東門) had been renamed from Chieh-shou Road (jieshoulu 介壽路) to Ketagalan Boulevard (Kaidagelan dadao 凱達格蘭大道) on March 21, 1996.

Outside the capital

In addition to the Taipei headquarters, a Presidential Southern Office (zongtongfu nanbu bangongshi 總統府南部辦公室) was inaugurated on March 10, 2017 in Kaohsiung to balance the country's uneven north-south development. The official opening of another branch in Taichung (zongtongfu zhongbu bangongshi 總統府中部辦公室) to strengthen the role of central Taiwan was announced on March 18, 2017.

Presidential Central Taiwan Office 總統府中部辦公室
No. 36 Yangming Street, Fongyuan District,
Taichung City 42007, Taiwan ROC (in the Yangming Building)
[42007 台中市豐原區陽明街 36 號(陽明市政大樓)]

Presidential Southern Office 總統府南部辦公室
3 F., No. 132 Guangfu Road Sec. 2, Fengshan District,
Kaohsiung City 83001, Taiwan ROC (in the Fongshan Administration Center)
[83001 高雄市鳳山區光復路 2 段 132 號 3 樓(高雄鳳山行政中心)]

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◆ Presidents of the ROC 1912–1948

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Early Republic 1912–1916

President's tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
1/1912—3/1912 Sun Yat-sen 孫逸仙  1866-1925 Guangdong
3/1912—6/1916 Yuan Shikai 袁世凱 1859-1916  Henan

Sun Yat-sen, known to many Chinese mainly by his posthumous name Zhongshan 中山, is revered as "Father of the Nation" (guofu 國父) by the governments both of the ROC and the PRC. Source for Dr. Sun's portrait on the right: © Wikimedia Commons.

More details about the political development of the ROC between 1912 and 1916 can be found here.

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Warlord Period 1916-1928—Northern China

When Yuan Shikai died on June 6, 1916, the officials of the ROC government in Beijing failed to restore unity as the provinces which had declared independence prior to Yuan's demise continued to refuse recognizing the authority of the central government. For more than twelve years, China remained divided and dominated by local warlords (junfa 軍閥). Major players in northern China included the following:

  • Anhui clique (wanxi junfa 皖系軍閥),
  • Zhili clique (zhixi junfa 直系軍閥 or zhilixi junfa 直隸系軍閥),
  • Fengtian clique (fengxi junfa 奉系軍閥),
  • Shanxi clique (jinxi 晉系),
  • Nationalist Army (guominjun 國民軍) aka Northwest Army (xibeijun 西北軍),
  • Ma clique (Majiajun 馬家軍 or Majia junfa 馬家軍閥), and others.

During the chaotic 1916–1928 Warlord Period, the regime in Beijing was also referred to as Beiyang government (beiyang zhengfu 北洋政府). Control over Beijing was significant because the government based there was internationally recognized as the legitimate Chinese government. For example, at the Paris Peace Conference which took place between Jan. 18, 1919 and Jan. 21, 1920, the delegation representing China comprised top Beiyang government officials, including Wellington Koo 顧維鈞, Lou Tseng-tsiang 陸徵祥, Alfred Sao-ke Sze 施肇基, Tsao Ju-lin 曹汝霖, Thomas Wang 王正廷, and Wei Chen-zu 魏宸組. (At the conclusion of the conference, China's representatives refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles because many former German concessions in China were not returned but handed to Japan instead. A separate peace treaty with Germany—Zhong De xieyue 中德協約, in German: Deutsch-Chinesischer Vertrag zur Wiederherstellung des Friedenszustandes, English translation: Agreement Regarding the Restoration of the State of Peace between Germany and China—was signed on May 20, 1921 in Beijing by Beiyang government representative Yen Hui-ch'ing 顏惠慶 and German consul general Herbert von Borch.) The Beiyang government was terminated with the conclusion of the Northern Expedition (beifa zhanzheng 北伐戰爭) in July 1928.

President's tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
6/1916—7/1917 Li Yuan-hung 黎元洪 1864-1928  Hubei
7/1917—10/1918 @ Feng Kuo-chang 馮國璋  1859-1919 Hebei
10/1918—6/1922 Hsu Shih-chang 徐世昌 1855-1939 Henan
6/1922 @ Chow Tzu-ch'i 周自齊 1869-1923 Shandong
6/1922—6/1923 Li Yuan-hung (second time)
6/1923—10/1923 @ Kao Ling-wei 高凌霨 1870-1940 Tianjin
10/1923—11/1924 Tsao Kun 曹錕 1862-1938 Tianjin
11/1924 @ Huang Fu 黃郛 1880-1936 Zhejiang
11/1924—4/1926 Tuan Chi-jui 段祺瑞 1865-1936 Anhui
4/1926—5/1926 @ Hu Wei-te 胡惟德 1863-1933 Zhejiang
5/1926—6/1926 @ Yen Hui-ch'ing 顏惠慶 1877-1950 Shanghai
6/1926—10/1926 @ Tu Hsi-kuei 杜錫珪 1874-1933 Fujian
10/1926—6/1927 @ Wellington Koo 顧維鈞 1888-1985 Shanghai
6/1927—6/1928 Chang Tso-lin 張作霖 1873-1928 Liaoning

TOP   HOME    [◆ ROC Presidents 1912-1948]   [Warlords (northern China)]

Warlord Period 1916-1928—Southern China

During the Warlord Period, major players in southern China included the KMT (led by Sun Yat-sen and Chiang Kai-shek), warlords in the provinces of Guangdong, Guizhou, and Hunan as well as the following:

  • Yunnan clique (dianxi 滇系),
  • Old Guangxi clique (jiu guixi 舊桂系),
  • New Guangxi clique (xin guixi 新桂系), and
  • Sichuan clique (chuanjun 川軍).

After Yuan Shikai assumed the ROC presidency in 1912, his rule soon became increasingly repressive, and Sun Yat-sen went into exile in August 1913. Following Yuan's death in 1916, Sun returned to China and moved to Canton (today's Guangzhou 廣州) in July 1917. There he headed a Constitutional Protection Junta (hufa jun zhengfu 護法軍政府) until April 1921 when he set up the Government of the ROC in Canton (Guangzhou Zhonghua minguo zhengfu 廣州中華民國政府), using the title "extraordinary president" (feichang dazongtong 非常大總統). Sun's leadership continued under the Army and Navy Marshal stronghold of the Republic of China (Zhonghua minguo luhaijun dayuanshuai dabenying 中華民國陸海軍大元帥大本營) which was established in February 1923, using the title "Army and Navy Marshal" (luhaijun dayuanshuai 陸海軍大元帥). Following Sun's death on March 12, 1925, the ROC Nationalist government (Zhonghua minguo guomin zhengfu 中華民國國民政府) was set up, first based in Canton. In the course of the Northern Expedition the capital was moved to Wuhan in February 1927 and later that year to Nanjing.

President's tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
5/1921—3/1925 Sun Yat-sen 孫逸仙 1866-1925 Guangdong
7/1925—3/1926 Wang Ching-wei 汪精衛  1883-1944  Guangdong
3/1926—2/1928 Tan Yen-kai 譚延闓 1880-1930 Hunan

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Nationalist Government 1928–1948

President's tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
2/1928—10/1928 Tan Yen-kai 譚延闓 1880-1930  Hunan
10/1928—12/1931 Chiang Kai-shek 蔣介石  1887-1975 Zhejiang
12/1931—8/1943 Lin Sen 林森 1868-1943 Fujian
8/1943—5/1948 Chiang Kai-shek (second time)

Please note that between 1925 and 1948 the title "President" (da zongtong 大總統) was replaced with "Chairman of the National Government" (guomin zhengfu zhuxi 國民政府主席).

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◆ Presidents / Vice Presidents of the ROC since 1948

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List of ROC presidents and VPs since 1948

No. Term President Vice President (VP)
1 5/1948—5/1954  Chiang Kai-shek 蔣介石
(1887-1975, Zhejiang)
Li Tsung-jen 李宗仁
(1891-1969, Guangxi)
" 1/1949—2/1950 Li Tsung-jen @
>>> [vacant] <<<
2 5/1954—5/1960 Chiang Kai-shek ("CKS") Chen Cheng 陳誠
(1898-1965, Zhejiang)
3 5/1960—5/1966 Chiang Kai-shek Chen Cheng
4 5/1966—5/1972 Chiang Kai-shek Yen Chia-kan 嚴家淦
(1905-1993, Jiangsu)
5 5/1972—4/1975 Chiang Kai-shek Yen Chia-kan
" 4/1975—5/1978 Yen Chia-kan (served out late president CKS's last term)
6 5/1978—5/1984 Chiang Ching-kuo 蔣經國
(1910-1988, Zhejiang)
Shieh Tung-min 謝東閔
(1907-2001, Taiwan)
7 5/1984—1/1988 Chiang Ching-kuo ("CCK") Lee Teng-hui 李登輝
(1923-2020, Taiwan)
" 1/1988—5/1990 Lee Teng-hui (served out late president CCK's last term)
8 5/1990—5/1996 Lee Teng-hui Li Yuan-zu 李元簇
(1923-2017, Hunan)
9 5/1996—5/2000 Lee Teng-hui Lien Chan 連戰
(b. 1936, Shaanxi/Taiwan) 
10 5/2000—5/2004 Chen Shui-bian 陳水扁
(b. 1950, Taiwan)
Annette Lu 呂秀蓮
(b. 1944, Taiwan)
11 5/2004—5/2008 Chen Shui-bian Annette Lu
12 5/2008—5/2012 Ma Ying-jeou 馬英九
(b. 1950, Hong Kong/Hunan) 
Vincent Siew 蕭萬長
(b. 1939, Taiwan)
13 5/2012—5/2016 Ma Ying-jeou Wu Den-yih 吳敦義
(b. 1948, Taiwan)
14 5/2016—5/2020 Tsai Ing-wen 蔡英文
(b. 1956, Taiwan)
Chen Chien-jen 陳建仁
(b. 1951, Taiwan)
15 5/2020—5/2024 Tsai Ing-wen Lai Ching-te 賴清德
(b. 1959, Taiwan)
16 5/2024—2028 Lai Ching-te Hsiao Bi-khim 蕭美琴
(b. 1971, Japan)

For biographical details of the four ROC presidents since 1996 who were popularly elected click here.

Official Residence of the ROC President 中華民國總統官邸
No. 3 Chongqing South Road Sec. 2,
Zhongzheng District, Taipei City 10066, Taiwan ROC
[10066 台北市中正區重慶南路 2 段 3 號]
Official Residence of the ROC Vice President 中華民國副總統官邸
No. 120 Renai Road Sec. 3,
Daan District, Taipei City 10657, Taiwan ROC
[10657 台北市大安區仁愛路 3 段 120 號]

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First Ladies of the ROC

Period Name Born/Died Native Province
5/1948—1/1949Soong May-ling 宋美齡1897-2003Shanghai
1/1949—2/1950Guo Dejie 郭德潔1906-1966Guangxi
5/1950—4/1975Soong May-ling (second time)
4/1975—5/1978C. S. Liu 劉期純1908-1999Shandong
5/1978—1/1988Faina Epatcheva Vahaleva 蔣方良1916-2004<Belarus>
1/1988—5/2000Tseng Wen-fui 曾文惠b. 1926Taiwan
5/2000—5/2008Wu Shu-chen 吳淑珍b. 1952Taiwan
5/2008—5/2016Chow Mei-ching 周美青b. 1952Hong Kong/Jiangsu
>>> [vacant] <<<
5/2024—Wu Mei-ju 吳玫如b. 1964Taiwan

Like in most countries, the "First Lady" (diyi furen 第一夫人) of the ROC is not a formal office, but being the spouse of the head of state involves certain ceremonial duties and social obligations. The name of Chiang Ching-kuo's wife was spelled "Фаіна Іпацьеўна Вахрава" (Fayina Ipaćjeŭna Vachrava) in Belarusian. Tsai Ing-wen, the first female president in ROC history, is unmarried.

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Secretary-generals of the ROC presidential office

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
5/1948—12/1948Wu T'ing-chang 吳鼎昌1884-1950Sichuan
12/1948—3/1949Wu Chung-hsin 吳忠信1884-1959Anhui
3/1949—6/1949Wang Wen-ho 翁文灝1889-1971Zhejiang
6/1949—3/1950Chiu Chang-wei 邱昌渭1898-1956Hunan
3/1950—11/1953Wang Shih-chieh 王世杰1891-1981Hubei
11/1953—5/1954 @Hsu Ching-chih 許靜芝1895-1984Zhejiang
5/1954—5/1972Chang Chun 張群1889-1990Sichuan
5/1972—5/1978Cheng Yin-fun 鄭彥棻1902-1990Guangdong
5/1978—12/1978Tsiang Yien-si 蔣彥士1915-1998Zhejiang
12/1978—5/1984Ma Chi-chuang 馬紀壯1912-1998Hebei
5/1984—10/1988Shen Chang-huan 沈昌煥1913-1998Jiangsu
10/1988—5/1990Li Yuan-zu 李元簇1923-2017Hunan
5/1990—12/1994Tsiang Yien-si (second time)
12/1994—8/1996Wu Po-hsiung 吳伯雄b. 1939Taiwan
8/1996—11/1999Huang Kun-huei 黃昆輝b. 1936Taiwan
11/1999—12/1999John Chang 章孝嚴b. 1941Jiangxi/Zhejiang
12/1999—5/2000Ding Mou-shih 丁懋時b. 1925Yunnan
5/2000—7/2000Chang Chun-hsiung 張俊雄b. 1938Taiwan
7/2000—2/2002Yu Shyi-kun 游錫堃b. 1948Taiwan
2/2002—2/2003Chen Shih-meng 陳師孟b. 1948Zhejiang
2/2003—5/2004Chiou I-jen 邱義仁b. 1950Taiwan
5/2004—1/2005Su Tseng-chang 蘇貞昌b. 1947Taiwan
2/2005—12/2005Yu Shyi-kun (second time)
12/2005—1/2006 @Ma Yung-cheng 馬永成b. 1965Taiwan
1/2006—2/2007Mark Chen Tan-sun 陳唐山b.1935Taiwan
2/2007—5/2007Chiou I-jen (second time)
5/2007—8/2007 @Cho Jung-tai 卓榮泰b. 1959Taiwan
8/2007—3/2008Yeh Chu-lan 葉菊蘭b. 1949Taiwan
3/2008—5/2008Mark Chen Tan-sun (second time)
5/2008—9/2009Chan Chun-po 詹春柏b. 1941Taiwan
9/2009—2/2011Liao Liou-yi 廖了以b. 1947Taiwan
2/2011—1/2012Wu Jin-lin 伍錦霖b. 1947Taiwan
2/2012—9/2012Tseng Yung-chuan 曾永權b. 1947Taiwan
9/2012—5/2016Timothy Yang 楊進添b. 1942Taiwan
5/2016—10/2016Lin Bih-jaw 林碧炤b. 1949Taiwan
10/2016—5/2017 @Jason Liu 劉建忻b. 1968N/A
5/2017—2/2018Joseph Wu 吳釗燮b. 1956Taiwan
2/2018—4/2018 @Jason Liu (second time)
4/2018—5/2020Chen Chu 陳菊b. 1950Taiwan
5/2020—8/2020Su Jia-chyuan 蘇嘉全b. 1956Taiwan
8/2020 @Jason Liu (third time)
8/2020—1/2023David Lee Ta-wei 李大維b. 1949Taiwan
1/2023—5/2024Lin Chia-lung 林佳龍b. 1964Taiwan
5/2024—Pan Men-an 潘孟安b. 1963Taiwan

TOP   HOME    [◆ ROC Presidents since 1948]    [PO secretary-generals]

Chiefs Aide-de-Camp to the President since 1948

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
5/1948—3/1950Shih Tzu-teh 石祖德1900-1972Zhejiang
3/1950—3/1954Liu Mu-chun 劉牧群1905-1979Fujian
3/1954—10/1955Pi Tsung-kan 皮宗敢1912-1984Hunan
10/1955—1/1957Wu Shun-ming 吳順明b. 1911, d. N/AZhejiang
1/1957—11/1960Lou Ping-kuo 樓秉國1905-1983Zhejiang
11/1960—6/1965Hu Shing 胡炘1914-2002Zhejiang
6/1965—11/1970Hau Pei-tsun 郝柏村1919-2020Jiangsu
11/1970—4/1972Kong Ling-cheng 孔令晟1918-2014Jiangsu
4/1972—9/1975Tsou Chien 鄒堅1921-2004Fujian
9/1975—1979Peng Chuan-liang 彭傳樑b. 1919Sichuan
1979—4/1985Chou Chung-nan 周仲南b. 1932Jiangsu
5/1985—1/1988Wu Tung-ming 吳東明b. 1935Guangdong
2/1988—4/1990Chang Kuang-chin 張光錦b. 1936N/A
4/1990—7/1992Tsao Wen-sheng 曹文生1943-2022Hunan
8/1992—6/1996Wang Yi-tien 王詣典b. 1945Anhui
7/1996—1/1999Hsu Chu-sheng 徐筑生b. 1947Jiangsu
2/1999—5/2000Tsai Han-ming 蔡漢明N/AN/A
5/2000—2/2002Yu Lien-fa 余連發b. 1947Taiwan
2/2002—4/2003Peng Sheng-chu 彭勝竹b. 1950Hubei
5/2003—4/2004Chen Tsai-fu 陳再福b. 1952Taiwan
4/2004—11/2005Shen Po-chih 申伯之b. 1952Shandong
12/2005—5/2007Ho Yung-chien 何雍堅b. 1951Taiwan
6/2007—5/2008Chen Che-hsiung 陳哲雄N/AN/A
5/2008—9/2009Chen Tien-sheng 陳添勝N/AN/A
9/2009—6/2012Cheng De-mei 鄭德美b. 1955Taiwan/Hainan
6/2012—7/2014Wang Hsuan-chou 汪旋周N/AN/A
8/2014—12/2014Huo Li-ching 霍立青N/AN/A
12/2014—5/2016Pan Chin-lung 潘進隆b. 1958Taiwan
5/2016—11/2017Liu Chih-pin 劉志斌b. 1962Taiwan
11/2017—7/2019Chang Chieh 張捷N/AN/A
7/2019 @Liu Hui-chien 柳惠千b. 1966N/A
7/2019—10/2020Chung Shu-ming 鍾樹明N/AN/A
10/2020—2/2023Lu Kun-hsiu 呂坤修b. 1966N/A
3/2023—5/2024Lee Ching-jan 李慶然N/AN/A
5/2024—Shao Chih-chun 邵智君b. N/AN/A

The position of Chief Aide-de-Camp to the President (zongtongfu shiweizhang 總統府侍衛長) is also called presidential office chief of security. Please note that according to the ROC Yearbook 2010, Wu Tung-ming 吳東明 was born in 1937 in Jiangxi.

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Milestones of the ROC presidency since 1947

1947  Nov 21–23: General elections for the First National Assembly (NA) of the ROC are held
1948 April 19: The NA elects Chiang Kai-shek ("CKS") ROC president
April 29: The NA elects Li Tsung-jen VP
May 20: CKS and Li Tsung-jen take their oaths of office in Nanjing
1949 Jan. 21: CKS announces his retirement from the presidency, VP Li Tsung-jen is empowered to exercise presidential powers temporarily
Dec. 5: Acting president Li Tsung-jen leaves Hong Kong for the US
1950 March 1: CKS resumes office in Taipei
1952 Jan. 11: The Control Yuan impeaches VP Li Tsung-jen in absentia for violating ROC laws and dereliction of duty
1954 March 10: The NA recalls Li Tsung-jen from office as VP
March 22: The NA elects CKS ROC president
March 24: The NA elects Chen Cheng VP
May 20: CKS and Chen Cheng are sworn in
1960 March 11: The NA adopts an amendment to the Temporary Provisions of the Constitution, stipulating that during the period of Communist rebellion the president and VP may be reelected without being subject to the 2-term restriction prescribed in Article 47 of the ROC Constitution
March 22: The NA elects CKS ROC president and Chen Cheng VP
May 20: CKS and Chen Cheng are sworn in
1965 March 5: ROC VP Chen Cheng passes away
1966 March 21: The NA elects CKS ROC president
March 22: The NA elects Yen Chia-kan VP
May 20: CKS and Yen Chia-kan are sworn in
1969Jan. 30: Former VP Li Tsung-jen passes away in Beijing
1972 March 21: The NA elects CKS ROC president and Yen Chia-kan VP
May 20: CKS and Yen Chia-kan are sworn in
1975 April 5: ROC president CKS passes away
April 6: Yen Chia-kan is sworn in as ROC president
1978 March 21: The NA elects Chiang Ching-kuo ("CCK") ROC president
March 22: The NA elects Taiwan-born Shieh Tung-min VP
May 20: CCK and Shieh Tung-min are sworn in
1984 Feb. 24: Mainland-born ROC Premier Sun Yun-suan 孫運璿, tapped to be the next VP, suffers a stroke which renders him unable to perform official duties (formally resigns on May 31, 1984; passes away on Feb. 15, 2006)
March 21: The NA elects CCK ROC president
March 22: The NA elects Taiwan-born Lee Teng-hui VP
May 20: CCK and Lee Teng-hui are sworn in
1988 Jan. 13: ROC president CCK passes away, Lee Teng-hui is sworn in as ROC president
1990 March 16–22: The Wild Lily student movement (yebaihe xueyun 野百合學運) takes place in Taipei, participating demonstrators demand direct popular elections for the offices of ROC president and VP as well as the NA
March 21: The NA elects Lee Teng-hui ROC president
March 22: The NA elects Li Yuan-zu VP
May 20: Lee Teng-hui and Li Yuan-zu are sworn in
1991 April 22: The NA approves the abolishment of the "Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of Communist Rebellion" [effective on May 1, 1991]
Dec. 21: The first direct and free democratic elections for the Second NA are held
1992 May 27: The NA passes the second amendment to the ROC Constitution, which deals with the functions of the NA as well as the term of and holding popular vote for the ROC president [amendments go into effect on May 30, 1992]
1993 Dec. 24: Former ROC President Yen Chia-kan passes away
1994 July 28: The NA passes the third amendment to the ROC Constitution (which concerns the NA and the popular vote of the ROC president and parliament); the amendment goes into effect on Aug. 1, 1994
1996 March 23: Lee Teng-hui and Lien Chan win the first direct and free democratic ROC presidential election, held concurrently with a popular vote for the Third NA
May 20: Lee Teng-hui and Lien Chan are sworn in
2000 March 18: Chen Shui-bian and Annette Lu win the ROC presidential election
May 20: Chen Shui-bian and Annette Lu are sworn in
2001 April 8: Former VP Shieh Tung-min passes away
2004 March 20: Chen Shui-bian and Annette Lu win the ROC presidential election
May 20: Chen Shui-bian and Annette Lu are sworn in
2005 June 7: The Ad hoc-NA approves constitutional amendments resulting in the abolition of the NA, ratified by the ROC president on June 10
2008 March 22: Ma Ying-jeou and Vincent Siew win the ROC presidential election
May 20: Ma Ying-jeou and Vincent Siew are sworn in
2012 Jan. 12: Ma Ying-jeou and Wu Den-yih win the ROC presidential election
May 20: Ma Ying-jeou and Wu Den-yih are sworn in
2016 Jan. 16: Tsai Ing-wen and Chen Chien-jen win the ROC presidential election
May 20: Tsai Ing-wen and Chen Chien-jen are sworn in
2017 March 8: Former VP Li Yuan-zu passes away
2020 Jan. 11: Tsai Ing-wen and Lai Ching-te win the ROC presidential election
May 20: Tsai Ing-wen and Lai Ching-te are sworn in
July 30: Former ROC President Lee Teng-hui passes away
2024 Jan. 13: Lai Ching-te and Hsiao Bi-khim win the ROC presidential election
May 20: Lai Ching-te and Hsiao Bi-khim are sworn in

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National Security Council

The National Security Council (guojia anquan huiyi 國家安全會議, abbrev. guoanhui 國安會) under the ROC Presidential Office was established on Feb. 20, 1951. Its chairman (zhuxi 主席) is nominally the sitting ROC president, but the person in charge of its daily business is its secretary-general (mishuzhang 秘書長). In English, it is also sometimes referred to as the "National Security Conference". Before February 1967 it was called the "Defense Council" (guofang huiyi 國防會議).

National Security Council secretary-generals

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
2/1951—5/1954Kuo Chi-chiao 郭寄嶠1901-1998Anhui
7/1954—8/1957Chow Chih-jou 周至柔1899-1986Zhejiang
8/1957—6/1959Chang Chun 張群1889-1990Sichuan
6/1959—2/1967Ku Chu-tong 顧祝同1893-1987Jiangsu
2/1967—6/1979Huang Shao-ku 黃少谷1901-1996Hunan
6/1979—5/1984Shen Chang-huan 沈昌煥1913-1998Jiangsu
5/1984—6/1986Wang Tao-yuan 汪道淵1913-2011Anhui
6/1986—3/1993Wego Chiang 蔣緯國1916-1997<Japan>
3/1993—9/1994Shih Chi-yang 施啟揚b. 1935Taiwan
9/1994—12/1999Ding Mou-shih 丁懋時b. 1925Yunnan
12/1999—5/2000Yin Tsung-wen 殷宗文1932-2003Jiangsu
5/2000—8/2001Chuang Ming-yao 莊銘耀1929-2002Taiwan
8/2001—3/2002Ting Yu-chou 丁渝洲b. 1944Shandong
3/2002—2/2003Chiou I-jen 邱義仁b. 1950Taiwan
2/2003—5/2004Kang Ning-hsiang 康寧祥b. 1938Taiwan
5/2004—2/2007Chiou I-jen (second time)
2/2007—3/2008Mark Chen Tan-sun 陳唐山b. 1935Taiwan
3/2008—5/2008 @Chen Chung-hsin 陳忠信b. 1949Taiwan
5/2008—2/2010Su Chi 蘇起b. 1949Taiwan
2/2010—10/2012Hu Wei-jen 胡為真b. 1947Zhejiang/Jiangsu
10/2012—2/2014Jason Yuan 袁健生b. 1942Guizhou
3/2014—2/2015King Pu-tsung 金溥聰b. 1956Taiwan
2/2015—5/2016Kao Hua-chu 高華柱b. 1946Shandong
5/2016—5/2017Joseph Wu 吳釗燮b. 1956Taiwan
5/2017—2/2018Yen De-fa 嚴德發b. 1952Taiwan/Jiangsu
2/2018—5/2020David Lee Ta-wei 李大維b. 1949Taiwan
5/2020—5/2024Wellington Koo 顧立雄b. 1958Taiwan
5/2024—Joseph Wu (second time)

The National Security Council should not be confused with the National Security Bureau (NSB). Although the NSB is subordinate to the National Security Council, it can also directly report to the ROC President and bypass the National Security Council.

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Ⓧ New Southbound Policy Office

The establishment of the New Southbound Policy Office (zongtongfu xin nanxiang zhengce bangongshi 總統府新南向政策辦公室, 🏁—zhuren 主任) was announced on May 18, 2016 by the DPP, and the agency began operations on June 15, 2016. Its main focus was the deepening of Taiwan's relations with the 18 target countries of the New Southbound Policy (xin nanxiang zhengce 新南向政策, abbrev. NSP). On Dec. 13, 2017 ROC Presidential Office Spokesman Alex Huang 黃重諺 announced that the New Southbound Policy Office was slated to be shut down in 2018, and it closed on Jan. 1, 2018.

Directors of the New Southbound Policy Office

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
5/2016—10/2017 James Huang 黃志芳b. 1958Taiwan
10/2017—1/2018Fu Don-cheng 傅棟成 b. 1953N/A

After the closure of the New Southbound Policy Office

On Jan. 28, 2018—less than a month after the New Southbound Policy Office ceased operations—ROC Premier Lai Ching-te 賴清德 approved the formation of a 10-person New Southbound Policy Task Force (xin nanxiang gongzuo xiaozu 新南向工作小組), headed by Minister without Portfolio John C. C. Deng 鄧振中. The task force reports to the Office of Trade Negotiations (OTN) under the Executive Yuan.

On Jan. 5, 2022 ROC President Tsai Ing-wen appointed Lin Chia-lung 林佳龍 ambassador-at-large (wurensuo dashi 無任所大使) for digital NSP initiatives. After Lin was appointed MOFA minister under the newly inaugurated Lai Ching-te administration, Lin on May 30, 2024 proposed a "New Southbound Fund" (xin nanxiang jijin 新南向基金) to strengthen cooperation and exchanges with friendly countries in the Indo-Pacific region.

Remarks about the New Southbound Policy

The New Southbound Policy (NSP) was first suggested by Tsai Ing-wen on Sept. 22, 2015 when she was DPP chairwoman, and she mentioned the term in her 2016 inaugural address. It seeks to elevate the scope and diversity of Taiwan's export economy while minimizing overreliance on any single market, and it encompasses inbound investment and tourism as well as business, educational and cultural exchanges. The NSP targets 18 countries in Southeast Asia, especially ASEAN members (in particular Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam), in South Asia (namely Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka), Australia and New Zealand. The Guidelines for the New Southbound Policy (xin nanxiang zhengce wangling 新南向政策網領) were approved on Aug. 16, 2016. More information about the NSP can be found on the New Southbound Policy Portal set up by the ROC MOFA.

Please note that two more relevant texts can be found on the page "Other texts and documents" of this website:
• New Southbound Policy Promotion Plan (xin nanxiang zhengce tuidong jihua 新南向政策推動計畫), and
• New Southbound Policy Working Plan (xin nanxiang zhengce gongzuo jihua 新南向政策工作計畫).

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Ⓧ National Unification Council (NUC)

The NUC (guojia tongyi weiyuanhui 國家統一委員會, abbrev. guotonghui 國統會) was established on Oct. 1, 1990 as a consultative organ attached to the ROC Presidential Office. It was composed of leaders in various fields, from both the government and private sectors, and divided into small committees. Its mission was to make recommendations to the president based on its research and consultations on overall unification policy. The NUC served several major functions—to further the goal of national unification, to assist the government in effectively planning the policy framework for achieving unification, and to integrate opinion at all levels of society and in all political parties concerning the issue of national unification.

Less than a year after the founding of the NUC, the Planning Commission for the Recovery of the Mainland (guangfu dalu sheji yanjiu weiyuanhui 光復大陸設計研究委員會, abbrev. PCRM) was disbanded, a move that represented President Lee Teng-hui's paradigm shift, i. e. renouncing the use of force to achieve unification.

At its third meeting on Feb. 23, 1991, the NUC adopted the "Guidelines for National Unification" (guojia tongyi wangling 國家統一綱領), at the time the highest directives governing ROC mainland policy. The NUC was suspended when President Lee's successor Chen Shui-bian announced on Feb. 27, 2006 that it would 'cease to function' (zhongzhi yunzuo 終止運作) and the National Unification Guidelines would 'cease to apply' (zhongzhi shiyong 終止適用).

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Ⓧ Government Reform Committee

After the transfer of power from the KMT to the DPP in 2000, the Economic Development Advisory Conference (jingji fazhan zixun weiyuan huiyi 經濟發展諮詢委員會議) which took place Aug. 24–26, 2001 proposed the establishment of a government reform commission to promote and consolidate a consensus on government reform, and the Government Reform Committee (zhengfu gaizao weiyuanhui 政府改造委員會, 🏁—zhuren weiyuan 主任委員) was established on Oct. 25, 2001 as a consultative body to the president and chaired by him as well.

The members of the committee were selected from various government departments, academia, and the private sector to work toward a consensus on government reform. It subsequently recommended the following priorities—improvement of government efficiency; creation of an energetic and globally competitive government; and reorganization of the Executive Yuan. As a result, the Council for Organizational Reform (zuzhi gaizao tuidong weiyuanhui 組織改造推動委員會) under the Executive Yuan was launched on May 27, 2002 to coordinate administrative departments in attaining reform goals. Legislation drafted or amended in that context included the Basic Code Governing Central Administrative Agencies Organizations and the Organizational Act of the Executive Yuan.

After government executive power was transferred from the DPP back to the KMT in May 2008, the Government Reform Committee apparently became inactive. Nevertheless, the Ma Ying-jeou administration did devise its own plans for government reform and began restructuring the Executive Yuan on Jan. 1, 2012.

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Academia Sinica

Academia Sinica 中央研究院
No. 128 Academia Road Sec. 2,
Nangang District, Taipei City 11529, Taiwan ROC
[11529 台北市南港區研究院路 2 段 128 號]
🌏 Academia Sinica – Web link
Description: AS-01d

The Academia Sinica (zhongyang yanjiuyuan 中央研究院, abbrev. zhongyanyuan 中研院, 🏁—yuanzhang 院長) was established on June 9, 1928 and is regarded today as Taiwan's top research institution. Membership as an Academician (yuanshi 院士) is usually awarded as an honorary lifetime privilege in re­cognition of the achievements of renowned scientists or researchers. A Convocation of Academicians (zhongyanyuan yuanshi huiyi 中研院院士會議) is staged every two years and focuses on electing new academicians (research fellows).

Presidents of Academia Sinica

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
4/1928—3/1940 Tsai Yuan-pei 蔡元培1868-1940Zhejiang
9/1940—10/1957Chu Chia-hwa 朱家驊1893-1963Zhejiang
12/1957—2/1962 Hu Shih 胡適1891-1962Anhui
5/1962—4/1970Wang Shih-chieh 王世杰1891-1981Hubei
5/1970—9/1983 Chien Shih-liang 錢思亮1908-1983Henan
10/1983—1/1994Wu Ta-you 吳大猷1907-2000Guangdong
1/1994—10/2006Lee Yuan-tseh 李遠哲b. 1936Taiwan
10/2006—5/2015Wong Chi-huey 翁啟惠b. 1948Taiwan
5/2016—6/2016 @Wang Fan-sen 王汎森b. 1958Taiwan
6/2016—James Liao 廖俊智b. 1958Taiwan

Besides directly subordinate organizations like the Center for Sustainability Science (yongxu kexue zhongxin 永續科學中心) and the Academia Sinica Digital Center (zhongyang yanjiuyuan shuwei wenhua zhongxin 中央研究院數位文化中心), Academia Sinica currently consists of 24 institutes and 7 research centers in three divisions.

Division of Mathematics and Physical Sciences (shuli kexuezu 數理科學組):

 Institute of Mathematics (shuxue yanjiusuo 數學研究所)
 Institute of Physics (wuli yanjiusuo 物理研究所)
 Institute of Chemistry (huaxue yanjiusuo 化學研究所)
 Institute of Earth Sciences (diqiu kexue yanjiusuo 地球科學研究所)
 Institute of Information Science (zixun kexue yanjiusuo 資訊科學研究所)
 Institute of Statistical Science (tongji kexue yanjiusuo 統計科學研究所)
 Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences (yuanzi yu fenzi kexue yanjiusuo 原子與分子科學研究所)
 Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (tianwen ji tianwen wuli yanjiusuo 天文及天文物理研究所)
 Research Center for Applied Sciences (yingyong kexue yanjiu zhongxin 應用科學研究中心)
 Research Center for Environmental Changes (huanjing bianqian yanjiu zhongxin 環境變遷研究中心, abbrev. RCEC)
 Research Center for Information Technology Innovation (zixun keji chuangxin yan­jiu zhongxin 資訊科技創新研究中心)

Please note that the establishment of an Air Quality Research Center (kongqi pinzhi zhuanti zhongxin 空氣品質專題中心) and an Anthropogenic Climate Change Center (renwei qihou bianqian zhuanti zhongxin 人為氣候變遷專題中心) under the RCEC were announced on Jan. 21, 2021.

Division of Life Sciences (shengming kexuezu 生命科學組):

 Institute of Plant and Microbial Biology (zhiwu ji wei shengwuxue yanjiusuo 植物暨微生物學研究所)
 Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology (xipao yu geti shengwuxue yanjiusuo 細胞與個體生物學研究所)
 Institute of Biological Chemistry (shengwu huaxue yanjiusuo 生物化學研究所)
 Institute of Molecular Biology (fenzi shengwu yanjiusuo 分子生物研究所)
 Institute of Biomedical Sciences (shengwu yixue kexue yanjiusuo 生物醫學科學研究所)
 Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center (nongye shengwu keji yanjiu zhongxin 農業生物科技研究中心)
 Genomics Research Center (jiyinti yanjiu zhongxin 基因體研究中心)
 Biodiversity Research Center (shengwu duoyangxing yanjiu zhongxin 生物多樣性研究中心)

Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences (renwen shehui kexuezu 人文社會科學組):

 Institute of History and Philology (lishi yuyan yanjiusuo 歷史語言研究所)
 Institute of Ethnology (minzuxue yanjiusuo 民族學研究所)
 Institute of Modern History (jindaishi yanjiusuo 近代史研究所)
 Institute of Economics (jingji yanjiusuo 經濟研究所)
 Institute of European and American Studies (Ou Mei yanjiusuo 歐美研究所)
 Institute of Chinese Literature and Philosophy (Zhongguo wenzhe yanjiusuo 中國文哲研究所)
 Institute of Taiwan History (Taiwanshi yanjiusuo 台灣史研究所)
 Institute of Sociology (shehuixue yanjiusuo 社會學研究所)
 Institute of Linguistics (yuyanxue yanjiusuo 語言學研究所)
 Institute of Political Science (zhengzhixue yanjiusuo 政治學研究所)
 Institutum Iurisprudentiae (falüxue yanjiusuo 法律學研究所)
 Research Center for Humanities and Social Sciences (renwen shehui kexue yanjiu zhongxin 人文社會科學研究中心)

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Nobel Prize laureates

Among the members of Academia Sinica are several Nobel Prize laureates. The following scientists (listed in alphabetical order with Nobel Prize category, year and names of co-laureates) are Nobel Prize laureates associated with the ROC/Taiwan, although some of them were born outside the ROC and/or have meanwhile given up ROC citizenship.

  • Steven Chu 朱棣文 (b. 1948, USA) [academician since 1994]; Physics 1997—along Claude Cohen-Tannoudji and William D. Phillips;
  • Sir Charles K. Kao 高錕 (1933-2018, Shanghai) [academician since 1992]; Physics 2009—along Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith;
  • Lee Tsung-dao 李政道 (b. 1926, Shanghai) [academician since 1958]; Physics 1957—along Yang Chen-ning;
  • Lee Yuan-tseh 李遠哲 (b. 1936, Taiwan) [academician since 1982]; Chemistry 1986—along Dudley R. Herschbach and John C. Polanyi;
  • Samuel C. C. Ting 丁肇中 (b. 1936, USA) [academician since 1976]; Physics 1976—along Burton Richter;
  • Roger Y. Tsien 錢永健 (1952-2016, USA) [academician since 2010]; Chemistry 2008—along Osamu Shimomura and Martin Chalfie;
  • Daniel C. Tsui 崔琦 (b. 1939, Henan) [academician since 1992]; Physics 1998—along Robert B. Laughlin and Horst L. Störmer; and
  • Yang Chen-ning 楊振寧 (b. 1922, Anhui) [academician since 1958]; Physics 1957—along Lee Tsung-dao.

Please note that Roger Y. Tsien never had ROC nationality and is listed by the Academia Sinica as "honorary academician" (rongyu yuanshi 榮譽院士), while Samuel C. C. Ting is listed as "foreign academician" (waiji yuanshi 外籍院士).

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Academia Historica

Academia Historica 國史館
No. 2 Changsha Street Sec. 1,
Zhongzheng District, Taipei City 10048, Taiwan ROC
[10048 台北市中正區長沙街 1 段 2 號]
🌏 Academia Historica – Web link
Alternative logo 

The Academia Historica (guoshiguan 國史館, 🏁—guanzhang 館長) was established in January 1947.

Presidents of Academia Historica

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
6/1957—2/1969Lo Chia-lun 羅家倫1897-1969Jiangxi
8/1968—6/1984Huang Chi-lu 黃季陸1899-1985Sichuan
6/1984—9/1990Chu Hwei-sen 朱匯森1911-2006Jiangsu
9/1990—3/1995Chu Shao-hwa 瞿韶華1914-1996Hebei
3/1995—4/2000Pan Chen-chew 潘振球1918-2010Jiangsu
5/2000—5/2008Chang Yen-hsien 張炎憲1947-2014Taiwan
5/2008—12/2010Lin Man-houng 林滿紅b. 1951Taiwan
12/2010—1/2011 @Liu Pao-kuei 劉寶貴b. 1954Taiwan
1/2011—5/2016Lu Fang-shang 呂芳上b. 1944N/A
5/2016—2/2019Wu Mi-cha 吳密察b. 1956Taiwan
2/2019—6/2019 @He Zhi-lin 何智霖N/AN/A
7/2019—Chen Yi-shen 陳儀深b. 1954Taiwan

A subordinate institution is Taiwan Historica (guoshiguan Taiwan wenxianguan 國史館台灣文獻館, 🏁—guanzhang 館長), established on Jan. 1, 2002 based on the Provincial Documents Committee of Taiwan (Taiwansheng wenxian weiyuanhui 台灣省文獻委員會) which had been founded on June 1, 1948 as General Historica of Taiwan Province (Taiwansheng tongzhiguan 台灣省通志館) and renamed in July 1949.

Taiwan Historica 國史館台灣文獻館
No. 254 Guangming 1st Road, Jhongsing Village,
Nantou City, Nantou County 54043, Taiwan ROC
[54043 南投縣南投市中興新村光明一路 254 號]
🌏 Taiwan Historica – Web link

Taiwan Historica has been headed by the following directors:

Tenure Name Born/Died Native Province
1/2002—7/2006Liu Feng-song 劉峰松b. 1941Taiwan
7/2006—7/2009Hsieh Chia-liang 謝嘉梁b. 1954Taiwan
7/2009—8/2011Lin Chin-tien 林金田b. 1955Taiwan
8/2011—Chang Hung-ming 張鴻銘b. 1959Taiwan

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◆ Biographical background of popularly elected ROC presidents (since 1996)

ROC President (born/died, native province) Political party Tenure
Lee Teng-hui 李登輝 (1923–2020, Taiwan)
1988, Jan. 13—2000, May 19
Chen Shui-bian 陳水扁 (b. 1950, Taiwan)
2000, May 20—2008, May 19
Ma Ying-jeou 馬英九 (b. 1950, Hong Kong/Hunan)
2008, May 20—2016, May 19
Tsai Ing-wen 蔡英文 (b. 1956, Taiwan)
2016, May 20—2024, May 19
Lai Ching-te 賴清德 (b. 1959, Taiwan)
2024, May 20— [incumbent]

The tenure covers the time span between the day when the president first took office until his/her last full day in office.

When Lee Teng-hui first assumed the presidency in 1988, it was not as a result of a direct popular election but because his predecessor Chiang Ching-kuo (CCK) had passed away and Lee as then-VP was next in line. After Lee served out CCK's term, he was elected head of state for the first term in his own right by the First National Assembly on March 21, 1990. The first direct ROC presidential election took place on March 23, 1996 and was won by Lee.

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Note: The copyright for the five official portraits below, provided by the ROC Presidential Office in Taipei, is as follows—Lee Teng-hui 李登輝: public domain; Chen Shui-bian 陳水扁: public domain; Ma Ying-jeou 馬英九: Office of the President, ROC; Tsai Ing-wen 蔡英文: Office of the President, ROC (Taiwan); Lai Ching-te 賴清德: Office of the President, ROC (Taiwan).

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Lee Teng-hui 李登輝

(Jump to Chen Shui-bian)  (Jump to Ma Ying-jeou)  (Jump to Tsai Ing-wen)  (Jump to Lai Ching-te)

Biographical data and family

BornJan. 15, 1923 in Sanchih 三芝 (today's Danshui District, New Taipei City, Taiwan)
DiedJuly 30, 2020 at Taipei Veterans General Hospital (TVGH)
ParentsLee Chin-lung 李金龍 (b. N/A, d. 1995 at age 95) and Chiang Chin 江錦 (b., d. N/A) 
SpouseTseng Wen-fui 曾文惠 (b. 1926, Taiwan) since Feb. 9, 1949
Offspringone son, two daughters—
  ♥ Son: Lee Hsien-wen 李憲文 (1951-1982)
  ♥ Daughter: Anna Lee 李安娜 (b. 1952)
  ♥ Daughter: Annie Lee 李安妮 (b. 1954)

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Lee Teng-hui]


1945 Kyoto Imperial University
1948 Bachelor of Science, NTU (major: agricultural economics)
1953 Master of Arts, Iowa State University (major: agricultural economics)
1968 PhD in agricultural economics, Cornell University; title of doctoral thesis—"Intersectoral Capital Flows in the Economic Development of Taiwan, 1895–1960"

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Lee Teng-hui]


1948–1951 Assistant professor, NTU
1953–1955 Instructor, NTU
1956–1958 Associate professor, NTU
1957–1961 Research fellow, Taiwan Cooperative Bank
 " Specialist, JCRR
1958–1978 Professor, NCCU
1961–1970 Senior specialist & consultant, JCRR
1970–1972 Chief of Rural Economy Division, JCRR
1972–1978 Minister without portfolio
1978–1981 Mayor, Taipei City
1981–1984 Chairman TPG (= Taiwan provincial governor)
1984–1988 ROC VP (under Chiang Ching-kuo)
1988–2000 ROC president, concurrently KMT chairman

For President Lee's 1996 inaugural address click here.

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Lee Teng-hui]

Political affiliations

1946–1948 New Democracy Association (xin minzhu tongzhihui 新民主同志會)
1971–2001 KMT
2001–2020 Ind.

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Lee Teng-hui]

Administrations under President Lee

Tenure Vice President Tenure Premier
>>> [vacant] <<<
6/1984—6/1989Yu Kuo-hwa 俞國華 (1914-2000)
5/1990—5/1996Li Yuan-zu 李元簇
6/1989—6/1990Lee Huan 李煥 (1917-2010)
6/1990—2/1993Hao Pei-tsun 郝柏村 (1919-2020)
5/1996—5/2000Lien Chan 連戰
(b. 1936)
2/1993—9/1997Lien Chan 連戰 (b. 1936)
9/1997—5/2000Vincent Siew 蕭萬長 (b. 1939)

Please note that the period between May 20, 1996 and Sept. 1, 1997 was the only time after Taiwan's democratization that the offices of ROC VP and ROC Premier were concurrently held by the same person.

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Lee Teng-hui]

Foreign trips during tenure as ROC president

Year Dates Countries visited (* not an ROC diplomatic ally at that time)
1989  March 6–9 Singapore*
1994 Feb. 9–16 Philippines*, Indonesia*, and Thailand*
May 4–16 Nicaragua, Costa Rica, South Africa, and Swaziland
1995 April 1–4 UAE* and Jordan*
June 7–10 USA* (private visit to Cornell University)
1997 Sept. 4–19 Panama, Honduras, El Salvador, and Paraguay

A list of stopovers in the US since 1994 made by ROC presidents (including Lee) traveling while in office can be found here, and for a list of the ROC's current diplomatic allies please click here.

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Lee Teng-hui]

Chen Shui-bian 陳水扁

(Jump to Lee Teng-hui)  (Jump to Ma Ying-jeou)  (Jump to Tsai Ing-wen)  (Jump to Lai Ching-te)

Biographical data and family

BornOct. 12, 1950 in Xizhuang Village 西莊村 (Guantian Township 官田鄉, Tainan County, Taiwan); registered birth date—Feb. 18, 1951
ParentsChen Sung-ken 陳松根 (1928-1987) and Lee Shen 李慎 (1928-2021)
SpouseWu Shu-chen 吳淑珍 (b. 1952, Taiwan) since Feb. 20, 1975
Offspringone daughter, one son—
  ♥ Daughter: Chen Hsing-yu 陳幸妤 (b. 1976)
  ♥ Son: Chen Chih-chung 陳致中 (b. 1979)

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Chen Shui-bian]


1974 Bachelor of Laws, NTU

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Chen Shui-bian]


1976–1989 Chief Attorney-at-law, Formosa International Marine & Commercial Law Office
1981–1985 Member, Taipei City Council
1984 Executive member, Taiwan Association for Human Rights
1989–1994 Legislator, ROC 1st, 2nd Legislative Yuan
1990–1994 Chairman, Formosa Foundation
1994–1998 Mayor, Taipei City
2000–2008 ROC president, concurrently DPP chairman (2002–2005, 2007–2008)

Chen Shui-bian served two consecutive terms as head of state after winning the ROC presidential elections in 2000 and 2004; for his 2000 inaugural address click here, for his 2004 inaugural address click here.

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Chen Shui-bian]

Political affiliations

1970–N/A KMT
1979–1988 Ind.
1988–2008 DPP
2008–2013 Ind.
2013— DPP

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Chen Shui-bian]

Administrations under President Chen

Tenure Vice President Tenure Premier
5/2000—5/2008Annette Lu 呂秀蓮
(b. 1944)
5/2000—10/2000Frank Tang 唐飛 (b. 1932)
10/2000—2/2002Chang Chun-hsiung 張俊雄 (b. 1938)
2/2002—1/2005Yu Shyi-kun 游錫堃 (b. 1948)
2/2005—1/2006Frank Hsieh 謝長廷 (b. 1946)
1/2006—5/2007Su Tseng-chang 蘇貞昌 (b. 1947)
5/2007—5/2008Chang Chun-hsiung (second time)

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Chen Shui-bian]

Foreign trips during tenure as ROC president

Year Dates Countries visited
2000  Aug. 13–25 Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Gambia, Burkina Faso, and Chad
2001 May 21—June 5 El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama, Paraguay, and Honduras
2002 June 30—July 9 Senegal, São Tomé & Príncipe, Malawi, and Swaziland
2003 Oct. 31—Nov. 6 Panama
2004 Aug. 30—Sept. 5 Panama and Belize
2005 Jan. 27–31 Palau and the Solomon Islands
April 7–8 Vatican
May 1–5 Marshall Islands, Kiribati, and Tuvalu
Sept. 20—Oct. 2 Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, Saint Kitts & Nevis, and Saint Vincent & the Grenadines
2006 May 4–11 Paraguay and Costa Rica
Sept. 3–6 Palau and Nauru
2007 Aug. 21–29 Honduras, El Salvador, and Nicaragua
2008 Jan. 13–18 Guatemala and St. Lucia

A list of stopovers in the US since 1994 made by ROC presidents (including Chen) traveling while in office can be found here, and for a list of the ROC's current diplomatic allies please click here.

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Chen Shui-bian]

Timeline of Chen's post-presidency imprisonment

2008  Nov. 11: Former ROC President Chen Shui-bian is detained in Taipei on corruption charges and taken into custody in handcuffs
Nov. 12: The Taipei District Court orders Chen Shui-bian's arrest, Chen is taken to the Taipei Detention Center in Tucheng (Taipei County)
Dec. 12: SID prosecutors formally indict Chen Shui-bian, his wife Wu Shu-chen, his son Chen Chih-chung and wife Huang Jui-ching 黃睿靚, three former presidential aides and seven others on corruption charges, including forgery and money laundering
Dec. 13: Chen Shui-bian is released from custody without bail but barred from leaving the country
Dec. 30: The Taipei District Court revokes Chen Shui-bian's bail and orders him to be returned into custody
2009 March 26: The corruption trial against Chen Shui-bian begins at the Taipei District Court
Sept. 11: Chen Shui-bian and his wife Wu Shu-chen are both given life sentences and fined NT$ 200 million and NT$ 300 million respectively after being found guilty on corruption, forgery and money-laundering charges
Sept. 14: Chen Shui-bian files an appeal against his life sentence
Sept. 24: The corruption case involving Chen Shui-bian and his family is officially transferred to the Taiwan High Court following Chen's appeal against the verdict of the Taipei District Court; the Taiwan High Court decides to keep Chen behind bars for another three months
2010 June 8: The Taipei District Court acquits Chen Shui-bian on the charge of embezzling diplomatic funds
June 11: The Taiwan High Court reduces the life sentences for Chen Shui-bian and his wife Wu Shu-chen to 20 years in prison
Nov. 5: The Taipei District Court finds Chen Shui-bian, his wife and 19 co-defendants not guilty of bribery and money laundering
Nov. 11: The ROC Supreme Court upholds the guilty verdict in the corruption case against Chen Shui-bian and his wife, sending them to prison for 11 years plus 8 years in another bribery case in a final ruling
Dec. 2: Chen Shui-bian is transferred from Taipei Detention Center to Taipei Prison in Gueishan (Taoyuan County) to formally begin serving his sentence, having his head shaved and being subjected to a nude full-body search
Dec. 6: The Taiwan High Court rules that Chen Shui-bian has to stay behind bars for 17½ years
2011 Feb. 18: The Taichung Prison Pei-teh Hospital refuses to admit Wu Shu-chen, finding her not healthy enough to be kept behind bars
Oct. 13: The Taiwan High Court sentences Chen Shui-bian to 18 years in prison for taking bribes, his wife Wu Shu-chen to 11 years, his son Chen Chih-chung to 1 year and the younger Chen's wife Huang Jui-ching to six months, thus overturning an acquittal by the Taipei District Court handed down on Nov. 5, 2010
2013 April 19: Chen Shui-bian is transferred to the Taichung Prison Pei-teh Hospital
2015 Jan. 5: Chen Shui-bian leaves Taichung Prison on NT$ 2 million bail after being granted a one-month medical parole by the MOJ; medical parole has been extended regularly ever since
2022 July 15: The Taiwan High Court acquits Chen Shui-bian of charges related to his personal use of the presidential state affairs funds from 2000-2008 in its second retrial ruling, following a change to Article 99-1 of the Accounting Act (kuaijifa 會計法) promulgated on May 30, 2022 which was applied retrospectively

Note: Chen Shui-bian has always denied the charges brought up against him and rejected them as 'politically motivated'.

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Chen Shui-bian]

Ma Ying-jeou 馬英九

(Jump to Lee Teng-hui)  (Jump to Chen Shui-bian)  (Jump to Tsai Ing-wen)  (Jump to Lai Ching-te)

Biographical data and family

BornJuly 13, 1950 in Hong Kong, ancestral home in Hunan province
ParentsMa Ho-ling 馬鶴凌 (1919-2005) and Chin Hou-hsiu 秦厚修 (1922-2014)
SpouseChow Mei-ching 周美青 aka Christine C. Ma (b. 1952, Hong Kong/Jiangsu) since Aug. 20, 1977
Offspringtwo daughters—
  ♥ Daughter: Ma Wei-chung/Lesley W. Ma 馬唯中 (b. 1980)
  ♥ Daughter: Ma Yuan-chung/Kelly Ma 馬元中 (b. 1985)

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Ma Ying-jeou]


1972 Bachelor of Laws, NTU
1976 Master of Laws, New York University
1981 Doctor of Juridical Science, Harvard University Law School; title of doctoral thesis—"Trouble Over Oily Waters: Legal Problems of Seabed Boundaries and Foreign Investments in the East China Sea"

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Ma Ying-jeou]


1980–1981 Consultant, Law Office, First National Bank of Boston
1981 Associate, Cole & Deitz Law Office, New York
 " Research consultant, University of Maryland Law School
1981–1988 Deputy director-general, First Bureau, ROC Presidential Office
1988–1991 RDEC minister
1991–1993 MAC spokesman and deputy chairman
1992–1993 Member, ROC 2nd National Assembly
1993–1996 MOJ minister
1996–1997 Minister without portfolio
1998–2006 Mayor, Taipei City
2005–2007 KMT chairman (again 2009–2014)
2008–2016 ROC president

Ma Ying-jeou served two consecutive terms as head of state after winning the ROC presidential elections in 2008 and 2012; for his 2008 inaugural address click here, for his 2012 inaugural address click here.

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Ma Ying-jeou]

Political affiliation

1968— KMT

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Ma Ying-jeou]

Administrations under President Ma

Tenure Vice President Tenure Premier
5/2008—5/2012Vincent Siew 蕭萬長
(b. 1939)
5/2008—9/2009Liu Chao-shiuan 劉兆玄 (b. 1943)
9/2009—1/2012Wu Den-yih 吳敦義 (b. 1948)


Wu Den-yih 吳敦義
(b. 1948)
2/2012—2/2013Sean C. Chen 陳冲 (b. 1949)
2/2013—12/2014Jiang Yi-huah 江宜樺 (b. 1960)
12/2014—1/2016Mao Chi-kuo 毛治國 (b. 1948)
2/2016—5/2016Simon Chang San-cheng 張善政
(b. 1954)

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Ma Ying-jeou]

Foreign trips during tenure as ROC president

Year Dates Countries visited (* not an ROC diplomatic ally at that time)
2008  Aug. 13–18 Paraguay and the Dominican Republic
2009 May 26—June 4 El Salvador, Belize, and Guatemala
June 29—July 6 Panama and Nicaragua; a visit to Honduras is cancelled after Honduras' president Manuel Zelaya was toppled in a coup on June 29
2010 Jan. 25–30 Honduras and the Dominican Republic
March 21–27 Marshall Islands, Kiribati, Tuvalu, Nauru, the Solomon Islands, and Palau
2012 April 7–18 Burkina Faso, Gambia, and Swaziland
2013 March 17–20 Vatican
Aug. 11–22 Haiti, Paraguay, Saint Kitts & Nevis, St. Lucia, and Saint Vincent & the Grenadines
2014 Jan. 23–30 São Tomé & Príncipe, Burkina Faso, and Honduras
June 29—July 5 Panama and El Salvador
2015 March 24 Singapore*
July 11–18 Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Nicaragua
Nov. 7 Singapore* (meeting with PRC President Xi Jinping)
2016 March 13–19 Guatemala and Belize

A list of stopovers in the US since 1994 made by ROC presidents (including Ma) traveling while in office can be found here, and for a list of the ROC's current diplomatic allies please click here.

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Ma Ying-jeou]

Tsai Ing-wen 蔡英文

(Jump to Lee Teng-hui)  (Jump to Chen Shui-bian)  (Jump to Ma Ying-jeou)  (Jump to Lai Ching-te)

Biographical data and family

BornAug. 31, 1956 in Zhongshan District, Taipei City, Taiwan
ParentsTsai Chieh-sheng 蔡潔生 (1918-2006) and Chang Chin-feng 張金鳳 (1924-2018) 
Offspring[no children]

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Tsai Ing-wen]


1978 Bachelor of Laws, NTU
1980 Master of Laws, Cornell University Law School
1984 PhD, London School of Economics and Political Science, University of London; title of doctoral thesis—"Unfair Trade Practices and Safeguard Actions"

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Tsai Ing-wen]


1984–1990 Associate professor, Law School, NCCU
1990–1991 Professor, Graduate School of Law, NCCU
1991–1993 Professor, Graduate School of Law, Soochow University
1992–2000 Chief legal advisor on international economic organizations, MOEA
1993–2000 ITC commissioner, MOEA
1994–1998 Member of advisory committee, MAC
1995–1998 FTC commissioner, Executive Yuan
1997–1999 Member of advisory committee, Copyright Commission, MOI
1999–2000 Convener, APEC Group on Services
 " Senior advisor, National Security Council
2000–2004 MAC chairwoman
2005–2006 Legislator, ROC 6th Legislative Yuan
2006–2007 ROC vice premier (= vice president of the Executive Yuan)
2008–2012 DPP chairwoman (also 2014–2018 and again 5/2020—11/2022)
2011–2012 Chairwoman, NFF think tank
2012–2014 Chairwoman, TTF
2016–2024 ROC president

Tsai Ing-wen served two consecutive terms as head of state after winning the ROC presidential elections in 2016 and 2020; for her 2016 inaugural address click here, for her 2020 inaugural address click here.

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Tsai Ing-wen]

Political affiliation

2004— DPP

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Tsai Ing-wen]

Administrations under President Tsai

Tenure Vice President Tenure Premier
5/2016—5/2020Chen Chien-jen 陳建仁
(b. 1951)
5/2016—9/2017Lin Chuan 林全 (b. 1951)
9/2017—1/2019Lai Ching-te 賴清德 (b. 1959)
5/2020—5/2024Lai Ching-te 賴清德
(b. 1959)
1/2019—1/2023Su Tseng-chang 蘇貞昌 (b. 1947)
1/2023—5/2024Chen Chien-jen 陳建仁 (b. 1951)

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Tsai Ing-wen]

Foreign trips during tenure as ROC president

Year Dates Countries visited
2016  June 24—July 1 Panama and Paraguay
2017 Jan. 7–15 Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala, and El Salvador
Oct. 28—Nov. 4 Marshall Islands, Tuvalu, and Solomon Islands
2018 April 17–21 Eswatini (formerly Swaziland)
Aug. 12–20 Paraguay and Belize
2019 March 21–28 Palau, Nauru, and Marshall Islands
July 11–22 Haiti, St. Kitts & Nevis, St. Vincent & the Grenadines, and St. Lucia
⚠ 2020–2022: No foreign trips due to the COVID-19 pandemic! ⚠
2023 March 29—April 7 Guatemala and Belize
Sept. 5–8 Eswatini

A list of stopovers in the US since 1994 made by ROC presidents (including Tsai) traveling while in office can be found here, and for a list of the ROC's current diplomatic allies please click here.

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Tsai Ing-wen]

Lai Ching-te 賴清德

(Jump to Lee Teng-hui)  (Jump to Chen Shui-bian)  (Jump to Ma Ying-jeou)  (Jump to Tsai Ing-wen)

Biographical data and family

BornOct. 6, 1959 in Wanli District, New Taipei City, Taiwan
ParentsLai Chao-chin 賴朝金 (died 1960 aged 33) and Lai Tung-hao 賴童好 (b. N/A) 
SpouseWu Mei-ju 吳玫如 (b. 1964, married since 1986)
Offspringtwo sons—
  ♥ Son: Lai Ting-yu 賴廷與 (b. 1988)
  ♥ Son: Lai Ting-yen 賴廷彥 (b. N/A)

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Lai Ching-te]


1984 BS, Phys. Med. & Rehabilitation, NTU
1989 Post-B. program, NCKU
2003 M., Public Health, Harvard University
2004 Visitor, International Visitor Program, US Department of State

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Lai Ching-te]


1989–1994 Physician in charge, Nephrology, NCKU Hospital & Sin Lau Hospital
1996–1999 Member, ROC 3rd National Assembly
1999–2010 Legislator, ROC 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th Legislative Yuan
2010–2017 Tainan City Mayor
2017–2019 ROC Premier
2020–2024 ROC VP
2023— DPP chairman
2024— ROC president

Lai Ching-te took office after having won the ROC presidential election in 2024; for his 2024 inaugural address click here.

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Lai Ching-te]

Political affiliation

ca. 1994— DPP

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Lai Ching-te]

Administrations under President Lai

Tenure Vice President Tenure Premier
5/2024— Hsiao Bi-khim 蕭美琴 
(b. 1971)
5/2024— Cho Jung-tai 卓榮泰 (b. 1959) 

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Lai Ching-te]

Foreign trips during tenure as ROC president

[So far none!]

A list of stopovers in the US since 1994 made by ROC presidents traveling while in office can be found here, and for a list of the ROC's current diplomatic allies please click here.

TOP   HOME    [◆ Presidential biographies]    [Lai Ching-te]

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